Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Venture Leadership under Uncertainty: An Emerging Country Perspective

Written By

Bilal Khalid, Md Samim Al Azad, Slimane Ed-dafali and Muhammad Mohiuddin

Submitted: 10 November 2021 Reviewed: 26 January 2022 Published: 10 March 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.102870

From the Edited Volume

Leadership in a Changing World - A Multidimensional Perspective

Edited by Muhammad Mohiuddin, Bilal Khalid, Md. Samim Al Azad and Slimane Ed-dafali

Chapter metrics overview

310 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Strategic planning and entrepreneurial leadership are needed for effective navigation into the volatile business environment in an era of the knowledge intensive and fast-changing business eco-system. The growing volatile and competitive business climate demands a new sort of “leadership” different from the conventional form of leadership. As a result, having either management or entrepreneurial traits in venture leaders is insufficient for business success. Leaders must be capable of both entrepreneurship and management skills to excel. This study emphasizes the notion of venture leadership that refers to entrepreneurial leadership combining leadership characteristics with an entrepreneurial mindset. In addition, venture leadership involves developing new business processes, new products and prospects for growth in established businesses, collaborating with other social institutions to combat neglected social issues, engaging in political and social movements, and contributing to the modification of prevailing policies and schemes executed by the government and civil organizations. Venture leadership is an emerging concept in business management that challenges the status quo. As a result, the relevance of venture leadership is addressed in this paper by investigating the idea of venture leadership, leadership skills, and ethics in the emerging country context of Thailand.


  • venture leadership
  • leadership skills
  • leadership ethics

1. Introduction

Business eco-system is fast changing due to increased competition, rapidly changing advanced technology, global diversity and a multipolar economic order contributing to rapidly changing market circumstances. To maintain a competitive edge, businesses must be more versatile to respond rapidly to the effects of these developments. As a result, the venture leadership role and responsibilities are becoming less structured and require leaders with multi-skills, flexible, receptive, sensitive, and open to managing rapid changes [1]. Also, venture leaders play a critical role in the creation of new enterprises that propel growth in the global community. In many aspects of life, venture leaders employ a combination of technological inventions to create a new and productive way of doing things. A major challenge of leaders when the enterprise experience massive growth, is the ability to transition seamlessly from a sole entrepreneur to a leader of an expanding business. Many venture leaders are usually not equipped or prepared to take on this new responsibility.

Several start-ups’ leaders lack traditional management or leadership experience, while others are most productive when working alone on difficult technical challenges. However, they are capable of learning and mastering effective leadership skills. Also becoming a successful leader of a business venture does not necessitate an advanced formal education but the instinct of identifying opportunities, taking risk and transforming uncertainty into opportunities [2]. Although, many emerging entrepreneurs rely on learning on the job, this may be dangerous. Expanding ventures typically have limited tolerance for error and must function efficiently from the start to prosper [3]. If the leader is a novice and just acquiring management and leadership skills for the while on the job, the business will suffer and it may also make the stakeholders and investors feel frustrated with the process. Although, venture leaders must have basic experience in the craft and skill of leading and managing, a few insights from literature and experts may also be beneficial. Currently, the demand for venture leaders in organizations is rising daily, and studies should explore the topic of venture leadership [4]. This study elucidates more about the importance of venture leadership and the characteristics of venture leaders. While there have been papers exploring the venture leadership question, this study expands the scope by offering perspectives from an ASEAN emerging country such as Thailand.

It attempts to answer the question of how venture leadership thrives within the Thai business environment. Within this context, the concept of leadership is briefly discussed as well as the skills required to be an effective and successful leader. It covers some basic concepts for leading and managing a venture. The fundamental principles and leadership approaches presented here are meant to give a foundation for comprehending the wide range of challenges that always occur in new enterprises [5]. These concepts should not only be applied to leadership also the outcomes must be tracked and evaluated. Every one of the abilities, roles, and strategies presented here should be altered and adjusted as specific cases emerge. The discussion begins with the concept of leadership then it reviewed numerous sought-after skills that venture leaders require to control and organize the business work environment. Leadership guidelines, as a subcategory of organizational principles, can play a vital role in influencing employee perceptions, morals, and attitudes, and the relationship between leadership and followership. They can be used to help establish a common leadership culture.


2. Venture leadership and influence

Leading in a fast-changing, usually hostile corporate environment is what venture leadership entails. This leadership method is extremely important when you are, launching a global high-growth business, or leading a significant shift or an innovation venture. Therefore, leadership is becoming increasingly crucial. Businesses must focus on leadership to actualize their goals and maintain their sustainability. Leadership is commonly described as the practice of influencing businesses’ personnel to attain organizational objectives [6]. It refers to the capacity to influence people so that certain objectives and goals can be achieved. Leadership is also the capacity to inspire others to support and believe in the firm’s aims. Leadership involves the act of influencing and directing team members on the right path. To attain business goals, the leader influences group members by displaying leadership skills. Persuading others to do something needs a variety of persuasive abilities. Leadership requires having the power to influences others. Several studies have established that the professional skills and competence that made venture leaders effective in the beginning stage of the business can inhibit them as the business expands needing more leading and managing [7, 8]. Scholars have also identified that several leaders are successful in starting and creating a business alone. Although, when the business expands and demands more workers, they more not have the essential skills to inspire and motivate their team members [9].

