Open access peer-reviewed chapter - ONLINE FIRST

Dynamics of Rural Development in India

By Kazma Khan

Submitted: September 19th 2020Reviewed: August 11th 2021Published: September 11th 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.99887

Downloaded: 12

Abstract

India is the second largest populous country in the world and more than half of its population lives in rural areas. This leads to widespread unemployment, low standard of living, inadequate productive skills and malnutrition in the country. In the developing countries especially like India, rural development is always been an important issue related to country’s economic progress. The rural development programmes are the key devices for the development of the rural areas in the country. As we know that, the people of rural area have seen difficulties from the time immemorial, the time has come to give them their deserving rights. India cannot shine without the shinning of the Rural India. National Development is almost synonymous with the Rural Development. This paper makes an attempt to measure actual performance and Government’s initiatives to accelerate the process of rural development through rural development programme in India and would be dealing with the changing life of the vulnerable people. The study reveals that the target number of houses to be constructed by the year 2021–2022, is 2.95 crore. The target set is to be achieved in phases and in the 1st phase 1 crore houses have been taken up for construction and in the 2nd phase 1.95 crore houses are being taken up for construction. 35.27 lakh houses have been constructed during 2020–2021 under Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY-G) scheme. The pace of construction of PMGSY roads a nine years high of 135 kms per day in 2018–2019 as against an average of 73 kms during the period 2011 to 2014. Hence, the pace of construction has increased by 93%. Under PMGSY about 6, 26,910 Km road length completed where as 41000 Km road length constructed by using green technology and 14312 Km road length constructed by using plastic waste. MGNREGA has provided employment to 6.9 crore households by generating more than 305.71 crore person-days of wage employment covering 74.74 lakh works during financial year 2020–2021 and 5 crore works completed since inception. During COVID-19 pandemic, migrant workers were allowed to work under the scheme by being applying for job card. Approximately 1.44 crore Job Cards have been issued in FY 2020–2021. Total person-days generated in FY 2020–2021 have been 305.71 crore against approved LB for FY 2020–2021 of 333.09 crore. There has been 47% increase in person-days generated in comparison to FY 2019–2020. Further, the paper will give an idea how it will be beneficial for our country and how this little effort to rebuild the rural life and livelihood will make our country from developing to the developed country.

Keywords

  • Rural development
  • unemployment
  • poverty
  • Government
  • Vulnerable Life
  • Programmes

1. Introduction

“Just as the whole universe is contained in the self, so is India contained in the villages.”

Mahatma Gandhi

Rural development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas. It aims at improving the well being and self realization of people living outside the urbanized areas through collective process. According to Agarwal (1989), rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of rural poor [1]. Rural Development has been receiving increasing attention of the governments across the world. In the Indian context, rural development assumes special significance for two important reasons. First, about two-thirds of India’s population still lives in villages and there cannot be any progress so long as rural areas remain backward. Second, the backwardness of the rural sector would be a major impediment to the overall progress of the economy.

The all India Rural Credit Review Committee in its report warned “If the fruits of development continue to be denied to the large sections of rural community, while prosperity accrues to some, the tensions social and economic may not only upset the process of orderly and peaceful change in the rural economy but even frustrate the national efforts to set up agricultural production.” Report of the All India Rural Credit Committee, New Delhi, 2003 has rightly pointed out that a purely agricultural country remains backward even in respect of agriculture.

Today, Inclusive rural development is more specific concept than the concept of rural development of earlier, in broader terms, inclusive rural development is about improving the quality of life of all rural people. More specifically, inclusive rural development covers three different but interrelated dimensions: Economic dimension, Social dimension and Political dimension. Economic dimension encompasses providing both capacity and opportunities for the poor and low-income households in particular, benefit from the economic growth. Social dimension supports social development of poor and low- income households, promotes gender equality and women’s empowerment and provides social safety nets for vulnerable groups. Political dimension improves the opportunities for the poor and low income people in rural areas to effectively and equally participate the political processes at the village level [2].

