Open access peer-reviewed chapter

The New Institutional Approach as a Lens on Local Network Leadership

Written By

Anna Uster

Submitted: September 26th, 2021Reviewed: December 13th, 2021Published: March 21st, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101988

From the Edited Volume

Leadership in a Changing World

Edited by Muhammad Mohiuddin, Bilal Khalid, Md. Samim Al Azad and Slimane Ed-dafali

Chapter metrics overview

17 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

Abstract

This chapter derives from an overview of key research findings and core concepts on network leadership, focusing on leading purpose-oriented networks. These are increasingly viewed as prominent modes of local service delivery as local government transitions to “local governance” and where local government mostly follows a lead organization format. The literature encompassing local leadership emphasizes the context of structures and processes for any leader’s action. This chapter treats the importance of the institutional factors in the era of local network governance, using the New Institutional approach, focusing especially on discursive institutionalism, together with and network governance theory. As public managers are increasingly relying on inter-organizational networks providing public services, the manner they lead them is of great importance. The following chapter presents vital factors that may assist their effective leadership in an era of local network governance.

Keywords

  • local networks
  • network leadership
  • new institutionalism
  • purpose-oriented networks
  • local government

1. Introduction

The past three decades have witnessed changes in the structure, function, and leadership modes of public organizations, both at the local and national levels. These changes are captured in the literature by the Post New Public Governance (NPG) approach [1], a holistic view of government in which citizens and non-governmental actors become partners in the public management process [2, 3, 4]. “Focus on governance involves the use of institutions and structures of authority and collaboration to allocate resources and to coordinate and control joint action across the network as a whole” [5]. The literature describes these changes using various terms, such as collaborative governance, collaborative leadership and management, new public governance, co-governance, and meta-governance [1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. Ansell and Gash [9] define governance as both the structure of “laws and rules that pertain to the provision of public goods” and as the process of “collective decision making that includes both public and private actors” (p. 545). The move toward a collaborative mode of governance derives from the phenomenon known as the hollow state, “…a metaphor for the increasing use of third parties, often non-profits, to deliver social services and generally act in the name of the state” ([14], p. 360).

At the local level, this condition occurs due to the lack of local government (LG) capacity to provide multiple services to meet the needs and demands of the citizenry. Consequently, local government is growing increasingly conscious of the potential of working as a collaborative network to provide these services in the municipal arena [15, 16]. Collaboration enables external organizations such as non-profits, non-local public, private organizations, and citizens to share knowledge and experience to initiate novel solutions to different social, educational, and environmental wicked problems [17, 18].

Local authorities now employ network modes of governance to include people and organizations which play a greater role in the provision of local services, generally organized as a purpose-oriented network, defined as “a network comprised of three or more autonomous actors who participate in a joint effort based on a common purpose” ([19], p. 210). Berthod and Segato [20] and Lemaire et al. [21] proposed the term “purpose-oriented” networks to extend the well-known term of art “goal-directed networks”. According to this line of research goal-directed refers to network members who have identified and agreed on a set of goals that guide the work of the network, which is not necessarily reality-based [22]. “Purpose-oriented networks’ (PONs) highlight the collective purpose that is “translated into actionable goals whose achievement can be monitored” (Carboni et al., p. 15), thus encompassing the complex reciprocity between the network members as well as the environment in which they operate. Such networks are understood to solve the wicked problems which characterize service delivery in local authorities.

The idea underpinning PON’s is that by combining actors’ differing capabilities, skills, and resources the network’s outcomes will be improved [23]. In the local arena, these networks are generally headed by one lead organization, e.g., the local authority, which selects the other network partners, while coordinating decisions and activities [5]. This organization usually possesses sufficient resources and legitimacy to lead together with the capacity to take on most of the responsibilities of running and coordinating the network’s activities. Given local policy makers’ increasing reliance on networks to achieve the provision of public goods and services, leadership constitutes a paramount challenge facing contemporary local governance. Thus, changes in leadership style and form are required [24, 25], and these, in turn, affect the establishment and coordination of these networks [26].

Advertisement

2. Major challenges to local leadership in era of purpose-oriented networks

Synchronizing collaboration activity and enhancing informational flow presents a primary challenge, due to the multiplicity of opinions and interests of the various network actors [27, 28]. Moreover, even with a strong lead-organization, network organizations are dynamic, not static [29, 30], often including and excluding certain actors or adapting to changing needs by altering the form of network governance [5]. Networks create numerous managerial dilemmas by diminishing the lead actor’s degree of control over adherence to public policy. Monitoring and coordinating public policy implementation, for example, while at the same time permitting autonomy to network actors concerning the delivery of the public service requires constant attention [1, 10, 31, 32, 33]. There is always a risk of poor coordination and of defection by one or more partners [34]. Furthermore, in certain cases, an action can increase conflict and create tension in a network. These tensions might lead to misunderstanding and a reluctance to engage with the lead organization in the future [35]. Different cultural characteristics may cause friction, diminishing a commitment from different management levels: the internal world of the organization employing the participants and the external world of the network in which their organization is involved [36]. Cultural tensions may include different approaches to decision-making, levels of professionalism, and methods of providing service. When individual parties within the network expect different outcomes from the collaboration because of different norms or have different ways of communicating cultural friction is almost inevitable. In sum, these tensions create coordination fatigue, with the result that the coordination of network activities requires considerable time and effort. In addition, unequal distribution of power between network members can create cases in which powerful stakeholders influence network decision-making to favor certain interests, resulting in harm to the public interest and potential corruption [37]. Naturally, these types of tensions may impair the local network’s ability to produce high-quality local services and perform effectively.