Ventures leaders with business acumen and entrepreneurial abilities are like captains in a soccer game who plays along with the team member to achieve a goal. Leaders do not make decisions, provide orders, and monitor their employees, they must also choose to be leaders who direct the team and point to the way. Leaders who take risks and grasp chances are critical for the future success of the firm [10]. They identified six attributes that characterized effective venture leadership. The first characteristic is the support of entrepreneurial skills. Successful venture leaders recognize the source of entrepreneurial skills to be the human element and give their full support to the acquisition of this skill. They recognize the human factor as the basis of entrepreneurial activity and work to foster its growth. The second characteristics are how they interpret and perceive business opportunities. Venture leaders can detect opportunities from afar and inculcate their value as part of the goals of the business. They defend the breakthroughs that pose a challenge to the present business model. Disruptive technology is considered an organizational and personal danger by individuals [11]. However, an effective venture leadership can successfully communicate to others about the prospective advantages of disruptive innovations. To find a new valuable opportunity and ensure that the company is positioned successfully, venture leadership is continually questioning the assumptions underpinning the prevalent logic. Venture leaders also continuously evaluate the questions regarding identifying opportunities and employing the resources required to maintain the existence of the organization, business, developing a strong relationship with partners, and defining the business achievements and goals. In addition, effective leaders think that to produce more value, a business should strategically employ entrepreneurship skills.

Additionally Young Entrepreneur Council [12] also identified 12 significant traits that are required for an effective venture leader. The first feature is that a leader should be flexible and willing to adjust plans as work progresses. The second important feature is humility. An effective venture leader must have a modest demeanor. They should examine their role if the business fails and not point accusing fingers at others. Also, if the company succeeds, this should not be viewed only as their accomplishment. Rather it should be considered a collective effort. Another important trait of venture leaders is their ability to focus on important issues. They concentrate their energy and time on the success of the business. They are also keen on making decisions that will add maximum benefit to the business. Another trait is their die-hard attitude. Leaders are not in haste rather they are determined and resolute in their willingness to succeed. Apart from this, they are vision carriers, they are like the eagle that can see what is afar [13]. They also make sure that their team members understand this vision and are ready to run with it. Successful leaders can strike a good balance between anxiety and trust. They never abandon both their pragmatic and imaginative beliefs. Venture leaders own their achievements. They exert control over external forces. This is one of the requirements they must embrace. Venture leaders see daily occurrences favorably. And they encourage their staff to remain upbeat. Venture leaders can successfully communicate and promote their business. They can persuade customers to buy items from their businesses. Lastly, venture leaders understand their strengths and weaknesses [14].

Moreover, Jaiswal and Dhar [15] in their study identified personality traits of a successful venture leader and suggested nine aspects of venture leadership. These are decisiveness, teamwork, risk-taking, persistency, ability to identify consumers’ needs, visionary, innovation, problem-solving ability, and adaptability to changes. Generally, leadership as a concept applies to a wide range of social situations, including politics, sports, organizations, and business enterprises. It is undoubtedly agreeable that the characteristics and actions that influence the individual to be a successful political leader differ greatly from the ones that influence another individual to be an excellent sports team captain. This is also true for business executives. The qualities and actions required of leaders of huge corporations differ from what is required of leaders of business ventures [16].

The use of influence is at the heart of effective leadership. Influence is the key instrument used by leaders in advancing the venture toward achieving its objectives. To drive a venture ahead, the leader also uses methods such as remuneration, employee assessment and feedback, and organizational structure. For venture leadership positions, seven influence techniques have been identified as essential. The first technique is logical reasoning. This is the use of data and evidence to construct a logically sound argument. The second is friendliness which is the use of encouragement, praise, and fostering of goodwill. The third is a coalition which involves the mobilization of other team members [17]. The fourth technique is bargaining, this involves making deals using favors or rewards. The fifth is assertiveness which is taking a forthright and aggressive stand. The sixth is obtaining the backing of higher authority in the business hierarchy to lend weight to their proposal. The last technique is sanctioning which involves both the use of incentives and punishment.

Venture leaders must master a range of influence techniques. As the company expands, they will be unable to rely exclusively on the confidence that comes with being the founder. According to research, allowing employees to influence how the business operates increases their motivation. Todorovic and Schlosser [18] identified that the biggest challenge for leaders is not if they make wise judgments and take bold action, but it is whether they educate and motivate people to become leaders and develop an enterprise that can maintain success even in their absence. Venture leaders should wield influence without creating hubris or a sense of superiority. This might be challenging for new leaders who are unaccustomed to influence and responsibility. To summarize, tyrants seldom inspire substantial effort among followers [19]. People are more influenced by frontiers that genuinely care about their progress. A business leader is not expected to be preoccupied with personal progress in non-business domains like an individual personal financial ability or romantic life. Generally, individuals are more responsive to leaders that can give them a steady supply of difficult assignments that match their existing capabilities, temperament, and skills [20].