Rural development implies both the economic betterment of people as well as greater social transformation. In order to provide the rural people with better prospects for economic development, increased participation of people in the rural development programmes, decentralization of planning, better enforcement of land reforms and greater access to credit are needed. This article provides complete information on initiatives taken by the government for bridging the urban–rural divide by upgrading the standard of living of people in rural areas.

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2. Objectives

  • The main objective of the study is to understand the role of rural development schemes in India.

  • The secondary objective includes, presenting the growth of number houses completed under PMAY-G Scheme, to study the increase of road length completed under PMGSY Scheme and to evaluate employment provided to households and individuals under MGNREGA Scheme etc. and key achievements of various schemes with special response given by the Government of India during Covid-19.

3. Scope of the study

The Government of India has been launched the various schemes for the development of rural areas. The present study confine to mainly few schemes like Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana Gramin (PMAY-G) scheme is to provide houses, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) to build roads and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) to provide employment to rural population and Deendayal Atyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) to access gainful self-employment opportunities.

4. Methodology

The present study is based on the secondary sources of data. Data have been collected from various rural development institutions, annual reports, published books and research papers. In order to formulate the study meaningful and empirical tables were used. Various Development Programmes are used for appraising real performance of rural development in India.

5. Rural development in India preindependence

Rural development in India before independence can be analysed under two main heads:

Efforts made by the British Government:

  • It was the famine of 1899 which forced the British Government to think about the people of India who were dying of hunger [3].

  • Removal of Barter system: The traditional barter system received a severe setback during the British period. British government introduced cash economy, which enabled the peasants to adopt commercial crops. In this way agricultural subsistence gave rise to commercial crops.

    Efforts made by voluntary organizations:

  • Sriniketan Experiment:Shri, Rabindranath Tagor in 1908 establish youth organization in the kaligram Progana of his Zamindari [4]. This was a very comprehensive programme combining culture, health, education and economic aspects of village life together [5].

  • The Martandam Experiment:The aim of this project was to bring more abundant life to the rural people. It was intended to symbolize the three-fold development, not only spiritual, mental and physical but also economic and social [6]. The essential technique of the centre was ‘Self-help with intimate expert counsel’. From the demonstration centre at Martandam, about a hundred villages were covered through Y.M.C.A. centres in villages.

  • The Gurgaon Experiment:It was started by Mr. F.L. Brayne, Deputy Commissioner in the Gurgaon district of Punjab State as he was prompted by the backwardness, poverty and misery of the people. Introduction of this programme has improved seeds, implements, the methods of cultivation, etc.

  • Gandhian Constructive Programme/ Sewagram:The dream of the Gandhiji was to see the village as self - contained and self sufficient. Therefore, for the betterment of people Gandhiji formulated 18 programmes, which includes the promotion of village industries, basic and adult education in rural areas, upliftment of backward tribes, upliftment of women, education in public health and hygiene, propagation of natural language, love for the mother tongue, economic equality, organization of kisans, labour and students and so on.

  • Rural Reconstruction Programmes in Baroda:The Maharaja of Baroda was started the Baroda experiment in 1932. Thisprogramme aimed at developing “will to livebetter” and a capacity for the self-help and self-reliance.

  • The Firka Development scheme:The Firka Development scheme of Madras was a Government sponsored scheme in 1946. This programme aimed at organizing the villages for a happier, more prosperous and fuller life in which the individual villagers had the opportunity to develop both as an individual and as a unit of a well- integrated society.

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6. Programmemes launched by the government of India after independance

As Gandhiji has quoted that, “If villages prosper the country will prosper, if villages, sink the country will sink”, emphasizing on this line, for the development of India, village has to be developed. Department of Rural Development has implemented a number of programmes in the rural areas through the State Governments for the poverty reduction, employment generation, rural infrastructure habitant development, provision of basic minimum services [7]. The policy makers have realized the importance of rural development and have been implementing a host of programmes as shown inTable 1.