Therefore, leading autonomous organizations, not directly subject to local authorities, raise questions about accountability, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to shape, implement, and monitor local policies reducing the quality of local services [38]. To overcome these tensions and affect the overall local network, network leaders should possess the capacity to make decisions and mobilize the resources required to implement their policies [39]. As a result, considerable effort has been taken in the public administration literature on this issue, focusing on diverse coordinative, facilitative, and mobilizing leadership skills and behaviors required for effective local network leadership [28, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48]. The main thrust of this research holds that lead organization managerial and leadership behaviors exerted by the local authority with the aim of enhancing network collaboration may help minimize the mentioned these above-mentioned risks, thus adapting to complex and dynamic environments [49].

However, while most literature draws attention to leadership skills, less attention has been paid to the characteristics of the specific local context as a crucial factor. Local government literature thus calls for a new local leadership style concentrating more on agenda-setting and network brokering in creating a vision, but less focused on policy implementation [50, 51]. This entrepreneurial model concentrates on context to mobilize and attract resources, generating new policies which establish collaborative networks with other governmental or non-governmental actors [25, 52, 53, 54].

Consideration of context is important because local leaders do not act in a homogeneous local environment and because various features distinguish local authorities from each other. Local government does not operate in a vacuum; it is embedded in the external political the environment within the local context [55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61]. This situation is quite evident in the local contexts where, in addition to structural characteristics, there is a cultural difference in the local authority. Together these factors shape the leadership environment influencing the leaders and their ability to govern [25].

Advertisement

3. The new-institutional approach to local leadership: discursive and sociological and environmental factors

“Political institutions do not determine the behavior of political actors, but provide the framework of understandings within which actors identify, compare and select courses of action.” Lowndes and Leach ([59], p. 560).

The new-institutional perspective’s premise is that to understand the causes and consequences of different forms of leadership we should consider whether the institution has constraining or enabling effects on the leadership behavior (in terms of formal and informal rules), and judge their level of effectiveness as well as the extent of their activity [50, 62]. Accordingly, different leaders respond differently to the same situation, depending on their environment. This environment includes structural factors, such as legislative rules and regulations, intra- and inter-organizational interactions. Thus, leaders behave contingent upon the locality’s context including local authority size, socio-economic status, central-local relationship as well as leaders’ structural position in various networks [53, 55].

Further, cultural identity and norms are important factors influencing a leader’s ability to govern. This captures the new-sociological institutionalism which has become particularly important in research on norms and legitimacy, focusing on an understanding of the importance of how and why norms, formal rules and culture in institutions [63, 64, 65] to shape their leaders’ actions of the leaders.

Parallel to this stream of new institutionalism, a discursive perspective on leadership arises. Discursive institutionalism emphasizes the role of ideas and discourse to dynamic reality. Discourse is considered the interactive process of conveying ideas. Therefore, discourse does not only consist of ideas or what is said but includes the context in which we map why and by whom a particular message is delivered. Applying the two forms of discourse (coordinative and communicative discourse) to leadership research enables us to argue that the first form, coordinative discourse, refers to the communication among the network actors themselves, focusing on central actors’ coordinative ability to lead the networks. The latter term refers to communicative discourse, that is, the communication and messages delivered from network actors and their leaders to the external stakeholders.

Advertisement

4. Discursive factors in network leadership research

“This shift in governance structure often necessitates that public managers not only lead the agency in which they are employed, but also work within, and often lead, a network. These two different contexts in which public managers operate require different managerial and leadership approaches” [66].

Scholars propose that leadership in the network governance era be characterized by certain specific skills and behaviors. Network management and network leadership study mostly emphasize the importance of facilitation behaviors, which increase cooperation and coordination between network members and thus change both the network’s rules and structure [9, 67, 68, 69, 70]. Most studies focus on leadership skills as facilitating [48], framing and synthesizing [45], and bridging [43], and these capture the idea of coordinative discourse within the network. For example, Agranoff and McGuire [45] grouped network leadership behaviors into four categories based on their operational differences: activation, framing, mobilization, and synthesizing. Framing involves behaviors designed to establish work rules. Examples include ensuring individual roles are understood by all network members, asking network members to follow standard rules and regulations, and sharing the leadership role. Synthesizing regards behaviors promoting productive interactions among network participants by looking out for the personal welfare of network members, fostering trust, brainstorming, encouraging network members to use their own judgment in solving problems, and setting expectations for network members. Williams [71] noted several necessary leadership behaviors which promote communication inside the network: understanding of and empathy with the partners, trust-building, developing sustainable interpersonal relationships, and communication aimed at establishing shared meanings and resolving conflicts. Bass [72] defined such behaviors as structuring work relationships utilizing encouragement and rewards on one hand and sanctions on the other.