3. Leadership skills

Achievement in a new or expanding venture is not by happenstance. It is made possible by dedicated and skilled leaders who play strategic roles in the venture. As a leader of a developing venture, you impact performance by establishing objectives, detecting and reducing impediments to established objectives’ accomplishment, and successfully organizing, planning, and regulating resources to achieve elevated levels of success. The focus of this section is the leadership skills needed in the daily situations that arise in a start-up venture. For many leaders, leading successfully as the business expands may be a challenging issue. The majority of first-time leaders do not have traditional management training. Their sole reference point might be those who have led and supervised them at one time or the other along with their careers. They might have not been also exposed to professional leadership training. Although, professional leadership training is not required to be a good leader, however, the principles and skills offered by formal training can result in more successful performance. Leaders that do not adjust to a leadership position as they ought to, usually have to relinquish management of their business to more experienced individuals. This is something that can be done, and several venture leaders have done it. However, acquiring personal leadership capabilities and skills will be critical for leaders that desire to be at the front seat of the decision-making for their company for the long term [18].

The value of leadership in ventures is generally acknowledged by seasoned entrepreneurs and most investors [21]. In determining the success of a venture, only real performance counts. Wishes, good intentions, and promises are meaningless to the investors if good implementation and performance are absent. Moreover, the majority of the critical skills and talents required for execution are teachable, and any leader that is open to learning these skills has the highest chance of success [22]. Most leaders learn to lead others through learning and analyzing, as well as on-the-job experience. Irrespective of the type of venture, leaders must have and continue to cultivate several fundamental skills. A skill is an ability or expertise to do a certain activity. Leadership skills should be acquired and honed. Generally, leaders must strive to cultivate skills in these key areas as leaders: Team building, conceptual, self-awareness, communication, analytical, resilience, and decision making.

3.1 Team building skill

It is rare to see a leader who can operate like a hermit and yet be successful. Most ventures are too complex for an individual to run without assistance. Successful leaders are those who have mastered the skill of team building. They have the ability to intimate others with their idea, therefore, enabling them to grow into a cohesive team that is entirely centered on one goal. Team building focuses on recognizing the skill and talent gaps needed for the business venture to thrive, and then selecting individuals who possess these qualities. Successful leaders possess the ability to recruit workers, investors, and advisors who fill gaps in the venture’s skill pool and help it meet its objectives. Building an effective team needs all of the skills listed above, as well as a healthy dose of humility. Successful leaders emphasize the necessity of employing and encouraging people who are more skilled than them. Indeed, the most successful leaders are not intimidated by the idea of recruiting workers that are better skilled than them. This remark may appear self-evident, yet it is not unusual for leaders to feel intimidated by individuals that more skilled than them. Before now, leaders have been used to competing with others all through their formal professional training. That competition does not simply vanish, a leader will need to realign their thought to subdue the competitive instinct. Replace sentiments of rivalry among their contemporaries with sentiments of team building which requires sacrificing personal pride and employing competent individuals to assist the venture to achieve its set goals and succeed against competitors. The basis of an effective team is straightforward: clear objectives and responsibilities. Exceptionally brilliant individuals are typically self-motivated. They desire to perform excellently and love working on well-defined, quantifiable goals. Leaders in ventures have discovered that they can anticipate a high level of dedication from bright individuals devoid of administrative interference. That is, brilliant individuals typically perform optimally when leaders set goals for them without interference. Self-organization is common among teams formed around specific tasks and goals [23].

3.2 Conceptual skills

The capacity to envision the fuller picture, the intricacies of the entire business system, and different parts are linked together are all examples of conceptual skills. Leaders utilize conceptual skills to build long-term visions for businesses. Conceptual skills also help the leader to forecast how future activities will impact the business years to come. Leadership, particularly visionary leadership, is one of the most essential cornerstones of success in ventures today. Every venture must create a vision and purpose to drive the various decisions that must be taken now and in the future. Visionary businesses have principles that are founded on an unchanging fundamental concept that spans immediate consumer needs and market realities. People are guided and inspired by the unifying concept of innovative firms. A uniting concept, when combined with a strong “cult-like” ethos, fosters great camaraderie and corporation. Tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity is another important skill that the venture leader must cultivate. In reality, a leader should cultivate the capacity to absorb uncertainty, allowing the other team members to concentrate on the core aim. The ambiguity that all ventures face can be alleviated over time by market investigation and discovery. To facilitate positive growth, the venture leader must select which trials the business will undertake and the interpretation of the findings. The most successful technology ventures have frequently been founded by visionaries. Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple, is arguably the most well-known among the visionaries. Steve’s underlying vision was to develop an “incredibly wonderful product.” For over 20 years, this basic vision aroused great dedication and commitment from staff and has presented the world with a steady stream of new and ground-breaking products.

