Open access peer-reviewed chapter - ONLINE FIRST

Insect Pest Management in Fruit Production

Written By

Murat Helvacı

Submitted: January 5th, 2022 Reviewed: February 7th, 2022 Published: March 10th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.103084

IntechOpen
Fruit Industry Edited by Ibrahim Kahramanoglu

From the Edited Volume

Fruit Industry [Working Title]

Associate Prof. Ibrahim Kahramanoglu and Prof. Chunpeng Wan

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Abstract

Several pests cause destructive damages in fruit production. All of the pests cause yield loss but some of these cause transmission of virus diseases. For example, Brown citrus aphid transmits Citrus Tristeza virus in citrus production. Historically, broad-spectrum pesticides were used to prevent the yield loss and transmission of bacteria and virus diseases in the world. These pesticides cause several problems including environmental, human health and also cause negative effects on soil health. At the same time, pesticides have other potential negative effects including food safety. For all these reasons, alternative management methods such as biological, biotechnical, sterile insect techniques are used in fruit growing all over the world.

Keywords

  • biological control
  • biotechnical method
  • pest
  • sterile insect technique

1. Introduction

The word “pest” describes an organism that harms crops, harms or irritates animals or humans. Agricultural pests include insects, weeds, bacteria, viruses, fungi and animals that reduce crop yield relative to the potential yield that would be possible in a pest-free world [1]. Some of the epidemic diseases have been carried by insects. In the 14th century, the Bubonic Plague epidemic disease influenced the population of Europe negatively and this disease was transmitted by fleas. Each insect species has different periods in its life cycle. The most important biological forms are “complete metamorphosis” and “incomplete metamorphosis” forms. In complete metamorphosis, the adult insect lays its egg in plant tissue or soil. The larvae that emerge from the eggs do not resemble the adult insect. As they feed and develop, they molt and become pupae. Pupation takes place on the plant or mostly underground. After a certain time, adults emerge from the pupa and the life cycle continues in this way. In incomplete metamorphosis, the nymphs that emerge from the eggs that the adult female gives birth are very similar to the adults. They look like a miniature of the adult. However, the wings are not developed. These nymphs molt as they feed, and their resemblance to the mother increases after each molting period [2]. The attacking of several harmful insect’s damages plant leaves, buds, stems, fruits, flowers and seeds, causing significant crop losses and decrease the market value of crops. For this reason, applying of management methods against pests is significant in the agricultural production [1].

Pest control aims to safely maintain economic, effective and long-term pest control. Generally, it contains suppressing pest populations to economic injury levels rather than eradicating the pest completely. Many pests negatively affect agricultural production in the world. Many methods are used by the producers to minimize the quality and quantity losses of these pests in agricultural production. The main of these methods, which are considered for Plant Protection or Agricultural Control, are cultural measures, quarantine measures, mechanical and physical methods, biological method, biotechnical method, chemical method and integrated pest management, which expresses the combination of the necessary ones [3]. Today, chemical applications are made for producers in terms of ease of application and results [4]. Depending on pesticides for plant protection is related to undesirable effects on the environment, health, and the sustainable effectiveness of their use. The emergence of synthetic pesticides has made it possible to simplify crop systems and abandon more complex crop protection strategies [5]. Pesticides are chemical matters used to decrease the devastating effects of living forms such as rodents, insects, animals, weeds, fungi, which live on or around plants, human and animal bodies, and reduce or damage the nutritional value of food sources during production, storage and consumption. Pesticide term includes all of the chemicals classified as an insecticide (use for harmful insects), herbicide (use for weeds), fungicide (use for fungal diseases), rodenticide (use for rodents), molluscide (use for slugs), avicide (use for birds), acaricide (use for acars), ovicide (use to kill eggs of harmful insects), bactericide (use for bacterial diseases), nematicide (use for nematodes), etc. [6]. However, using of pesticides raises several environmental concerns, including human and animal health hazards. Food contaminated with toxic pesticides is associated with serious effects on human health, as it is the basic necessity of life. More than 98% of applied insecticides and 95% of herbicides end up somewhere other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. However, pesticides can contaminate soil, water and vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to several other organisms, including birds, fish, beneficial insects and non-target plants [7]. Many harmful insects cause economic losses in fruit growing. For example, Stem borer (Zeuzera pyrinaL., Lepidoptera: Torticidae) is an important pest that causes tree death by attacking stems. On the other hand, aphids, especially Aphis pomiDe Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae), are serious pests as young pomegranate leaves are highly susceptible to aphid attacks. Although, these harmful negatively affect pomegranate production, the market value of pomegranate fruits is mostly affected by Citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri(Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Medfly Ceratitis capitata(Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Pomegranate butterfly, Deudorix livia(Virachola) (Klug) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) [8]. In addition to this, Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleaeGmel.) (Diptera; Tephritidae) is a major harmful insect of olive and If management methods are not adequately implemented, large product losses can reach up to 80% in olive oil-producing areas and up to 100% in table olive growing areas [9] and Medfly (C. capitataWiedemann) (Diptera; Tephritidae) can cause 20–25% losses in citrus fruits, 91% in peaches, 55% in apricots and 15% in plums [10]. Considering the damage done by insects in fruit growing; insect pests such as Mediterranean fruit fly and Olive fruit fly lay their eggs in the fruit (oviposition damage) and cause fruit drop; pests such as aphid, thrips and whitefly act as vector insect and cause virus diseases to spread. For instance; in most cases, there is a very close relationship between the parasite and the vector, and often the vector is the only means of transmission.