The literature on collaborative leadership distinguishes between three facilitating roles of collaborative leaders: that of convener (or steward), mediator, and catalyst [73]. Conveners facilitate and safeguard collaboration while maintaining project integrity. Mediators facilitate collaboration by managing conflict and arbitrating exchange between stakeholders. Catalyzers facilitate, help identify and realize value-creating opportunities. According to Ansell and Gash [73], “facilitative leadership will typically require leaders to play all three of these roles” (18–19). Piatak, Romzek, LeRoux, and Johnston [74] examined the management of goal conflicts in public service delivery networks and found that the lead organization should play the dual role of both network manager and member. Their data suggested that network managers should exert formal, vertical authority, combining it with informal, horizontal interactions which build goal consensus, thus relieving goal conflict. They also underscore the important use of rewards and sanctions when leading successful networks [75].

Provan and Kenis [5] proposed three modes of network governance which capture discursive coordinative communication in institutions: the network leader, or Participant-Governed Networks (participatory and internal coordination); Lead Organization-Governed Networks, featuring centralized and internal coordination, and; Network Administrative Organizations, emphasizing centralized and external coordination. In Participant-Governed Networks, for example, control and reflexive coordination of activities occur through direct collaboration in participatory decision-making. By contrast, coordination in Lead Organization-Governed Networks one central leader coordinates, often drawing its power from resource dependencies or other types of obligation. The final mode, Network Administrative Organizations (NAO) is coordinated via a separate, neutral administrative body, acting as a central broker for the activities of the entire network and bridging between diverse actors Berthod et al. [76].

Coordinative and communicative discourse is well-manifested in the literature on internal and external legitimacy. Leading the networks requires maintaining both two types of legitimacies [44]. The former, the internal legitimacy of the network, is concentrated on the communication inside the network, developing trust-based ties between members, resolving conflicts to everyone’s satisfaction, and building communication mechanisms emphasizing the leader’s coordinative and facilitative ability.

By contrast, building external legitimacy consists of seeking new members, promoting the network and its activities to outsiders, and mobilizing outside resources to achieve network goals matching the activating, mobilizing, and abilities of the leadership [43, 45]. These capture in communicative form the “discourse” in discursive institutionalism.

Reviewing the literature we may conclude that a network leader should invest the effort to develop both forms of discourse: promoting the coordinative abilities inside the network and communicative abilities from the network outward toward external actors and the environment.

Advertisement

5. Environmental factors in network leadership research: the local authority context

Contexts are the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood ([77], p. 75).

As network collaborations are embedded in a specific context their functioning is logically dependent on that context [11, 75]. More specifically, an effective local network in one context may not be successful in another, even when they have a similar purpose [78].

Virtanen [79] distinguished between two types of scientific knowledge in the context of public administration: conceptualand factual. The former relates to frameworks and theories through which certain phenomena in public administration are explained. The latter maintains that public administration is part of social reality and refers to such factors as actor and place, sector, culture, and institution. Public administration scholars study various contexts according to the research topic. For example, context is prominent where institutional embeddedness, environment, background, and settings are concerned [80, 81, 82], or administrative tradition and government capacity [83], and the network characteristics of decision-making [84]. In team leadership studies, context plays an important role in the relationship between shared leadership and performance [85, 86, 87].

Public administration scholars note that structures and processes define the context in which leaders act [88]. According to Provan and Milward’s [89] networks framework any change in the network’s environment originating outside, such as financial stability, challenges the network’s overall effectiveness [89, 90, 91]. Researchers have established that an integrated structure through network centralization and direct mechanisms of external control has a positive effect on network effectiveness. However, these relationships are moderated by contextual conditions, such as stability and the availability of abundant resources.

According to the contingency approach, the tasks and goals of collaborations affect a leader’s ability to collaborate successfully and promote collaborative innovation. For example, in their research on workforce development, Ansell and Gash [9] identified four contextual conditions influencing the efficacy of a collaboration leader: (1) access to resources; (2) the strength of the relationships with current and potential partners; (3) regional, state and local governance and service delivery infrastructures, and; (4) historical perceptions of workforce development shared by industry and economic development stakeholders. They found that local autonomy and conditions for economic competitiveness were the most important contextual characteristics for leading successful collaborations.