3.3 Self-awareness skill

Self-improvement in any capacity necessitates taking charge of establishing your self-identity through personal analysis. To do this, the individual needs to consider circumstances that they were successful and identify elements that contributed to their success. Was it hard work, sound planning, problem-solving ability, patience? Critical examination of past experiences necessitates self-talk, contemplation, and analysis. Sadly, recollections of memories frequently leave out important facts, information, and occurrences. Keeping a daily notebook is a wonderful way of tracking important aspects of one’s achievement. Maintaining a diary for 5–10 days on daily interactions with others requires discipline [24]. The diary may be easily organized by including a date and summarizing remarks on what you did daily, whom you interacted with, the kind of thoughts you had, and the method you employed in solving problems faced. Concise and simple diary entries will aid in the evaluation and analysis process. At the very least, a daily entry of 10 days gives a picture of your thinking and behavior pattern. Another way to obtain self-awareness data is by completing self-assessment questionnaires. This can be a piece of private information that is only accessible to you. Invariably, feedback is required to develop any skill. Online tests of attitude, personality, talents, and skills can also be a source of eye-opening information, colleagues and friends can also provide feedback. However, some co-workers and acquaintances may be hesitant to offer genuine, revealing thorough and accurate comments. As a result, you can develop a short memo explaining why their feedback is essential to your growth. Following this method can convince them to be willing to help. Comparing other people’s comments with the personal analysis you have conducted on self-awareness is instructive and useful. You will discover directly how people see you, allowing you to compare this knowledge to the way you see yourself. There might be disagreements that must be properly assessed. After completing and analyzing the review, it is time to evaluate the skills that need to be developed. The evaluation system will undoubtedly reveal areas that require improvement. Overall, the self-evaluation should concentrate on three key areas to improve leadership skills: attitudes, values, and personality.

3.3.1 Personality

Individual uniqueness is created by a set of psychological and physical variables known as personality. An essential personality factor is a self-concept which is the way you see yourself as a spiritual, social, and physical being. Self-sufficiency and self-esteem are two related parts of self-concept. The belief in one’s worth is referred to as self-esteem. Self-esteemed people believe they are vital, valuable, and important. Self-sufficiency is an individual believes that they can complete an activity, a job, or task, successfully [25].

3.3.2 Values

A person’s values are their preferences for correct options. Values depict a person’s perception of what is right, correct, or fair. Generally, a person’s values are influenced by teachers, friends, parents, role models parents and, mentors. Because everyone’s learning and experiences are different, so are individual values. There are two broad value categories. A person’s preferences for “ends” to be achieved are reflected in terminal values. Instrumental values express a person’s preferences for the methods that will be used to achieve their desired outcomes [26].

3.3.3 Attitudes

Attitudes can be described in a variety of ways. First, attitudes remain the same in individuals unless effort is made to change them. Second, attitudes can be positive or negative. Third, attitudes are usually aimed at a specific object and reflect the beliefs and feelings of the individual. As a result, attitudes are a continuous tendency to feel and act in a certain way toward a specific object. Information, behavior, and emotion are the three components that make up an individual’s attitude.

3.4 Communication skills

Considering venture leaders need others to accomplish their goals, their ability to communicate with, collaborate, and appreciate others is critical [27]. Effective oral and written communication is critical for venture success. The ability is essential for success in any enterprise, but it is more important for leaders who must accomplish results via the contributions of others. Communication abilities include the capacity to communicate in an understandable way, as well as the willingness to pursue and use feedback gotten from others to guarantee that you are being understood [28]. Also, a leader’s communication skills will be put to test when interacting with shareholders, investors, and stakeholders. Fundraising is one of the most important continuous responsibilities of a venture leader. To raise funds, the leader must be able to convey a concise story on the venture’s products and market, its business strategy, and value proposition. This brief description of the company is frequently called the elevator pitch. Aside from the elevator pitch, a leader must also have the ability to explain the venture’s goal and direction through a documented business plan. Nicole [29] hints that when engaging with potential lenders, investors, or other important stakeholders, a business plan is essential. You can also reduce the business plan into significant writing skills. Although, there are companies that offer these services, research has shown that the leader should produce these documents themselves [30]. Lastly, a leader must be adept at pitching the plan or executive summary to potential investors and other stakeholders [31]. The linguistic capacity to explain the business’s objective and goals, as outlined in the strategy, necessitates understanding and adapting the style of communication to one’s audience. Several technological venture leaders, for example, need to present their company ideas to individuals that are diverse and not technically savvy like them. In such circumstances, utilizing technical language or sophisticated visuals to explain a business idea is unlikely to generate the intended outcomes. The venture leader must modify communications to meet the other people’s capabilities to participate in the conversation.

3.5 Analytical skill

Analytical skills are the ability to address organizational issues utilizing repeatable methodologies or procedures. Analytical skills centers on the capacity to recognize important elements influencing venture success, comprehend how they interface, and manage them to meet venture goals. It also includes the capacity to detect and analyze difficulties that arise on a day-to-day basis for the venture. Analytical skills are essential to comprehending challenges and devising a solution with action plans. Analytical abilities include the capacity to identify and comprehend how numerous complicated factors interact, as well as the ability to devise methods that would make these factors interface in a preferred manner [32]. These skills also enable you to assess your potential and the expertise of those involved in the venture. A leader that can assess and embrace their weakness and strength is in the best position to meet performance objectives. Also, leaders who have properly assessed their skills will recruit individuals who fit their strengths and mitigate their deficiencies. Most leaders may already have excellent analytical abilities; however, they are primarily concerned with technological issues instead of business concerns [33]. Managing a venture necessitates changing the focus from studying the main technology to assessing the business. In terms of technology, a venture may offer the best product or services. But from a business standpoint, the leader must analyze and evaluate the market potential, the associated costs of introducing the product or services to the market, the financial capacity that is needed to build and expand the venture, the scalability of the venture over time, and a variety of other factors [34].