The simplest form of spread is known as mechanical transmission. Typically, the insect picks up the parasite on its body surface while feeding on the host organism and may release the parasite into a new host body or contaminate the food that will later be eaten by the host. However, many insects pests feed on plant sap and blood in vertebrates and can mechanically transmit pathogens and parasites through contamination of the proboscis [11]. It also has many undesirable effects such as resistance to diseases, insects and weeds. For this reason, since issues such as human health and the protection of biodiversity are kept at the forefront, the issue of chemical control has begun to be questioned [4]. In this study, the subject of chemical control and other control methods which are used as a management method against insect pests that cause economically significant losses in agricultural production is included.

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2. Management methods of insect pests

Today, there are pests such as insects, diseases, weeds and animal pests (birds, rodents, etc.) that cause economic losses in agricultural production. Insects and other species that damage crops and also infect humans or animals are therefore pests that should be controlled as much as possible [1]. Some of the harmful insects play a role as vector insect in the spread of important diseases such as virus diseases. In addition, weeds host many disease agents and harmful insect species. Vector insects include aphids, whiteflies and thrips. To give an example, the Brown citrus aphid is the most significant vector insect of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) due to its superior vector productivity, especially for vigorous strains [12]. In the management against these insect pests, Integrated pest management (IPM) is an oncoming based largely on the information of pest biology and ecology to allow farmers to make tactical decisions to optimize ecologically and economically sound control of harmful organisms (pathogens, weeds, insects, vertebrates) [13]. Among these different methods of management; the method of suppressing the pest population with beneficial insects “biological control”; the method of management with using traps, “biotechnical control”; “cultural method”, a method of management with using agricultural methods such as plowing, crop rotation; “chemical control” method with using pesticides such as insecticide, fungicide, acaricide; Methods such as “physical control”, which includes methods such as manually collecting individual pests, pruning damaged plant tissues and removing excessively damaged plants, are applied. In this study, information is given about these control methods which are applied against pests that cause significant damage and economic losses in fruit growing.

2.1 Chemical method

Chemical control is the control method against harmful organisms that cause economic loss in plants, by using synthetic or naturally derived chemicals that have a killing effect (toxic effect). These products are called pesticides, synthesized substances or biological agents used to attract, seduce, destroy or mitigate any pest [14]. In addition to the benefits of these chemicals, it is known that they can create extremely important human, animal, plant and environmental health risks. For this reason, these chemicals are produced and sold subject to the most advanced control and inspection systems worldwide. Pesticide is defined by the FAO as a matter or mixture which is used to prevent, repel or destroy organisms such as animal and human vectors and unwanted plants and animals that cause damage in horticultural production.

