Open access peer-reviewed chapter

A Review on the Botanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics of Cuscuta Spp.

Written By

Khahdijeh Ahmadi, Heshmat Omidi and Majid Amini Dehaghi

Submitted: May 4th, 2021 Reviewed: November 9th, 2021 Published: January 26th, 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101571

From the Edited Volume

Parasitic Plants

Edited by Ana Maria Gonzalez and Héctor Arnaldo Sato

Chapter metrics overview

60 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Parasitic life is an example of interaction between two species. The result is positive for one and negative for another. Parasitic plants are more evolved than other species in the same family. Cuscuta spp. or dodder is one of the medicinal herbs that belong to the Convolvulaceae plant family. They are annual parasitic plants that reproduce by seed. These parasitic plants do not have any roots, leaves or chlorophyll to produce their own food. Dodders live by attaching to a host plant with small appendages (called “haustoria”) and extract its necessary growth elements. The active compounds of Cuscuta species include flavonoids, lignans, quinic acid and poly-saccharides. Flavonoids are kinds of effective antioxidants, and polysaccharides are the effective constituents to improve the immune system. Cuscuta epithymum is an important herbal medicine that is effective in the treatment of liver and kidney failure, sexual impotence and vision weakness. It also prevents abortion senescence and aging. C epithymum possesses anticancer, immuno-stimulatory, anti-oxidant and anti-osteoporotic activities.


  • Cuscuta spp.
  • flavonoids
  • lignans
  • health benefits
  • medicine

1. Introduction

Parasitic life is an example of two-way interactions that result in positive outcomes for one species and negative for the other. Parasites are usually smaller than their host and often do not live independently and freely, and in all or at least one stage of their lives, they act on and feed on another living organism called the host. Parasites do not kill their host because in this case they also die, but in many cases, they disrupt the life of the host [1]. Parasitic angiosperms are found worldwide and in most large ecosystems, from tundra and taiga to temperate deserts and equatorial forests [2]. The effect of the parasite in plant communities is highly variable and unpredictable. Parasitic insects steal water and food from a nearby plant and alter the structure and balance of society. The effect of parasitic plants directly on the amount and volume of biomass, vegetation cycle and interaction with other nutrient levels of pollinators, vegetarians and fungal coexistence is undeniable. The dual effects of parasite can be attributed to the opposite effect of parasite in both living and non-living environments, both of which are key to the structure and function of plant communities. These plants are considered in both positive and negative directions. Many of these plants have industrial, medicinal, food and forage values, and some species can also increase biodiversity [1].

The genus Cuscuta spp. commonly known as dodder is one of the essential herbal constituents of pharma foods and curative tonics that are frequently prescribed to nourish various body parts. It is used to enhance the nutritional value of porridge and alcoholic beverages [3]. The genus has a rich history of folk medicinal uses, and numerous phytoconstituents of therapeutic value have been isolated and identified [4]. Various species are indigenously used to cure fits, melancholy, insanity [5], fertility problems [6], tumors [7], scabies, eczema [8], chronic ulcer, jaundice, inflammation [9], chest pain [10], fever, itching [11], osteoporosis [12], diarrhea, oedema, stomach ache, infections, measles, sores, kidney problems [13], sprain [14], alleviation of high blood pressure, leucorrhoea [15], obesity [16], migraine, amnesia, epilepsy and constipation [17].

Cuscutaspecies are among the most successful and common parasitic plants that can be found anywhere on crops and non-crops. The ability to invade different species indicates that these plants have a variety of mechanisms for attaching to host plants. Also, the chemical composition of cuscutawill vary depending on the host plant, so cuscuta, which is hosted by medicinal plants, can have more beneficial therapeutic effects. In any case, this article could be an opening on this topic of the Cuscutaparasitic species. Undoubtedly, a large number of species in each vegetation and habitat area have medicinal and nutritional values that have often been considered. Parasitic plants such as Cuscutaare no exception to this rule, and many parasitic species have medicinal value and have long been traditionally used.


2. Materials and methods

The present review covers the literature available from 1956 to 2019. The information was collected from journals, books, theses and electronic search (Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ESBCO, Springerlink and CNKI). Literature abstracts and full-text articles were analyzed and included in the review.


3. History

Aftimun is a plant used in traditional medicine of the Middle East, China, India and European countries. In 1652, the use of this plant was recommended for the treatment of Black Bile. The Chinese believe that the sauce plant increases longevity [18]. Among the many species of the genus Cuscuta, Aftimun is one of the plants that has the most writing in the authoritative old and new sources of the world. This plant, which lives as a parasite on other plants, has sucking organs on narrow, very thin stems resembling threads, and with these sucking organs, it penetrates into the trunks of nearby plants and uses the sap of those plants [18].