Contextual factors may include environmental complexities under government regulation, legal constraints, or a combination of organizational culture, norms, and management practices [92]. Local government studies bestow great importance to community characteristics in context [93, 94, 95, 96]. In fact, research has shown that a community’s socio-economic status affects the local leader’s capacity to govern [97], and studies have supported the argument that local efficiency is positively related to the level of education in the community; more educated residents tend to select more capable leaders and have a better understanding of the issues on which they vote [47, 93, 94], tend to be actively involved in local affairs [98] and press the leaders for more accountability and have better evaluative tools to cause the standard of service to conform to their expectations [99].

In his comparative project on local political leadership in Europe, Steyvers [55] focused on mayoral business orientation as an aspect of external networking to show that institutional form affects leadership behaviors while being highly contingent upon leadership context. The indicators of leadership context include the municipalities’ size and institutional position of municipalities in the intergovernmental arena.

Further, the cultural contextof the community where the network operates can be crucial for leading effective networks [100, 101, 102]. More broadly, Klijn et al. [84] found that effective meso- (changes in the relationship between network organizations) and micro-level characteristics of network management (the level of decision-making and implementation) highly depend on the cultural context. Uster Beeri and Vashdi [103] continue this line of thought, focusing on the importance of such contextual issues as socio-economic status and ethnicity in a local authority to the relationship between network leadership and effectiveness. They found that the manner in which the local authority leads the local network derives from network structure, which in turn impinges on effectiveness. A sample of 586 participants from 68 networks indicated that this association is contingent on the politico-cultural characteristics of the local authority and its socio-economic status in which the network exists.

In general, local government research points to the differences in local authorities based on their size, economic stability, and type of population [25, 59, 94, 104]. Local authorities differ enormously in their structural, political, cultural, and socio-economic indicators, not just cross-nationally, but also within a specific country, and these factors influence local leaders’ ability to govern [61, 95, 105, 106]. In sum, both the local political and cultural systems and the intergovernmental context within which the local networks are situated are crucial explanatory factors for local leaders` behaviors.

Advertisement

6. Structural factors: a leader’s position in the network

Mouritzen and Svara [53] classified legislative-executive relations in terms of a combination of factors encompassing the acquisition and maintenance of the leadership position, the degree of control leaders has over appointment responsibilities, and the integration of leadership functions in the institutional position.

Some studies propose that leaders in a central position (when network is integrated through a central organization, and all members connect to a principal actor) better coordinate with other organizations to achieve network goals [107], using this central position to prevent free-riders while monitoring and controlling other network members [89, 107]. Further, they have an advantage over decentralized systems (with their multiplicity of players and linkages) in their ability to facilitate both integration and coordination [89, 108]. This is crucial to local purpose-oriented networks, which require better coordinative skills to achieve the network-level goal. Additionally, leaders holding central positions may more efficiently promote systems and integrate services [89] through an organized exchange of information and the coordination of collective action [109, 110].

The “brokerage” is still another structural position that could be a crucial factor for a network leader. While the leader may play a role of a broker, connecting disparate groups, he or she can more easily identify opportunities for creating new knowledge or products [111, 112], thus facilitating communication among diverse actors [113]. The position of broker plays a substantial and influential role in leadership ability, enabling governance by controlling access to resources and information across differing set of actors [114, 115, 116, 117, 118] while reducing the costs of interlocal cooperation [119]. According to Paquin and Howard-Grenville [120], brokers influence the network by “developing common goals, spurring actor interest and engagement, and/or defining norms of action” (p. 1625).

More recent conceptualizations of brokerage regard this role not as a mediator between two actors, but as a function that improves the quality of the relationship between these actors [121]. For example, leaders holding a brokerage role tend to resolve conflicts between organizations better, increase the network’s social capital, and find resources to support collaboration [122]. Thus, the brokerage position enables leaders to act as a catalyst enhancing cooperation that builds and sustains connections in the network.

Therefore, an organization’s position in a network is essential to affecting its ability to lead effectively, enhancing its cooperative and coordinative skills.

Advertisement

7. Conclusions

This chapter aimed at providing an overview of current thinking on network leadership and related factors affecting local governance. The study focused on the leadership of local purpose-oriented service delivery networks, as these are prevalent in the local arena. To reiterate, the leadership of inter-organizational networks is concerns more than organizational leadership [123]. Such leadership requires organizational ability to achieve goals through collaboration with other organizations, and as a result, challenges emerge and evolve, necessitating the autonomous organization to be reconstituted in network form. The question then arises: How can local leaders administer networks so as to provide improved local services? The literature as reviewed above proposes many factors which affect the ability to lead those networks. The focus here has drawn on the New Institutional lens which encompasses the whole cycle of factors unique to local government and considered relevant to local leaders’ ability to administer the networks. By combining the literature on network leadership in public administration with local governance the chapter offered insights on the structural, discursive, and environmental factors affecting a local lead organization’s ability to run the networks.

These factors include the local lead organization’s coordinative skills with the network itself. Such communicative abilities act as a bridge between the network and external stakeholders, thus enhancing its external legitimacy. Further, certain structural factors regarding a lead organization’s position in a network were shown to be essential in leading the network. Finally, examining network leadership in the local arena, attention was directed to local environmental factors. These environmental factors refer to locality characteristics such as the intergovernmental context, political, cultural features of the specific municipality in which the network runs, alongside its size and socio-economic status of its community, and are crucial for the local lead organization. Future research might examine the combination of the factors discussed here in the context of conditions under which local lead organizations could bring about better functioning of local networks.