3.6 Resilience skill

Another essential trait of a venture leader is resilience. The physical, financial, and emotional turmoil that most ventures face is frequently difficult to handle. Leaders must be able to maintain the venture’s stability in the face of turmoil. Every human is equipped with the ability to maintain strength amid stress, ambiguity, and uncertainty. A leader must be fully aware of their limitations and try to improve them by engaging in personal development, reflection, and experience. Most leaders will eventually cultivate greater resilience as they fail, struggle, and recover [35]. However, there are things that a venture leader can and should do to improve personal resilience. For instance, peradventure the venture experiences difficulties with their finances, the leader needs to put their feelings concerning the difficulty under control so that it does not affect the venture team’s performance. Walking around as a leader with a sad face or loud complaints concerning the state of finance will likely affect the team morale and subsequently, their performance will suffer too. Whereas at such times, team performance is important more than ever, however, the leader’s lack of self-control has the potential to undermine that performance [36].

3.7 Decision making skill

Every leader will have to decide at one point or the other and the quality of the decision, it will determine their effectiveness. The ability of a leader to focus and navigate the venture despite conflicting information and conditions has a significant impact on their decision-making ability. The ambiguity of emerging ventures is one of their defining characteristics [37]. They are frequently ambiguous about their value proposition, competition, market, and endurance capacity. When issues and challenges arise, venture leaders must learn to reject the pressures for a temporary fix. They need to learn how to cope with ambiguous situations, as well as to identify the most subtle differences between successful and unsuccessful actions [38]. In almost all cases, decision-making in ventures is made while confronting unresolvable ambiguity. Every leader must come to terms with this. The ambiguity of several of the challenges that a leader faces, however, should not result in paralysis or inaction. A leader must possess a proclivity for action as well as the ability to make decisions based on incomplete data. Finally, a leader needs the ability to act once a decision was taken [39].


4. Venture leadership and ethics

In a business textbook, ethics is usually a tricky topic to discuss. A large portion of individuals who succeed in business is unfamiliar with these concepts. Also, because there are several different points of view on the subject matter, many business executives regard it as “muddled” and hard to grasp [40]. Ethics can be easy or difficult. It is easy when people decide to live by a few principles guiding them irrespective of the situation. On the other hand, ethics is difficult for people who believe ethics can be bent and that situations should be assessed separately to determine the best plan of action [41]. Essentially, integrity is defined as acting based on your word and saying only what you intend to mean or intend to do. Integrity is a great starting place when developing ethical standards. It would be tough to claim that integrity is unimportant or that integrity is not critical to success in the venture. The majority of successful leaders will affirm the importance of integrity. The majority of business is conducted within a structure of trust. Leaders believe that those they work with will implement the commitments they have both agreed on. Honesty is another principle that should be closely linked to integrity. The virtue of honesty can also be referred to as “transparency” in business [21]. When a leader practices this ethic, this means that the business will be functioning properly. Humility is a final ethical principle to be discussed and appears to be critical for business success. Humility is frequently described as a personality trait, but it can also be defined as an ethical principle. A person who demonstrates humility recognizes that many of the good and bad things that happen in life and business are often the result of random events. The majority of success is due to a complex combination of personal ability, luck, and happenstance. Leaders who understand this will be successful in maintaining a genuine humility during the success period while also being more stable individually during a time of difficulty. Many authors coined the term “ergonomics” to describe the importance of controlling one’s pride and cultivating humility [42]. Four red flags that show when a person’s ego has taken charge are listed by these authors: Being defensive, being comparative, seeking acceptance, and showcasing brilliance. It is critical to understand the way humility fits into the range of possible character identities, ranging from a vacant ego to self-indulgence. Humility reflects a balanced and perceptive understanding of one’s own distinct skill and talent while avoiding the destructive power of arrogance and egoism.


5. Leadership in the Thai context

Thailand is a vital business hub in the Southeast Asia region. It is a collectivist nation where people value and commit to their relationships. It is more important and valued to be accepted than it is to grab attention among the crowd, therefore an assertive and competitive attitude is not supported or considered desirable. The individualism vs. collectivism scale is a cultural dimension developed by Hofstede et al. [43], individualist cultures mostly refer to themselves as “I,” whereas collectivist societies view themselves in the context of “we.” People are more likely to subordinate their personal goals to those of their group in collectivistic societies. The style of communication is implicit and is dependent on the context of what is said. The self-perception of belonging to an in-group implies that people consider their job and the organization for which they work to be a part of their self-identity [44]. The subordinate-superior relationship is based on an exchange of loyalty for protection [43].