Besides, FAO defines it as otherwise interfering with the processing, storage, production, transportation or marketing of products such as agricultural crops and animal foods [7]. Historically, in the 1930s, DDT was widely accepted as a pesticide that significantly conduced to the enhancement in the turnover of agricultural crops, especially food products, but then fell out of favor in the 1960s as a result of its different effects than usual [1]. The extent of the damage caused by the pests on agricultural products is high. Problems such as the overuse of pesticides used to minimize this damage and the environment, food poisoning and food insecurity are of great concern. However, insects and other species that cause damage to agricultural production and infect humans or animals have therefore become pests that need to be controlled as much as possible [4]. Pesticides are grouped in many different ways according to their appearance, physical structure and formulation, the pest and disease group they affect and their biological period, the type and group of the active substance they contain, the degree of toxicity and the technique of use. The most commonly used classification forms are the classifications made according to the harmful groups they are used and the active matter group in their structure. Pesticides are grouped by pest species or target organism. In this grouping, there are three main groups of pesticides. These are insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. The most important classifications of pesticides according to their chemical structures are organic chlorine pesticides, phosphorus, carbamates, natural and synthetic prethyroids [15]. The most important way to increase agricultural production; it is to get more products from the unit area, that is, to increase the yield. One of the most significant factors in enhancing the yield is to manage harmful organisms that limit plant production. Pesticide applications are intensively applied in fruit growing because it is easy to apply and effective in a short time.

2.2 Biological method

Biological method is the whole of the measures taken to use natural enemies, entomopathogenic microorganisms or to make them more effective against pests, diseases and weeds that damage crop plants. In other words, the agricultural control activity carried out by using natural enemies to suppress pests in agricultural areas and keep them below the level of economic damage is called biological control [16]. In the “Regulation on the Import and Release of Exotic Biological Control Agents” issued by FAO in 1996, biological control is defined as “a pest control strategy using living natural enemies, antagonists, competitors and other self-reproducing biological entities. This sentence can be said as the definition that best describes the biological method. Predator, parasitoid and entomopathogens are used as biological method agents. Predators live freely and directly feed on large numbers of prey during their lifetime. Parasites are organisms that live and consume or on a larger host [17]. Insect parasites (more precisely called parasitoids) are smaller than their hosts and develop inside or adhere to the outer part of the body of their hosts [18]. Predator insects lay their eggs next to their prey, and the hatched larvae consume their prey by stinging, sucking or chewing. Generally, predatory insects are polyphagous and therefore they are the most important agents which are used in biological control. Parasitoid insects, on the other hand, usually lay their eggs on the pest itself or its eggs. Parasitoid insect larvae emerging from the eggs cause the death of the pest’s egg or itself, and in this way, they suppress the pest population and increase their own population. Entomopathogens include bacteria, viruses, fungi and nematodes used against harmful insects. Naturally occurring entomopathogens attack harmful insects, making them sick and sometimes killing them.

The best example of entomopathogens is the beneficial bacteria named “Bacillus thuringiensis”, which is known as “Bt spray” in the agricultural companies. This bacterium can also be called a biological insecticide. Natural enemies have been used as a pest control method for centuries. However, in the last 100 years, there has been a significant increase in the understanding of humans and especially producers and the use of these biological control agents about how biological control agents, which are part of safe and effective pest control methods, can better manipulate pests [19]. Since the biological control method does not have negative effects on nature, the environment, in short on biodiversity and human health, it is a control method that should be used predominantly in agricultural production and especially in fruit growing. There are three types of biological control strategies implemented in pest control programs. These are importation (sometimes called classical biological control), augmentation and conservation. Classical biological control is defined as the deliberate introduction of an exotic (non-natural), often co-developed biological control agent for the permanent establishment and long-term pest control [18]. When a new pest enters from one country to another and there are no natural enemies of that pest in the country, its population increases in a short time and causes economic damage. To prevent this damage, natural enemies of the pest are imported from the country of origin and tried to be placed in the fauna where the pest is found. The need to re-establish interactions between harmful organisms and their natural enemies is based on the principle of importing and planting beneficial insects in locations where pests generally have no natural enemies or where the population of existing natural enemies is lower than the pest population. Within the scope of classical biological control against pests, 2000 biological control agent species and more than 5000 placement applications were made in 196 different countries. No negative effects of these practices, which have been carried out for years, have been detected [4]. Augmentation contains the additional release of natural enemies, rising the population which is found naturally. At a crucial stage of the growing period, few amount of beneficial insects can be extricated (inoculative release) or millions can be extricated (inundative release) [18]. The most commonly used biological control agents in this application are entomopathogens. Predator and parasitoid agents are more difficult and expensive to produce. Producing and multiplying predators and parasitoid agents in artificial media is less costly. However, the main problem here is to investigate whether these beneficial insects produced in artificial nutrient media are effective in nature, and accordingly, nutrient media should be prepared and produced. In addition, the production and release of predators and parasitoids into nature must be at certain standards. For example, an egg parasitoid should be made during the period when the pest egg is found in nature and at times of the day that are suitable for the parasitoid. For this reason, the production and release of predators and parasitoids are mostly applied in crops with high economic value and in greenhouses [4]. Conservation of natural enemies in an environment is the third method of biological pest control. Natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and target pest and their protection through vegetation manipulation can be simple and cost-effective, while Classical Biological Control provides control of both primary and secondary pests, reducing the likelihood of pest outbreaks and resurrections [18]. This type of biological method can be reached in two ways: changing pesticide use and manipulating the growing environment in favor of natural enemies [20]. If natural enemies are adversely affected and their population declines, the pests get rid of the pressure of natural enemies and multiply in a short time and rise above the economic damage threshold.