4. Botany

Cuscuta, a flowering parasitic genus was previously placed in the Convolvulaceae family, but later it was segregated as the separate family Cuscutaceae [19, 20, 21, 22]. Cuscutais an annual plant that is propagated by seeds. This plant is leafless, colorless and often without chlorophyll. It is a twisting and parasitic plant. Seeds of this plant grow in the soil and the young stem, which is thread like emerges from the soil and quickly wraps around the host plant, takes root and dips its sucking root into the bark of the stem of the plant. If a piece of the stem of this plant is placed on the host plant, it will start growing immediately. Cuscuta, in addition to being a parasite of green plants and feeding on their sap, causes the transmission of various plant diseases and viruses from plant to plant. Cuscutafertilizes in summer and produces seeds in autumn [23].

The number of species of this plant is between 100 and 200. The difference between cuscutaspecies and other species of the family, in addition to being parasitic, is the sticky sepals and scales under the flag. Its complex yellow stem has scaly leaves. The flowers are small and a few millimeters in diameter, including sepals with a 4- or 5-part cover. Although the green color is not seen in the sauce, it has a small amount of chlorophyll and therefore cannot be called a complete parasite. However, photosynthesis is negligible in most species and by default it is parasitic in nature because it is almost entirely dependent on the host from the first days after germination. This species can be identified only through its flowers. Thus, the number and shape of the flower cover parts, the shape and arrangement of the stigma and cream, the shape and the way of opening the capsule and the shape of the scales under the flags are important indicators to identify this species [21].

Medicinally important species are Cuscuta reflexaRoxb. [24], Cuscuta chinesisLam. [25], Cuscuta japonica Choisy[26], Cuscuta australisR. Br. [27], Cuscuta europaeaLinn. [28], Cuscuta giganteaGriff. [29], Cuscuta hyalineRoth. [30], Cuscuta campestrisYuncker. [31], Cuscuta racemosaMart. [32], Cuscuta pedicellataLedeb. [33], Cuscuta epithymumL. [34], Cuscuta kilimanjariOliv. [35], Crepis kotschyanaBoiss. [36], Cuscuta mitraeformisEngelm. [37], Cuscuta tinctoriaMart [38] and Cuscuta capitataRoxb [39]. The usual growing season is early summer; germination starts in May; parasites invade the host by haustoria and may wither and die in the absence of a suitable host within 2 weeks [40]. Flowering starts in June and seed production in November (Figures 1 and 2) [41].

Figure 1.


Figure 2.

Cuscutaflower and seed.


5. Medicinal uses

Potentially useful plants have been acknowledged and sequentially conveyed throughout the centuries in all societies. Some of them are used through self-medication, while others are recommended by traditional healers [42]. Plant utilization as medicine ranges from the direct administration of the leaves, seeds, barks, roots, and stems to the extracts and decoctions from different parts of the plants [43]. Many Cuscutaspecies being rich sources of diverse phytochemicals are popular components of various folk medicinal systems. Cuscutaspecies are used in traditional medicine as a purgative, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, diuretic and tonic as well as a treatment for itching and bilious disorders [44, 45]. Seeds, stem and whole plant are utilized as prescription to treat different types of ailments. Cuscuta epithymumis a mild diuretic and used to treat sciatica and scurvy. The fresh plant is applied to the skin against scrofula derma and scleroderma. It is associated with the health of liver and kidneys and used in various formulas. It is considered a mild laxative [46, 47].

The whole plant is dried and used as astringent and detersive [34]. Whole plant decoction of C. campestrisis used as purgative and poultice [48]. The sap of C. tinctoriais used to cure ringworm and warts [38]. The juice of C. giganteaplant is famous as an anti-poisonous agent [49, 50]. The sap of C. europaeais used as a carminative, and the extract is applied to treat psoriasis [51]. Seeds of this vegetative parasitic plant are used as laxative, diuretic and pain reliever and are poisonous. The juice is used for skin treatment [52, 53].

C. capitatawhole plant reduces the irritation of the bladder and improves urinary function [54, 55]. C. hyalineis used to treat chest pain [10, 14]. Its infusion is used as sores washer and to prevent abortion [11, 31]. It is antiulcer and used against culex mosquito. C. australisis used as laxative, anthelmintic, astringent, for treatment of sores, measles and as kidney and liver tonic, emollient, sedative and sudorific [13].


6. Chemical compounds of Aftimun

In the analysis of essential oil from the stems of Aftimun plant, about 81 species of compounds have been identified; the main components of the essential oil include alpha pinene, beta pinene, limonene and linalool [54, 56]. Of course, some sources have mentioned other compounds such as saponin, tannin, camphor and lignan in the composition of Aftimun essential oil. The main constituents of Aftimun seeds include camphor, resin, aluminum, calcium, sodium and potassium [54].


7. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of aftimun

Aftimun (CuscutaSpp. Or Dodder) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Convolvulaceae family and there are over 150 species of aftimun worldwide. This plant is a parasitic plant and is distributed all over the world except Antarctica [57, 58]. The most common type of aftimun is C. epithymum, which has been used in various treatments in traditional medicine [57, 59]. Previous studies have shown that some aftimun species have anti-cancer properties [57]. Studies evaluating the effects of aftimun (Cuscuta kotschyanaand Cuscuta chinensis) in different cell lines including HL60, MCF7, T47D, CCRF-CEM and Jurkat (JM), show the cytotoxic properties of this plant species, although the evidence available is scarce [36, 60].