YearName of Schemes
1948The Etawah Pilot Project/ The Nilokheri Experiment/The Bhoodan Movement.
1951First Five Year Plan launched.
1952Community Development Program launched.
1958Three-tier Structure of local self-governing bodies (Panchayati Raj) introduced.
1969Rural Electrification Corporation set up.
1971“Garibi Hatao” initiated.
1972Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Project (PIREP).
1973Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program (ARWSP)/Drought Prone Areas Programs (DPAP).
1977Food for Work Program and Desert Development Program (DDP).
1978Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP).
1979Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM).
1980National Rural Employment Program (NREP).
1982Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA).
1985Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) started
1986“National Drinking Water Mission” (NDWM) {rechristened as “Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission” (RGNDWM) in 1991}.
1988“Bekari Hatao” initiated and Million Wells Scheme (MWS).
1989Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY).
1992Constitutional 73rd Amendment Act to grant constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj institutions.
1993Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS).
1995National Social Assistance Program (NSAP).
1999Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)/Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY).
2000Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)/Annapurna Scheme.
2001Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY).
2004National Food for Work Program.
2005Bharat Nirman/Common Minimum Program/Varsha Bima Scheme.
2006National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (NREGA).
2011DeenDayal Antiyodya Yojana- National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLN).
2014Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)/Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushal Yojna (DDU-GKY).
2016Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM)
2018Gram Samridhi Evam Swachhta Pakhwada.

Table 1.

List of Rural Development Programme after Independence in India.

Source: Ministry of Rural Development: rural.nic.in [8].

The Ministry of Rural Development has been given the mandate for undertaking interventions for integrated and sustainable rural development with the main focus on skilling of rural youth, increasing livelihood opportunities, empowering rural women and expanding livelihood opportunities, providing social safety net and infrastructure development.

The aim is to alleviating rural poverty, generating employment and removing hunger and malnourishment accompanied to improvement of the quality of human life. The basic goals are Connecting the unconnected habitations through good quality all weather roads, consolidation and up-gradation of existing rural road network adopting green technologies, Pucca houses with basic amenities to rural houseless/households living in Kuccha houses, Promotion of sustainable practices in Agriculture (Climate change resilient Agro Ecological Practices) NTFP, Livestock and other farm-based activities, Engaging with SHGs for higher order economic activities, Skill training for self and wage employment for remunerative jobs, Extend universal coverage to all the deprived sections, including small and marginal farmers and unorganized workers and Developing growth clusters & Gram Panchayats as hubs of economic activity through convergence of Government Schemes. While the government has been giving top priority to rural development and spending thousands of crores through various schemes. Government of India has made a provision of Rs 131519.08 Crore for Rural Development in its Budget for 2021–2022. With an aim to achieve poverty free Gram Panchayat, rural development expenditure has been substantially enhanced from Rs. 52,000 crore in 2012–2013 to Rs. 1,97,376.5 crore in 2020–2021, an increase of 279% as shown in Figure 1. Further, the Ministry of Rural Development targets an expenditure of Rs. 1, 31,519 crore during 2021–2022. In 2012–2013 the fund for NRLM-Aajeevika was Rs. 2600 crore which reaches around Rs.13677.6 for the FY 2021–2022. An allocation of Rs 19500 Crore has been made for Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana -Grameen and Rs 15000 Crore for Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna. Around Rs. 9200 Crore has been allocated for NSA Programme in 21–22 budget as shown in Table 2.

Figure 1.

Year-Wise Expenditure in Rural Development Schemes in India (in crores). Source: Annual Reports (2012–2013 to 2020–2021), Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.