Biological control, carried out by protecting and supporting native beneficial insects, gives more successful results in large areas than conventional and replicated biological control applications [17].

2.3 Biotechnical method

Biotechnical Control aims to prevent or control the normal biological or physiological activities of pests by using some artificial or natural compounds. That is, it interferes with the behavior and development of pests in their natural life processes such as feeding, mating, laying eggs, and flying. Some substances such as pheromone, attractant, antifeedant, kairomone, insect growth regulator, repellant, oviposition deterrent and chemosterilant are applied on biotechnical control. This management method can not pollute the environment and is compatible with other control methods and does not cause residue problems in foods. The compounds used in this method specifically target only the harmful organism and ensure the preservation of the natural balance. The biotechnical control method can be used in harmony with Organic Agriculture and Integrated Pest Methods [21]. The most commonly used pheromones for biotechnical control methods used within the scope of agricultural pest control are sexually attractive pheromones, which are secreted by females and invite males to mate, and aggregation pheromones that inform a food source or places suitable for nesting. In general, pheromones can be used for four different purposes; Use in combination with a trap for pest population monitoring (Monitoring), likewise combined with a trap for use in a mass trapping technique to reduce pest populations (Mass Trapping), inhibiting mating by emitting an intense signal, preventing males and females from finding each other and preventing them from mating and the use in the technique of mating (Mating Disruption) and finally, the use of pull and kill (Attract & Kill) technique by using it with an insecticide. Monitoring purposes are mostly aimed at determining the population development such as whether there is a pest, if it is, the first adult emergence, the periods when the population is dense, how long the pest is in the nature, when it goes to winter, and the flight period. The utilization of pheromones for monitor purposes is used in population monitoring of many pests [3]. Attractive traps such as McPhail, yellow sticky traps and delta traps are used against harmful insects belonging to the Tephritidae family such as Mediterranean fruit fly and Olive fruit fly, which cause product losses in fruit growing. However, due to the high cost of this type of traps, alternative traps can be used. These types of traps can be prepared by opening holes in the 1 lt. plastic bottles we use in our house, and putting apple juice + sugar mixture in them, and they can be used against these harmful insects, which belong to this family and cause significant yield losses in fruit growing.

2.4 Cultural method

One of the oldest methods of pest control in agricultural production is the cultural control method. However, with the development of synthetic pesticides, cultural control methods were quickly abandoned or not focused on, and research on them was largely stopped. The emergence of synthetic pesticides was effective in stopping these studies, as well as the fact that the cultural control method depends on preventive and long-term planning rather than an effective application method. It is applied as a pre-control method because it is less effective than other control methods.

There are many applications such as site selection, planting design and management (crop rotation, planting trap plants, planting and planting timing, placement of alternative hosts, etc.), plowing, irrigation, drainage, fertilization, removal of plant residues, mulching, adjustment of harvest time among cultural control methods [22]. The general principle in the processes considered as “Cultural Control” in the management against diseases, pests and weeds is to reduce the reproduction, shelter and living opportunities of harmful organisms by changing the environment in which they live in a way that is not suitable for the harmful organism. For successful cultural control, the most sensitive periods of harmful organisms should be determined, information about the interaction of host plant, harmful organism and environmental conditions should be learned to prevent the attacks of harmful organisms, to destroy them or to reduce the rate of reproduction, and cultural processes should be changed or developed accordingly. Cultural measures that have been applied for centuries from the past to the present are still important and up-to-date, as they are generally the sum of this knowledge and practices that have been experienced and adopted before, with positive results [23].