References

  1. 1.Osborne SP. The New Public Governance?: Emerging Perspectives on the Theory and Practice of Public Governance. London: Routledge; 2010
  2. 2.Goldfinch S, Wallis J. Two myths of convergence in public management reform. Public Administration. 2010;88(4):1099-1115
  3. 3.Lodge M, Gill D. Toward a new era of administrative reform? The myth of post-NPM in New Zealand. Governance. 2011;24(1):141-166
  4. 4.Christensen T, Lægreid P. The whole-of-government approach to public sector reform. Public Administration Review. 2007;67(6):1059-1066
  5. 5.Provan KG, Kenis P. Modes of network governance: Structure, management, and effectiveness. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2008;18(2):229-252
  6. 6.Johnson C, Osborne SP. Local strategic partnerships, neighbourhood renewal, and the limits to co-governance. Public Money and Management. 2003;23(3):147-154
  7. 7.Kim Y. Can alternative service delivery save cities after the great recession? Barriers to privatisation and cooperation. Null. 2018;44(1):44-63
  8. 8.McGuire M, Agranoff R, Silvia C. Collaborative public administration. The Foundations of Public Administration Series. 2010;61(6):671-681
  9. 9.Ansell C, Gash A. Collaborative governance in theory and practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2008;18(4):543-571
  10. 10.Sørensen E, Torfing J. Making governance networks effective and democratic through metagovernance. Public Administration. 2009;87(2):234-258
  11. 11.Emerson K, Nabatchi T, Balogh S. An integrative framework for collaborative governance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2012;22(1):1-29
  12. 12.O’Leary R, Gerard C, Bingham LB. Introduction to the symposium on collaborative public management. Public Administration Review. 2006;66:6-9
  13. 13.Torfing J. Rethinking path dependence in public policy research. Critical Policy Studies. 2009;3(1):70-83
  14. 14.Milward HB, Provan KG. Governing the hollow state. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2000;10(2):359-380
  15. 15.Tibbs CD, Layne D, Bryant B, Carr M, Ruhe M, Keitt S, et al. Youth violence prevention: local public health approach. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2017;23(6):641-643
  16. 16.Palinkas LA, Fuentes D, Finno M, Garcia AR, Holloway IW, Chamberlain P. Inter-organizational collaboration in the implementation of evidence-based practices among public agencies serving abused and neglected youth. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2014;41(1):74-85
  17. 17.Mitra A. Terms of Trade and Class Relations: An Essay in Political Economy. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan; 2005
  18. 18.Cashmore J. The link between child maltreatment and adolescent offending: Systems neglect of adolescents. Family Matters. 2011;89:31-41
  19. 19.Carboni JL, Saz-Carranza A, Raab J, Isett KR. Taking dimensions of purpose-oriented networks seriously. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance. 2019;2(3):187-201
  20. 20.Berthod O, Segato F. Developing purpose-oriented networks: A process view. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance. 2019;2(3):203-212
  21. 21.Lemaire RH, Mannak RS, Ospina SM, Groenleer M. Striving for state of the art with paradigm interplay and meta-synthesis: Purpose-oriented network research challenges and good research practices as a way forward. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance. 2019;2(3):175-186
  22. 22.Nowell BL, Kenis P. Purpose-oriented networks: The architecture of complexity. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance. 2019;2(3):169-173
  23. 23.Krishnan CPM. The New Age of Innovation. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education; 2008
  24. 24.Cole A, John P. Governing education in england and france. Public Policy and Administration. 2001;16:106-125
  25. 25.Yáñez CJN, Magnier A, Ramírez MA. Local governance as government–business cooperation in western democracies: Analysing local and intergovernmental effects by multi-level comparison. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 2008;32(3):531-547
  26. 26.Borraz O, John P. The transformation of urban political leadership in Western Europe. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 2004;28(1):107-120
  27. 27.O’Leary R, Bingham LB. Conclusion: Conflict and collaboration in networks. International Public Management Journal. 2007;10(1):103-109
  28. 28.Russell JL, Meredith J, Childs J, Stein MK, Prine DW. Designing inter-organizational networks to implement education reform: An analysis of state race to the top applications. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 2015;37(1):92-112
  29. 29.Kapucu N. Interorganizational coordination in dynamic contexts: Networks in emergency management. Connect. 2005;26(2):33-48
  30. 30.Whelan C. Managing dynamic public sector networks: Effectiveness, performance, and a methodological framework in the field of national security. International Public Management Journal. 2015;18(4):536-567
  31. 31.Stewart J. The meaning of strategy in the public sector. Australian Journal of Public Administration. 2004;63(4):16-21
  32. 32.Stoker G. Public Value Management and Network Governance: A New Resolution of the Democracy/Efficiency Tradeoff. Manchester, UK: University of Manchester; 2003