Scheme NameList of Sanctions order for the Scheme during 2011–2012 to 2020–2021 sanction order (Amount Rs. in cr)
2012–20132013–20142014–20152015–20162016–20172017–20182018–20192019–20202020–20212021–2022
MGNREGA29387.0033000.0033000.0036967.0047499.0055000.0061084.0971001.811111500.073000.00
NRLM-Aajeevika2600.002600.002186.422672.003000.004350.005783.509024.009210.0413677.61
PMAY-G9024.0013184.0011000.0010025.0016000.0023000.0019900.0018475.0019500.0019500.00
PMGSY10000.009700.0014200.0018291.0019000.0016900.0015500.0014070.0713706.2315000.00
Grants to NIRD47.0033.0030.0050.0050.0050.0075.00100.0080.50124.00
Assistance to C.A.P.A.R.T.12.000.006.0010.0020.0020.0017.6019.070.000.00
Management support to RD Programmes and strengthening district planning process145.0084.00125.00130.00255.00250.00254.40350.62341.44364.38
SECC Survey375.00306.00365.00330.00375.0080.18386.951.000.010.01
National Social Assistance Programme0.000.007241.009082.009500.008744.578900.399200.0042617.229200.00
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee RURBAN Mission0.000.002.0060.00300.00600.00451.03300.00372.33600.00
Grameen Vikas Bhawan0.000.001.0033.001.005.255.2554.900.000.00
Non Scheme (Sectt)410.00403.000.000.000.0042.4545.7152.5348.7653.08
Total (Plan) (RD)52000.0059310.0068156.4277650.0096000.00109042.45112403.92122649.00197376.53131519.08

Table 2.

Rural Development Programmes in India.

Source: Annual Reports (2012–2013 to 2020–2021), Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India [9].

6.1 Mahatma Gandhi national rural employment guarantee scheme (MGNREGS)

Mahatma Gandhi NREGA was notified on September 7, 2005. The Scheme aims at enhancing livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to take up unskilled manual work. The scheme came into force initially in 200 districts with effect from 2nd February 2006, and was extended gradually to other areas notified by the Central Government. Now the scheme covers the entire country except for districts that have a 100% urban population. The Mahatma Gandhi NREGA is a powerful instrument for ensuring inclusive growth in rural India through its impact on social protection, livelihood security and democratic empowerment.

The Rural Development department has been able to generate unprecedented employment opportunities for unorganized labourers in rural areas through its schemes. The government’s commitment to ensure effective implementation of Scheme is reflected by the continuous increase in budget allocation. Total Budget allocation in the financial year 2020–2021 was 61,500 crore and a provision of Rs 73,000 Crore for F.Y 2021–2022 which is highest since inception as compared to the previous financial years. The total expenditure in the financial year 2020–2021is about Rs 82,425 crore which is highest ever since inception as shown in Figure 2. In the F.Y 2020–21, 6.9 crore households have been provided employment and in the process 305.71 crore person-days of employment have been generated. Women have accounted for an average of 52.6% of the total person-days generated in MGNREGA, while SC/ST households have contributed to a total of 38%. To strengthen the livelihood resources base of the rural poor, the focus of the scheme is on creation of productive assets of prescribed quality and durability under the scheme.

Figure 2.

Progress of Total Expenditure under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA. Source: Annual Reports 2020–2021, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.

During COVID-19 pandemic, migrant workers were allowed to work under the scheme by being applying for job card. Approximately 1.44 crore Job Cards have been issued in Financial Year 2020–2021. Total persons-days generated in FY 2020–2021 have been 305.71 crore against approved LB for FY 2020–2021 of 333.09 crore. There has been 47% increase in person-days generated in comparison to FY 2019–2020.

6.2 Garib kalyan rojgar abhiyaan (GKRA)

Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (GKRA) was launched on 20th June, 2020 for a period of 125 days to boost employment and livelihood opportunities for migrant workers returning to villages and similarly affected citizens in rural area. The key objectives of this Abhiyaan were to provide immediate employment opportunities to returnee migrants and similarly affected citizen in rural areas, to saturate villages with public infrastructure and assets, to set Stage for enhancing long-term livelihood opportunities. The Scheme has helped in empowering villagers with livelihood opportunities in the selected 116 districts of 6 states namely Bihar, Jharkhand, Madha Pradesh, Odisha, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. During the Abhiyaan, 50.78 crore person-days were generated with a total expenditure of Rs.39, 293 crore.

6.3 Deendayal atyodaya yojana- national rural livelihoods mission (DAY-NRLM)

The Hindi word ‘antyodaya’ is a combination of two words- ant meaning end or bottom level and udaya meaning development. Thus, as a whole, it implies the development or welfare of a person standing at the end of that queue (lowest level), that is, the poorest of the poor.