Thai society is known for being resistant to change and for being risk-averse, which is why there is control over everything, which is manifested by strict laws, policies, rules, and regulations [45, 46]. Thailand, with its collectivist culture, is an ideal setting for transformational leadership to thrive. Transformational leadership has more chance of success in collectivist cultures than in Western individualistic cultures, Schmidt [47] reiterated that Followers in collectivist societies expect their leaders to look after them while identifying with their leaders’ vision and showing their loyalty. This aligns with several studies that show a positive significant effect of transformational leadership on collectivists’ employee creativity than individualists’ [48]. This leadership style is the secret to venture leadership in Thailand [49]. Good leaders motivate their workers to challenge the system and try new and innovative approaches to their work. They put a lot of effort into intellectually stimulating their workers [50, 51].

For instance, these leaders challenge employees’ imagination and inspirations, while recognizing their innovative values, mindset, and beliefs, as well as developing the capabilities of individual and work teams. They also provide support and resources as well as energize followers to put more effort to meet higher goals. Vora and Kainzbauer [49] while identifying themes in Thai humanistic leadership in culture-specific ways infer those leaders must engage in humanistic leadership practices that are appropriate for the Thai context to be successful. Human resource departments may want to focus on these behaviors when recruiting, selecting, and developing new employees. The success of the Thai economy which recorded a growth rate of almost 7% in the late 80s and early 90s, with an even better GDP performance of double digits making Thailand the fastest growing economy in the world over the same period was tied to the strategic leadership management of business entities [52]. In Thailand, family-run businesses frequently retain senior management for decades, and the predictable result is that they seek consistency rather than greatness. Leaders must shift their focus away from functional issues and toward developing independent thinkers and future successors.

They can stop telling people what to do and start listening to insightful feedback and ideas if they foster creativity [53]. According to studies, employees’ perceptions of empowerment and support are major sources of innovation [48]. All of this contributes to the followers’ development of a creative identity. As a result, the quality of Thailand’s leaders has a significant impact on the country’s venture leadership success. In organizational learning, the transformational leader will act as a facilitator, trainer catalyst, and coach. The Thai leadership nexus has keyed into this paradigm, where the leaders are open to technological reforms in business industries such as agriculture, automobile, bioengineering, biotechnology, electronics, healthcare, and nanotechnology, and increasing the development of new technologies such as aviation, digital innovations, logistics, and robotics. These are indications that the leadership model operated in Thailand emphasizes innovation and creativity [14, 54]. Studies have revealed that creative leaders are more effective at promoting positive change and inspiring their followers than leaders who are not creative [32, 55]. Hofsteede [56] stated that in Thailand, the people are used to an imbalance of power in organizations because they accept easily that power is distributed unevenly based on some of the characteristics outlined below:

  • Being reliant on a hierarchy.

  • Unequal rights for power holders and non-power holders.

  • Inaccessible superiors.

  • Leaders are commanding.

  • Management exercises control and delegates authority.

  • Power is centralized, and managers rely on their team members’ obedience.

  • Employees expect to be told what to do and when to do it.

  • Managers are respected for their position.

  • Communication is indirect, and negative feedback is hidden.

  • Co-workers would expect the boss or manager to be clearly directed.

What is discernible from the above narrative is that privileges are assigned a rank and are respected accordingly. Employees demonstrate loyalty, respect, and obeisance for protection and security. Each rank is accorded its own set of benefits, and employees are expected to demonstrate loyalty, respect, and deference to the leadership, giving rise to a paternalistic management relationship between leaders and followers [56]. As a result, the attitude toward managers has become more formal. The flow of information is hierarchical and managed with the leaders at the top of the totem pole because of the privileges and functions ascribed to them in society. Somech [17] further affirms that leaders are the main drivers that either support or hinder organizational innovation management. According to Bel [25], various leadership styles tend to have different effects on employee loyalty and participation, influencing the climate for innovation management. Exploring from the work of Deschamps [40], he highlights that the failure of innovation projects is most likely due to ineffective leadership skills.

There are assertions in the growing literature on change leadership that the root cause of many change problems is leadership behavior [48]. Trust and lack of trust, in particular, are regarded as major factors in failed change projects. In general, trust in leadership has been identified as an important role in innovation and change research [13, 32]. Leadership is important in increasing organizational creativity, launching, driving, and implementing innovation projects, and overcoming resistance [24, 41]. These have been all evident in growing the Thai economy as discussed from the studies reviewed. Employee perceptions of how much creativity is encouraged at work and how much organizational resources are devoted to supporting creativity influence their creative performance. The perception of an innovative climate among employees encourages risk-taking and the challenge of using creative approaches at work. For the sustenance of the innovations in the economic and end technology sectors, Thailand must continuously produce the right leaders with a mind-set of enhancing creativity and innovation and setting the right examples for followers.