  33. 33.Huxham C, Vangen S. Managing to Collaborate: The Theory and Practice of Collaborative Advantage. London: Routledge; 2005
  34. 34.Feiock RC. The institutional collective action framework. Policy Studies Journal. 2013;41(3):397-425
  35. 35.Vangen S, Winchester N. Managing cultural diversity in collaborations: A focus on management tensions. Public Management Review. 2014;16(5):686-707
  36. 36.Agranoff R. Managing Within Networks: Adding Value to Public Organizations. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press; 2007
  37. 37.O’Toole LJ. Networks and networking: The public administrative agendas. Public Administration Review. 2015;75(3):361-371
  38. 38.Üster H, Wang X, Yates JT. Strategic evacuation network design (SEND) under cost and time considerations. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological. 2018;107:124-145
  39. 39.Stone CN. Urban regimes and the capacity to govern: A political economy approach. Journal of Urban Affairs. 1993;15(1):1-28
  40. 40.Klijn EH. Analyzing and managing policy processes in complex networks: A theoretical examination of the concept policy network and its problems. Administration & Society. 1996;28(1):90-119
  41. 41.Klijn E, Teisman GR. Strategies and games in networks. Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector. 1997;98:118
  42. 42.Kenis P, Provan KG. Towards an exogenous theory of public network performance. Public Administration. 2009;87(3):440-456
  43. 43.Saz-Carranza A, Ospina SM. The behavioral dimension of governing interorganizational goal-directed networks—Managing the unity-diversity tension. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2011;21(2):327-365
  44. 44.Human SE, Provan KG. Legitimacy building in the evolution of small-firm multilateral networks: A comparative study of success and demise. Administrative Science Quarterly. 2000;45(2):327-365
  45. 45.Agranoff R, McGuire M. Big questions in public network management research. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2001;11(3):295-326
  46. 46.Davies S. Third Sector Provision of Local Government and Health Services: A Report for UNISON. Unison: Cardiff School of Social Sciences; 2007
  47. 47.Crosby BC, Bryson JM. A leadership framework for cross-sector collaboration. Public Management Review. 2005;7(2):177-201
  48. 48.Kickert WJ, Klijn E, Koppenjan JF. Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1997
  49. 49.Uster A, Beeri I, Vashdi D. Don’t push too hard. Examining the managerial behaviours of local authorities in collaborative networks with nonprofit organisations. Local Government Studies. 2019;45(1):124-145
  50. 50.Greasley S, Stoker G. Urban political leadership. Theories of Urban Politics. 2009;2:125-136
  51. 51.Magnier A. Strong mayors? on direct election and political entrepreneurship. In: The European Mayor. Berlin: Springer; 2006. pp. 353-376
  52. 52.Clarke L. Acceptable Risk? Making Decisions in a Toxic Environment. New York: Univ of California Press; 1989
  53. 53.Mouritzen PE, Svara JH. Leadership at the Apex: Politicians and Administrators in Western Local Governments. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh; 2002
  54. 54.Steyvers K, Reynaert H, Delwit P, Pilet J. Comparing local political leadership in transformation. In: Local political leadership across europe. Town chief, city boss or Loco President? Belgium: Vanden Broele & Nomos; 2009. pp. 9-28
  55. 55.Steyvers K. A knight in white satin armour? New institutionalism and mayoral leadership in the era of governance1. European Urban and Regional Studies. 2016;23(3):289-305
  56. 56.Clark TN, Ferguson LC. City money. Political processes, fiscal strain, and Retrenchment. New York: Columbia University Press; 1983
  57. 57.Kantor P. The dependent city: The changing political economy of urban economic development in the United States. Urban Affairs Quarterly. 1988;22(4):493-520
  58. 58.Kantor P, Savitch HV, Haddock SV. The political economy of urban regimes: A comparative perspective. Urban Affairs Review. 1997;32(3):348-377
  59. 59.Lowndes V, Leach S. Understanding local political leadership: Constitutions, contexts and capabilities. Local Government Studies. 2004;30(4):557-575
  60. 60.Ramírez E. Political institutions and conservation by local governments. Urban Affairs Review. 2005;40(6):706-729
  61. 61.Savitch HV, Kantor P. Cities in the International Marketplace. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2002
  62. 62.Scharpf FW. Introduction: The problem-solving capacity of multi-level governance. Journal of European Public Policy. 1997;4(4):520-538
  63. 63.Katzenstein PJ. Regionalism in comparative perspective. Cooperation and Conflict. 1996;31(2):123-159
  64. 64.Richards JC, Schmidt RW. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. London: Routledge; 2013
  65. 65.Finnemore M. International organizations as teachers of norms: The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cutural Organization and science policy. International Organization. 1993;47(4):565-597
  66. 66.Silvia C. Collaborative governance concepts for successful network leadership. State and Local Government Review. 2011;43(1):66-71