DAY-NRLM is a centrally sponsored programme which was launched in June 2011 with the aim to reduce poverty through promotion of diversified and gainful self employment and skilled wage employment opportunities resulting in appreciable increase in the incomes of rural poor on sustainable basis. NRLM continued to register significant progress in all components during 2020–2021. Intensive activities of the Mission were initiated in 229 new blocks, taking the cumulative footprint to 6321 blocks. Cumulatively up to December, 2020, the Mission has mobilized about 7.26 crore households into 66.03 lakh Self Help Groups (SHGs). The total number of promoted VO is 3.78 lakh, while the number of Cluster Level Federations (CLFs) stood at 323,201. Cumulatively total capitalization support of Rs.12195.13 crore was provided to the community institutions. Further SHGs have leveraged a loan of 3.47 lakh crore from the banks since 2013-14.

This Mission has been strengthening livelihoods by intervention in agro-ecological practices, improved livestock rearing and sustainable Non-timber forest products collection and value addition. 38.05 lakhs farmers have been covered under Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) till December, 2020. A total of 84 MKSP projects spread over across 24 States, 238 districts, 1319 blocks and 30,900 villages are currently being implemented. The total outlay of the projects is Rs. 1290 Crores covering around 38.05 lakh Mahila Kisans.

In order to support rural youth to take up local entrepreneurship, Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP) was launched as a sub-scheme of DAY-NRLM in 2014. SVEP is expected to support creation and strengthening of about 2.00 lakh village enterprises in 153 blocks across 23 States. Till 31st December 2020, a total of 1,25,595 enterprises have been supported in these states [10].

6.4 Aajeevika grameen express yojana (AGEY)

Launched in April 2017 aims to provide safe, affordable and community monitored rural transport services to connect remote rural villages, a total of 1357 vehicles were operational in 23 States till December 2020.

The mission is working on the development of transaction system for SHGs and their Federations to track the member level savings, inter-lending, borrowings and repayments etc. It is expected that this system will enable both the Mission and the banks to monitor the health of the SGHs and their federations better.

6.5 Pradhan mantri gram sadak yojana (PMGSY)

launched on 25th December, 2000 for providing connectivity by way of all weather road to the eligible unconnected habitations as per core-network with a population of 500 persons in plain areas. As rural roads are vital for the economic growth and measure for poverty alleviation in the village, Government has launched a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme called the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. The programme seeks to provide connectivity to all unconnected habitations in the rural areas with a population of more than 500 persons through good All-weather roads by the end of the Tenth Plan Period. The rural connectivity is a key factor in ensuring sustainable poverty reduction and integration of rural areas into the mainstream economic growth and development. Figure 3 presents the road length completed during last more than one decade from 2009 to 2010 to 2020–2021.

Figure 3.

Length of Road Completed (in Km). Source: Annual Reports of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana- 2020-2021, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India.

The data shows that the length completed has increased from 2, 47,766 Km in 2009–2010 to 6, 26,910 Km during the year 2020–21in the last twelve years of period. The overall achievements of this scheme are as follows

  • 98.45% of eligible and feasible habitations provided with all-weather road connectivity.

  • 100% sanction of PMGSY-II; 35,072 Km (70.39%) completed.

  • Under Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism Affected Areas (RCPLWEA) 9,338 Km sanctioned; 1,877 Km completed.

  • Phase-III of PMGSY launched for consolidation of 1, 25,000 Km through Routes and Major Rural Links connecting habitations, inter-alia, to Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs), Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals.

  • Total 6, 26,910 Km road length constructed.

  • 41,000 Km road length constructed using green technology.

  • 14,312 Km road length constructed using plastic waste.

7. Pradhan mantri awaas yojana gramin (PMAY-G)

To realise the government’s commitment towards ensuring “Housing for All” by 2022, the erstwhile rural housing scheme of Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) has been restructured into Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana- Gramin (PMAY-G) with effect from 1st April, 2016. To ensure saturation, the target number of houses to be constructed by the year 2021–2022, is 2.95 crore. The target set is to be achieved in phases and in the 1st phase 1 crore houses have been taken up for construction over a period of 3 years i.e. 2016–2017 to 2018–2019. In the 2nd phase 1.95 crore houses are being taken up for construction over 3 years from 2019 to 2020 to 2021–2022. Under PMAY-G, assistance of Rs. 1, 20,000/− in plains and Rs. 1, 30,000 in hilly states, difficult areas and IAP districts is provided for construction of the house.