6. Conclusion

The concept of venture leadership has been discussed thus far. Discussions have revealed that leadership is built over a lifetime of training, adjustment, and reflection, as discussed throughout this section. There are no absolute facts in leadership; no one can be a leader in all situations. Each leader must identify the practices that fit them given the circumstances. Although, there are no absolutes, there are leadership principles that are highly applicable to the success of a venture and have been passed down across generations. For instance, in line with the basic rules of smart business practice, the ethical codes of humility, integrity, and honesty, apply to every type of venture. Furthermore, the central skills of venture leadership should serve as a foundation for ongoing education. As previously stated, many venture leaders have never received formal management or leadership training. As a result, many people master the skills and craft of management and leadership while on the job. Although, this is admirable and tolerable, however the venture environment in most cases is far too challenging to allow for such an inefficient and slow learning process. Although, formal leadership training is not required for ventures, having a conceptual model to analyze the situations or events that occur during the operation of a business is beneficial. Conceptual frameworks give order to the chaos of leadership. The fundamental skills discussed in this section are only intended to serve as a springboard for further reading and investigation into the principles and concepts that define effective management and leadership.


  1. 1. Duening TN, Hisrich RD, Lechter MA. Technology Entrepreneurship: Taking Innovation to the Marketplace. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Elsevier; 2015
  2. 2. Thanh TL, Mohiuddin M, Quang HN. Impact of uncertainty and start-up opportunities on technopreneurial start-up success in emerging countries. Transnational Corporations Review. 2021:1-11
  3. 3. Browning R. Capitalism and the technology entrepreneur. 2016. Retrieved from:
  4. 4. Birdthistle N, Hynes B. Managing the new venture. In: Cooney TM, Hill S, editors. New Venture Creation in Ireland. Dublin: Oaktree Press; 2002. pp. 111-130
  5. 5. Johansson F. The Medici Effect, with a New Preface and Discussion Guide: What Elephants and Epidemics Can Teach us about Innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press; 2017
  6. 6. Esmer Y, Dayi F. A new paradigm in management: Ethical leadership, academic perspective. International Peer-reviewed Journal of Social Sciences. 2016;57:38-54
  7. 7. De Queiroz Brunelli M. Social venture leadership: Understanding attributes and processes for innovation in social organizations. 2021. Retrieved from:
  8. 8. Gharibvand S, Mazumder MNH, Mohiuddin M, Su Z. Leadership style and employee job satisfaction: Evidence from Malaysian semiconductor industry. Transnational Corporations Review. 2013;5(2):93-103
  9. 9. Hughes DJ, Lee A, Tian AW, Newman A, Legood A. Leadership, creativity, and innovation: A critical review and practical recommendations. The Leadership Quarterly. 2018;29(5):549-569
  10. 10. Phaneuf JE, Boudrias JS, Rousseau V, Brunelle E. Personality and transformational leadership: The moderating effect of organizational context. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016;102:30-35
  11. 11. Sternberg RJ. A systems model of leadership: WICS. American Psychologist. 2017;62(1):34-42. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.1.34
  12. 12. Young Entrepreneur Council. 12 Essential traits of successful start-up leaders. 2016. Retrieved from: [Accessed: 13 October 2021]
  13. 13. Banks GC, Dionne SD, Sayama H, Mast MS. Leadership in the digital era: Social media, big data, virtual reality, computational methods, and deep learning. The Leadership Quarterly. 2019;30(5):1-2. DOI: 10.1016/S1048-9843(19)30520-X
  14. 14. Baxter W. Thailand 4.0 and the future of work in the kingdom. Vol. 29. 2017. Retrieved from:
  15. 15. Jaiswal NK, Dhar RL. The influence of servant leadership, trust in leader and thriving on employee creativity. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. 2017;38(1):2-21
  16. 16. Kumar R, Shukla S. Creativity, proactive personality and entrepreneurial intentions: Examining the mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Global Business Review. 2022;23(1):101-118. DOI: 10.1177/0972150919844395
  17. 17. Somech A. The effects of leadership style and team process on performance and innovation in functionally heterogeneous teams. Journal of Management. 2006;32(1):132-157. DOI: 10.1177/0149206305277799
  18. 18. Todorovic WK, Schlosser FK. An entrepreneur and a leader! A framework conceptualizing the influence of a firm’s leadership style on a firm’s entrepreneurial orientation—Performance relationship. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. 2017;20(3):289-307
  19. 19. Sutton RI. The No Asshole Rule: Building a Civilized Workplace and Surviving One that Isn’t. New York: Business Plus; 2017
  20. 20. Csikszentmihalyi M. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper Publishing; 2018
  21. 21. Lapointe É, Vandenberghe C. Examination of the relationships between servant leadership, organizational commitment, and voice and antisocial behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics. 2018;148(1):99-115
  22. 22. Singh S. Practical intelligence of high potential entrepreneurs: Antecedents and links to new venture growth. Academy of Management Proceedings. 2018:1-6
  23. 23. Westphal JD, Fredrickson JW. Who directs strategic change? Director experience, the selection of new CEOs, and change in corporate strategy. Strategic Management Journal. 2018;22(12):1113-1137. DOI: 10.1002/smj.205