  67. 67.Klijn E, Edelenbos J. Meta-governance as network management. In: Theories of Democratic Network Governance. Berlin: Springer; 2007. pp. 199-214
  68. 68.Maron A, Benish A. Power and conflict in network governance: Exclusive and inclusive forms of network administrative organizations. Public Management Review. 2021;2021(May):1-21
  69. 69.Klijn EH, Koppenjan J. The impact of contract characteristics on the performance of public–private partnerships (PPPs). Public Money & Management. 2016;36(6):455-462
  70. 70.Edelenbos J. Water as connective current. On Water Governance and the Importance of Dynamic Water Management. 2010
  71. 71.Williams-Boyd P. Educational Leadership: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: Abc-Clio; 2002
  72. 72.Bass BM. The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. New York: Simon and Schuster; 2008
  73. 73.Ansell C, Gash A. Stewards, mediators, and catalysts: Toward a model of collaborative leadership. The Innovation Journal. 2012;17(1):2
  74. 74.Piatak J, Romzek B, LeRoux K, Johnston J. Managing goal conflict in public service delivery networks: Does accountability move up and down, or side to side? Public Performance & Management Review. 2018;41(1):152-176
  75. 75.Romzek B, LeRoux K, Johnston J, Kempf RJ, Piatak JS. Informal accountability in multisector service delivery collaborations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2014;24(4):813-842
  76. 76.Berthod O, Grothe-Hammer M, Müller-Seitz G, Raab J, Sydow J. From high-reliability organizations to high-reliability networks: The dynamics of network governance in the face of emergency. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2017;27(2):352-371
  77. 77.Bouckaert G. Reflections and challenges for the public administration community. Teaching Public Administration. 2013;31(2):226-229
  78. 78.Isett KR, Mergel IA, LeRoux K, Mischen PA, Rethemeyer RK. Networks in public administration scholarship: Understanding where we are and where we need to go. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2011;21(suppl_1):i157-i173
  79. 79.Virtanen I. In search for a theoretically firmer epistemological foundation for the relationship between tacit and explicit knowledge. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management. 2013;11(2):118-126
  80. 80.Lonsdale J. The right tools for the job? methods, choice and context. In: Performance Auditing. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2011
  81. 81.Peters BG. Reform begets reform: How governments have responded to the new public management. In: Innovations in Public Governance. Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press; 2011. pp. 110-121
  82. 82.Rugge F. The intransigent context: Glimpses at the history of a problem. In: Context in Public Policy and Management. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2013
  83. 83.Halligan J. A comparative perspective on canadian public administration within an anglophone tradition. In: Dwivedi OP, Mau TA, Sheldrick B, editors. The Evolving Physiology of Government: Canadian Public Administration in Transition. Ottawa, Cananda: University of Ottawa Press; 2009. pp. 292-311
  84. 84.Klijn E, Sierra V, Ysa T, Berman EM, Edelenbos J, Chen D. Context in governance networks: Complex interactions between macro, meso and micro. A theoretical exploration and some empirical evidence on the impact of context factors in Taiwan, Spain and the Netherlands. In: Context in Public Policy and Management. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2013
  85. 85.Pearce CL, Manz CC. The New Silver Bullets of Leadership: The Importance of Self-and Shared Leadership in Knowledge Work. 2005.
  86. 86.D’Innocenzo L, Mathieu JE, Kukenberger MR. A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadership–team performance relations. Journal of Management. 2016;42(7):1964-1991
  87. 87.Pearce CL, Manz CC, Sims HP Jr. The roles of vertical and shared leadership in the enactment of executive corruption: Implications for research and practice. The Leadership Quarterly. 2008;19(3):353-359
  88. 88.Huxham C, Vangen S. Leadership in the shaping and implementation of collaboration agendas: How things happen in a (not quite) joined-up world. Academy of Management Journal. 2000;43(6):1159-1175
  89. 89.Provan KG, Milward HB. A preliminary theory of interorganizational network effectiveness: A comparative study of four community mental health systems. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1995;40(1):1
  90. 90.Provan KG, Milward HB. Do networks really work? A framework for evaluating public-sector organizational networks. Public Administration Review. 2001;61(4):414-423
  91. 91.Milward HB, Provan KG. Managing networks effectively. In: National Public Management Research Conference. Georgetown University, Washington, DC; 2003
  92. 92.O’leary R, Vij N. Collaborative public management: Where have we been and where are we going? The American Review of Public Administration. 2012;42(5):507-522
  93. 93.Loikkanen HA, Susiluoto I. Cost Efficiency of Finnish Municipalities in Basic Service Provision 1994-2002. In: 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: “Land Use and Water Management in a Sustainable Network Society”, 23-27 August 2005. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Regional Science Association (ERSA), Louvain-la-Neuve; 2005