The above data indicates that, the number of houses completed has increased from 10, 78,065 during 2012–2013 to 35, 27,176 in 2020–2021 in almost last one decade. Highest number of houses completed in the year 2018–2019 as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4.

Number of houses Completed. Source: PMAY-G Cumulative Progress report 2020-2021, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India [11].

As far as achievement under Rural Mason Training is concerned, as on 8th January 2021 a total of 1,79,489 candidates have been enrolled for mason training out of which 1,43,250 have been assessed and 1,01,644 have been certified under Rural Mason Training (RTM0 Programme. In addition, at the national level, 60% of the target is to be earmarked for SC/ST households. To maintain this, 60% of the target allocated to each State/UT should be earmarked for SC/ST subject of availability of eligible PMAY –G beneficiaries in the Permanent Wait List (PWL). As of 21st January 2021, out of the total 1, 87, 96,844 houses sanctioned, 41, 54,073 houses were sanctioned for SCs and 41, 58,987 sanctioned for STs across the country. Further, out of total 1, 26, 25,294 houses completed, 30, 45, 06 houses were completed for SCs and 30, 72,647 completed for STs across the country. Further, as far as possible, 15% of the total fund would be earmarked for minorities at the National Level, as on 21st January 2021, out of the total houses sanctioned, 23,14,739 houses were sanctioned for Minorities and 14,96,183 got completed across the country since the inception of this scheme. In addition, the state to the extent possible may ensure that 5% of beneficiaries at the State Level from among persons with disabilities. On 21st January 2021, a total of 29,144 houses have been sanctioned for the physically and mentally disabled and out of which 22,211 houses have been completed (Annual Report, 2020–2021, GOI).

8.
Response to Covid-19

The key achievements and action for covid-19 mitigation through various schemes by the GOI are:

  • PRADHAN MANTRI GARIB KALYAN YOJANA

    1. Cash transfers to women PMJDY A/c holders:A total of 20.65 crore PMJDY women account-holders would be given an ex-gratia of Rs. 500 per month for entailing three months. Total expenditure is Rs. 31,000 Crores.

    2. Support for senior citizens, widows and divyang:Rs.1000/− each to 2.82 crore aged widows and people in Divyang category. Total expenditure- Rs. 2,815 crore.

    3. Increase limit of collateral free loan for SHGsfrom current limit of Rs. 10 lakh to Rs. 20 lakh.

    4. MGNREGA wages increased from Rs.182 to Rs.202/−w.e.f. 1st April 2020. MGNREGA allocation enhanced from Rs. 61,500 to Rs. 1, 01,500 crore through additional provision of Rs. 40,000 crore.

  • DEENDAYAL ANTYODAYA YOJANA NATIONAL RURAL LIVELIHOODS MISSION (DAY-NRLM)

    • SHG members as Covid warriors:More than 2.87 lakh SHG members have come together to produce 17.70 crore facemasks; manufactured 4.16 lakh liters of sanitizer; 1.00 lakh liters of hand wash.

    • Over 6,491 community kitchens run by SHG members have served nearly 4.63 lakh persons on 19th June(no. of persons served at community kitchens are for that one particular day).

    • 5300+ BC Sakhi conducted 43.02 lakh transactions amounting to Rs.799.13 Crore at door stepsof the rural poor.

    • Women Collectives Platform utilized for awareness generation - Around 16.66 lakhs SHGs have involved in generation of awareness on COVID-19and 2.35 Cr. community members have been oriented on preventive measures to be taken to combat COVID-19.

    • Provision of dry ration:Dry ration was provided to 34, 92,907 vulnerable households.

    • Addressing migrants’ problems through Vulnerability Reduction Fund:The State Missions have been advised to utilise Vulnerability Reduction Fund (VRF) for helping rural poor through small grants and interest free loans.

  • MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME (MGNREGS)

    • All the States/UTs been advised to provide job cards to willing job seekers including migrant labourersand open jobs on demand following the health advisories issued from time to time.

    • Advisory issued on Nutri-garden for further strengthening livelihoods and wage employmentsof eligible rural poor.

    • The average number of persons to whom work has been offered in May 2020 so far is.

    • 2.51 crore per day, which is 73% higher than the average number of 1.45 crore person-days during the same period last year.

    • Works have been offered(on 28 May 2020) in 1.94 lakhs GPs.

    • 5.54 crore of wage seekers has been offered work(till 28th May 2020).

    • A total of Rs. 31,545 crore has already been released to the States/UTs.

    • Wage rate increased from Rs. 180 to Rs. 202/−with effect from 1.4.2020.

    • 60 crore person-days created till June 2020.

9. Conclusion

Since independence the country has formulated various rural development programmes and has restructured and revamped them envisaging their wider outreach and acceptability. At present, rural people look up to the government for each and everything. This dependency syndrome needs to be dispelled. People’s participation in the development sphere is crucial. People must be made fully aware of the opportunities available and how to take advantage of them. Government of India has announced Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana Gramin (PMAY-G) scheme is to provide houses, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) to build roads and Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) to provide employment to rural people as well as Deendayal Antodaya Yojana National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM) aim to reduce poverty through promotion of diversified and gainful self employment and skilled wage employment opportunities resulting in appreciable increase in the incomes of rural poor on sustainable basis. These schemes are playing main role in rural development of India. The study reveals that the target number of houses to be constructed by the year 2021–2022, is 2.95 crore. The target set is to be achieved in phases and in the 1st phase 1 crore houses have been taken up for construction over a period of 3 years from 2016 to 2017 to 2018–2019. In the 2nd phase 1.95 crore houses are being taken up for construction over 3 years from 2019 to 2020 to 2021–2022. 35.27 lakh houses have been constructed during 2020–2021 under Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY-G) scheme. The pace of construction of PMGSY roads a nine years high of 135 kms per day in 2018–2019 as against an average of 73 kms during the period 2011 to 2014. Hence, the pace of construction has increased by 93%. Under PMGSY about 6, 26,910 Km road length completed where as 41000 Km road length constructed by using green technology and 14312 Km road length constructed by using plastic waste. MGNREGA has provided employment to 6.9 crore households by generating more than 305.71 crore person days of wage employment covering 74.74 lakh works during financial year 2020–2021 and 5 crore works completed since inception. During COVID-19 pandemic, migrant workers were allowed to work under the scheme by being applying for job card. Approximately 1.44 crore Job Cards have been issued in FY 2020–2021. Total person-days generated in FY 2020–2021 have been 305.71 crore against approved LB for FY 2020–2021 of 333.09 crore. There has been 47% increase in persondays generated in comparison to FY 2019–2020. DAY-NRLM continued to show progress in all components during 2020–2021, the Mission has mobilised about 7.26 crore households into 66.03 lakh SHGs. Till December,2020 cumulatively total capitalization support of Rs 12195.13 crore was provided to the community institutions. Further SGHs have leveraged a loan of Rs. 3.47 Lakh crore from the banks since 2013–2014. Keeping the wheels of welfare activities running during the pandemic, Minsitry of Rural Development geared up to combat COVID-19 with various special initiatives and measures for the well being of the rural population. The measures included from providing livelihood to the villages, production and distribution of masks and other essentials by the SHG women to rolling out communication campaigns for creating awareness about COVID-19 appropriate behaviour. Following are the welfare initiatives introduced through the schemes of rural development like Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan, MGNREGA and DAY-NRLM etc. The need of the hour is the convergence of all development interventions at the grass-root level so as to enhance necessary infrastructure in the backward regions and ensure capacity building and skill up-gradation. Together with the government, the people living in rural area are also needed to contribute, without their contribution the development is not at all possible. Both have to take the initiative, this initiative will surely make our country developed country.

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Kazma Khan (September 11th 2021). Dynamics of Rural Development in India [Online First], IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.99887. Available from:

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