  24. 24. Pimonratanakan S, Intawee T, Krajangsaeng K, Pooripakdee S. Transformational leadership climate through learning organization toward the organizational development. Journal of Administrative and Business Studies. 2017;3(6):284-291. DOI: 10.20474/jabs-3.6.3
  25. 25. Bel R. Leadership and innovation: Learning from the best. Global Business and Organizational Excellence. 2019;29(2):47-60. DOI: 10.1002/joe.20308
  26. 26. Rokeach M. The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press; 2018
  27. 27. John RD, Steven AB. Enhancing entrepreneurial leadership: A focus on key communication priorities. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship. 2017;20(2):151-167
  28. 28. Boatman J, Wellins RS, Liu L, Phang N. Global Leadership Forecast 2011. Pittsburgh, PA: Development Dimensions International, Inc.; 2019
  29. 29. Nicole LT. Sounds like a plan. Entrepreneur. 2016;33(3):102-104
  30. 30. Lange JE, Mollov A, Peralmutter M, Singh S, Bygrave WD. Pre-start-up formal business plans and post-start-up performance: A study of 116 new ventures. Venture Capital. 2007;9(4):237-256
  31. 31. Bossink BA. Leadership for sustainable innovation. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):135-149. DOI: 10.1386/ijtm.6.2.135_1
  32. 32. Newstead T, Dawkins S, Macklin R, Martin A. We don’t need more leaders-we need more good leaders. Advancing a virtues-based approach to leader (ship) development. The Leadership Quarterly. 2019;32(2021):1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2019.101312
  33. 33. Conger JA. Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations: An insider’s perspective on these developing streams of research. The Leadership Quarterly. 2016;10(2):145-179. DOI: 10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00012-0
  34. 34. Bruton C. What kind of leaders do Thai workers prefer? Adecco survey results. 2018. Retrieved from:
  35. 35. Cummings A, Oldham GR. Enhancing creativity: Managing work contexts for the high potential employee. California Management Review. 2017;40(1):22-38. DOI: 10.2307/41165920
  36. 36. Dellner A. Cultural Dimensions: The Five-Dimensions-Model According to Geert Hofstede. Munich, Germany: GRIN Verlag; 2017
  37. 37. Yosem EC, McMullen JS. Strategic entrepreneurs at work: The nature, discovery, and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Small Business Economics. 2007;28(4):301-332
  38. 38. Ucbasaran D. The fine ‘science’ of entrepreneurial decision making. Journal of Management Studies. 2008;45(1):221-237.2
  39. 39. Tidd T, Bessant J. Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market, and Organizational Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2019
  40. 40. Deschamps J-P. Different leadership skills for different innovation strategies. Strategy & Leadership. 2018;33(5):31-38. DOI: 10.1108/10878570510616861
  41. 41. Stoker J, Looise JC, Fisscher O, Jong R, d. Leadership and innovation: Relations between leadership, individual characteristics and the functioning of R&D teams. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2018;12(7):1141-1151. DOI: 10.1080/09585190110068359
  42. 42. Marcum D, Smith S. Ergonomics: What Makes Ego Our Greatest Asset (or Most Expensive Liability). West Yorkshire: Fireside Publishing; 2017
  43. 43. Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ, Minkov M. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2010
  44. 44. Matsumoto DR. Culture and Psychology. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co; 1996
  45. 45. Esmer Y, Dayi F. Entrepreneurial leadership: A theoretical framework. In: 25th International Academic Conference in Paris; 6-9 September 2016. 2017
  46. 46. Persons LS. The Way Thais Lead. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkwormbooks; 2016
  47. 47. Schmidt K. Are leaders in Thailand prepared for Thailand 4.0? International Journal of Business and Administrative Studies. 2019;5(6):341-351. DOI: 10.20469/ijbas.5.10004-6
  48. 48. Mercer. Leadership development trends 2019. 2019. Retrieved from:
  49. 49. Vora D, Kainzbauer A. Humanistic leadership in Thailand: A mix of indigenous and global aspects using a cross-cultural perspective. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management. 2020;27(4):665-687. DOI: 10.1108/CCSM-01-2020-0008
  50. 50. Khalid B, Kot M. The impact of accounting information systems on performance management in the banking sector. IBIMA Business Review. 2021:1-15. DOI: 10.5171/2021.578902
  51. 51. Meekaewkunchorn N, Szczepańska-Woszczyna K, Muangmee C, Kassakorn N, Khalid B. Entrepreneurial orientation and SME performance: The mediating role of learning orientation. Economics & Sociology. 2021;14(2):294-312. DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-2/16
  52. 52. Sheehan B. Entering into a business relationship or joint venture in Thailand—A cultural perspective. Management Research News. 1996;19(8):49-60. DOI: 10.1108/eb028487
  53. 53. Egremont J. Successful leadership in Thailand’s unique cultural environment. Connexus Global; 2021. Retrieved from:
  54. 54. Maierbrugger A. Thailand drafts roadmap for “Digital Economy”. 2016. Retrieved from:
  55. 55. Hairudinor, Hidayati N, Muspiron, Tampubolon E, Humaidi. The influence of transformational leadership and compensation on psychological well-being (study at private hospital nurses in South Kalimantan Province). International Journal of Business and Economic Affairs. 2017;2(5):317-326. DOI: 10.24088/ijbea-2017-25006
  56. 56. Hofsteede G. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations. New York, NY: Sage; 2001

Written By

Bilal Khalid, Md Samim Al Azad, Slimane Ed-dafali and Muhammad Mohiuddin

Submitted: 10 November 2021 Reviewed: 26 January 2022 Published: 10 March 2022