  94. 94.Milligan K, Moretti E, Oreopoulos P. Does education improve citizenship? Evidence from the united states and the united kingdom. Journal of Public Economics. 2004;88(9-10):1667-1695
  95. 95.Beeri I, Uster A, Vigoda-Gadot E. Does performance management relate to good governance? A study of its relationship with citizens’ satisfaction with and trust in Israeli local government. Public Performance & Management Review. 2018:1-39
  96. 96.De Borger B, Kerstens K. Cost efficiency of Belgian local governments: A comparative analysis of FDH, DEA, and econometric approaches. Regional Science and Urban Economics. 1996;26(2):145-170
  97. 97.Wu X, Ramesh M, Howlett M. Policy capacity: A conceptual framework for understanding policy competences and capabilities. Policy and Society. 2015;34(3-4):165-171
  98. 98.Vetter A, Kersting N. Democracy Versus Efficiency? Comparing Local Government Reforms Across Europe. Reforming Local Government in Europe. Berlin: Springer; 2003. pp. 11-28
  99. 99.Boyne GA. Sources of public service improvement: A critical review and research agenda. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2003;13(3):367-394
  100. 100.Mitchell RK, Smith B, Seawright KW, Morse EA. Cross-cultural cognitions and the venture creation decision. Academy of Management Journal. 2000;43(5):974-993
  101. 101.Zakocs RC, Edwards EM. What explains community coalition effectiveness?: A review of the literature. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2006;30(4):351-361
  102. 102.Hasnain-Wynia R, Shoshanna S, Bazzoli GJ, Alexander JA, Shortell SM, Cconrad DA, et al. Members’ perceptions of community care network partnerships’ effectiveness. Community Partnerships and Collaboration. 2003;60(4):40S
  103. 103.Uster A, Beeri I, Vashdi D. Enhancing local service effectiveness through purpose-oriented networks: The role of network leadership and structure. American Review of Public Administration. Forthcoming
  104. 104.Hamilton JD. Oil and the macroeconomy since world war II. Journal of Political Economy. 1983;91(2):228-248
  105. 105.Sellers JM. Governing from Below: Urban Regions and the Global Economy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2002
  106. 106.DiGaetano A, Klemanski JS. Power and City Governance. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press; 1999
  107. 107.Raab J, Mannak RS, Cambré B. Combining Structure, Governance, and Context: A Configurational Approach to Network Effectiveness. 2013.
  108. 108.Hollenbeck K, Erickcek GA, Timmeney B. An Assessment of the BC CAREERS Employer Resource Network: Its Contributions to the ERN Model. 2011.
  109. 109.Huang K, Provan KG. Structural embeddedness and organizational social outcomes in a centrally governed mental health services network. Public Management Review. 2007;9(2):169-189
  110. 110.Bryk AS, Gomez LM, Grunow A. Getting ideas into action: Building networked improvement communities in education. Frontiers in Sociology of Education: Springer. 2011:127-162
  111. 111.Shipilov AV. Network strategies and performance of Canadian investment banks. The Academy of Management Journal. 2006;49(3):590
  112. 112.Burt RS. Structural holes and good ideas. American Journal of Sociology. 2004;110(2):349-399
  113. 113.Wukich C, Hu Q, Siciliano MD. Cross-sector emergency information networks on social media: Online bridging and bonding communication patterns. The American Review of Public Administration. 2019;49(7):825-839
  114. 114.Andrew SA, Carr JB. Mitigating uncertainty and risk in planning for regional preparedness: The role of bonding and bridging relationships. Urban Studies. 2013;50(4):709-724
  115. 115.Faas A, Velez A, FitzGerald C, Nowell B, Steelman T. Patterns of preference and practice: Bridging actors in wildfire response networks in the american northwest. Disasters. 2017;41:527-548
  116. 116.Sandström A, Carlsson L. The performance of policy networks: The relation between network structure and network performance. Policy Studies Journal. 2008;36(4):497-524
  117. 117.Aldrich DP. Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 2012
  118. 118.Lee Y. Impact fees decision mechanism: Growth management decisions in local political market. International Review of Public Administration. 2010;15(2):59-72
  119. 119.Feiock RC, Lee IW, Park HJ, Lee KH. Collaboration networks among local elected officials: Information, commitment, and risk aversion. Urban Affairs Review. 2010;46(2):241-262
  120. 120.Paquin RL, Howard-Grenville J. Blind dates and arranged marriages: Longitudinal processes of network orchestration. Organization Studies. 2013;34(11):1623-1653
  121. 121.Collins-Dogrul J. Tertius iungens brokerage and transnational intersectoral cooperation. Organization Studies. 2012;33(8):989-1014
  122. 122.Lemaire RH, Provan KG. Managing collaborative effort: How Simmelian ties advance public sector networks. The American Review of Public Administration. 2018;48(5):379-394
  123. 123.Uster A, Vashdi D, Beeri I. From organizational leadership to lead‐organizations—The future of leadership in interorganizational networks. Journal of Leadership Studies. 2019;12(4):79-81

Written By

Anna Uster

Submitted: September 26th, 2021Reviewed: December 13th, 2021Published: March 21st, 2022