2.5 Physical method

The physical method of pests in fruit production has come to the fore in recent times because of the resistance development of pesticides avoidance from residue which causes pesticide and economic causes [24]. In physical control methods, the physical environment of the pest is changed in such a way that the insects no longer pose a threat to the agricultural crop. This can be achieved by creating stress levels ranging from agitation to death, or by using devices such as physical barriers that protect products or pants from invasion. While many physical control methods target a whole range of physiological and behavioral processes, chemical methods have well-defined and limited modes of action [25]. Physical control practices include repelling pests or restricting the accession of pests to plants, distorting the behavior of insects. In addition to this, this method includes the death of insects directly [4]. Physical methods are divided into two main groups. The name of these groups is active and passive [25]. Active methods include picking up the larvae of harmful insects, pruning of damaged or infected plant tissues, and removal of heavily damaged and infected plants. Generally, passive methods consist of the use of a tool or device to remove pests from a product. This equipment acts as a barrier between plants and pests, protecting plants from damage caused by insects. Other passive tools include repellants and traps [20]. Chemical and biological methods are often inharmonious; however, there is a harmony between cultural, biological, and physical methods and when used together they can be more effective against pests than chemical method.

2.5.1 Sterile insect technique

The idea of sterilizing insects’ dates back to earlier than the invention and use of modern insecticides. Sterilization was first tried on Lasioderma serricorna(F.) (Tobacco beetle) in 1916, and the insect produced sterile eggs. However, an American scientist, Dr. E.F.Knipling started to work on this subject since 1937 and investigated the possibilities of management with insects by sterilizing them or making some changes in their genetic structures. As a result of long studies, Knipling was able to make his first publication on this subject in 1955. There are mainly two sources of insect sterilization. The first is radiation, and the second is some chemical substances called chemosterilants.

Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 are the most common sources used for this purpose. Radiation produces dominant lethal mutations in the gametes of insects. These lethal mutations actually do not adversely affect the maturation of the sex cells or the formation of the zygote, and they prevent the maturation of the zygote. Radiation, by interrupting the spermatogenesis in male, stops the formation of sperm (aspermia) and reduces the activity of the sperms or causes the loss of mating power. In this case, the male does not mate or fertilization does not occur because it cannot stay in the mating position long enough. In females, on the other hand, egg formation decreases or does not occur at all, since it damages the organia or the nutrient cells or both [26]. This method is applied effectively against pests such as Olive fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly and gives positive results as a management method against these harmful insects.

2.6 Integrated Pest management method

End of the 19th century, the idea of Integrated Pest Management began to emerge and some applications were seen in the early 20th century. It is noteworthy that in these first applications, only biological control was considered and applied besides chemical control. However, the concept of Integrated Pest Management in its current sense was first put forward in 1954 and its principles were determined in the symposium held in Rome in 1965 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). It is considered to be the most modern application developed in the field of plant protection. This practice, which is commonly known as integrated pest management and integrated pest control in English, has been defined in previous years with names such as Complementary Control, Complementary Pest Control, Integrated Control, Integrated Pest Management. This management method is defined by the FAO as a control method of pests that takes into account population fluctuations of pest species and their relationship with environment, and keeps their populations below the level of economic damage by using all appropriate control methods and techniques appropriately and this definition is accepted in the world. The aim of this method is expressed as the use of multifaceted tactics in good coordination to ensure balanced crop production, to keep the losses caused by pests at the level that will provide the highest economic gain, to meet the other goals of the farmers, to minimize the risks of pesticides on humans, animals and the environment [27]. Integrated pest management aims not only to suppress or eliminate the population of pests, but also seeks solutions that combine viable, economically acceptable, effective and environmentally friendly, sustainable ways. Integrated pest management aims not only to suppress or eliminate the population of pests, but also seeks solutions that combine viable, economically acceptable, effective and environmentally friendly, sustainable ways. Regular inspection of agricultural lands is always critical and must be done in an integrated management programme. Without control, the information needed to decide whether action should be taken in the first place and how severe the pest population is may not be gathered. Without all this information and properly determining how high and how widespread a pest is in the field, it may not be possible to make the right interventions at the correct time. Therefore, the population and spread of a pest should always be known before taking comprehensive action and planning. The basic principle of the integrated control method is to apply the control method when the pest population rises above the economic damage threshold, not as a routine method that always exists. A carefully planned integrated control program aims to adjust the terrain to prevent the emergence of the pest in the first place and to completely destroy the pest itself or reduce its population if the pest is present in the land [4].

2.7 Plant Defense chemicals

Plants produce defensive metabolites that do not affect normal vegetative growth and development but reduce the palatability of the tissues in which they are produced [28]. In other words, plants have a variety of inducible and constitutive defense mechanisms to defend themselves against attack. These include structural defenses such as spines and waxy cuticles, as well as protein-based and chemical defenses [29]. Plants respond to herbivory through a variety of molecular mechanisms, biochemical and morphological and exhibit multifactorial traits that are constitutively expressed against herbivory or induced upon attack. Plant defenses activated in herbivores are a complex network of different pathways of direct and indirect defenses. Direct defense compounds such as glucosinolates or protease inhibitors directly affect insect performance and feeding behavior, while indirect defenses, such as the emission of volatile organic compounds after herbivore attack, act as attractants for the parasitic wasp that precedes the attacker. As plants develop new defense compounds or mechanisms, resistance to herbivores, their attackers find new ways to bypass or detoxify them [28]. Plant defense chemicals consist of secondary metabolites whose core structures are predominantly terpenes, benzenoids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids or N-containing compounds. Plant defense chemicals can be classified according to their inducible or structural production. Initially, these classes were grouped according to their responses to pathogens were called phytoalexins and phytoanticipins. These have been defined as low molecular weight phytoalexins, “antimicrobial compounds that are both synthesized and accumulated in plants after exposure to microorganisms, and phytoanticips” as “low molecular weight antimicrobial compounds that are present in plants before they are threatened by microorganisms or are produced only after infection from pre-existing components”. Defense compounds (phytoalexins) induced by these insects may have important functional roles as nutritional deterrents. The disadvantage of inducible defense systems is the delay in the synthesis of new compounds. An alternative strategy is to constitutively produce the compounds in tissues susceptible to attack. The disadvantage of phytoanticipins is the metabolic energy required to produce compounds even in the absence of insect threat and the active form of certain compounds being toxic not only to insects but also to the plant itself a common alternative approach to circumventing the toxicity problem is to store compounds as readily activated non-toxic forms and activate them upon insect attack. These compounds are known as phytoanticipins because they are produced in anticipation of a threat [29].

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3. Conclusion

Global climate change and urbanization have increased the pressure on water, soil and climate, which are the natural resources of agricultural production. As a result of these pressures, existing breeding systems have also been damaged. Urgent measures are required to reduce the increasing pressure and to deliver natural resources suitable for agriculture to future generations. With the increase in the world population, the production areas are decreasing. However, to meet the needs of people with agricultural products produced in these declining areas, the amount of agricultural products produced per unit area should be increased. It is not possible to increase agricultural production only with plant nutrition. It is imperative that plant protection measures are also fully implemented in agricultural products. Due to living and non-living effects, regressions occur in the growth and development of plants. There are some signs of disease in plants. The severity and intensity of these symptoms indicate the extent of the disease. Therefore, these symptoms in plants are very important to find the source of the problem by detecting it well and taking measures in terms of agricultural management. With this information obtained, methods that cause the least harm to the environment and nature should be applied to combat diseases. These management practices are a physical method, cultural method, biological method, biotechnical method, integrated pest management and sterile insect technique. Time is important in the fight against diseases. When the right time is not selected, the success of the control method applied decreases. It is a costly and challenging process for a diseased plant to become healthy. Therefore, it is important to prevent the plant from contracting the disease. Taking precautionary measures to prevent the plant from contracting the disease will provide longer-term gains. The most effective methods should be used without harming the living creatures in nature. When the 7 control methods, we mentioned above are used in the right time and manner, the yield, quality and pest protection methods in agricultural production will become easier. In order to, we can say that all of the methods we mentioned are used properly in sustainable agriculture. Pest control methods in agricultural areas will be much easier if sustainable farming methods are adopted and used appropriately.

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Conflict of interest

The author has no conflict of interest.

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Written By

Murat Helvacı

Submitted: January 5th, 2022 Reviewed: February 7th, 2022 Published: March 10th, 2022