In a review study, the antiproliferative property of Aftimun (C. epithymum) was mentioned [61]. In another study, the effect of methanolic extract of Aftimun (C. epithymum) was investigated and its antibacterial and anti-cancer effects were confirmed and further studies were suggested [55]. Some Aftimun species, such as Cuscuta reflexa, are known to be anti-cancer and are used to treat prostate cancer, although there is not enough evidence yet [56]. In a recent study that examined the effect of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of Cuscuta chinensisand C. epithymumon cells of different classes [57], the results showed that the extracts of the shoots of these two types of Aftimun have properties. They are cytotoxic and are the best candidates for further studies to obtain new cytotoxic agents [57].

Numerous studies have shown that the pharmacological effects of different aftimun species are attributed to their active compounds, including flavonoids, polysaccharides and lignans [55, 56]. Flavonoids are a type of antioxidant, and polysaccharides are effective compounds in modulating the immune system. According to studies, the use of special types of polyhydroxyphenols such as flavonoids reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer [62]. The human diet contains a mixture of plant polyphenols. Various studies indicate that these phenols have cytotoxic effects against various tumors and the mechanism of action of these compounds is through the induction of apoptosis [62].


8. Economical

Cuscutasare plants that are economically one of the most important groups of parasitic plants and can cause great damage to crops by invading by the seeds they produce [63]. For example, C. campestrisis ubiquitous and is a common species. It attacks at least 25 major crops in 55 countries [64]. Fifteen global species of this genus are known as weeds [63]. However, most species of cuscuta, like other parasitic plants, are beneficial [65]. The cuscutaspecies plays a key role in natural ecosystems. Cuscutasare able to alter plant community structure and dynamics, nutrient levels, and even modify non-living factors [66].


9. Phytochemistry

As C. epithymumis a parasitic plant, its chemical constituents are complex and vary in relation with type of the host invaded by the species [67]. In cuscutas,different types of chemical compounds such as 18 types of flavonoid compounds, 13 phenolic compounds, two types of steroids, 10 types of volatile oils, 22 types of lignans, nine polysaccharide compounds, 16 types of fatty acids and various types of alkaloids, steroids and so on are identified. Has been [25]. Flavonoids make up 3% of the total phytochemical composition of Cuscuta. The main flavonoid compounds in cuscuta, including kaempferol, quercetin, hyperoside, astragaline and ligands, play a very important role in the therapeutic effects of diseases [68].

All species of cuscutahave water-soluble phenolic compounds such as hyperoside, quercetin, astragalin, camphorl and so on in different amounts, and Chinese cuscutahas a high content of camphor glucoside among all species. So far, mineral elements such as calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and copper have been identified in this plant through atomic absorption spectroscopy [69]. Also, 16 types of fatty acids, which mostly include linoleic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid, have been identified from the extract of cuscutaby hexane [70].

In general, in the science of classification, the appearance of plant organs is used to identify different species. Because the flowers of different species of cuscutaare somewhat similar, Luffer et al. [71] investigated the possibility of accurately identifying cuscutaspecies due to the unique type of phenolic compounds present in their body. In this study, nine different species of cuscutahave been studied. First, the last 10 cm of their stem was removed and 15 cm of the remaining stem was collected to analyze the compounds inside. The results showed that there were 10 soluble phenolic compounds, including five hydrocynamic acid-derived compounds and five flavonoid compounds (such as kaempferol, quercetin and their derivatives) in all 9 species of cuscuta, each of which had different amounts in different species. These nine species of cuscutawere divided into three groups: (1) the group in which the hydrocynamic acid content was higher than flavonoids; (2) the group that had more flavonoids than hydrocynamic acid and (3) the group that had the same amount of hydrocynamic acid and flavonoids. Therefore, based on the results of these researchers, it is possible to identify different species of cuscutaaccording to the number of phenolic compounds present in cuscuta.

In addition, in the analysis of the essential oil obtained from the stems of the epithymum plant, about 81 species of compounds were identified, the main composition of the essential oil including Limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene and Linalool [72]. Of course, some sources have mentioned other compounds such as saponin, tannin, kaempferol and lignan as compounds in the essential oil of this plant. The main constituents of epithymum seeds include kaempferol, resin, aluminum, calcium, sodium and potassium [73]. The C. epithymumplant contains a significant amount of δ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol as its constituents [74].


10. Therapeutic properties of aftimun

This plant has different healing properties. This plant is used to treat diseases of the spleen, liver and gallbladder, including jaundice, has mild laxative and diuretic properties, and is also used to treat scurvy, sciatica and gout. In external and topical use, it has a healing effect and is used to wash wounds and injuries, refreshes cocoons and skin wrinkles, and is effective in treating skin tuberculosis. Another healing property of this plant is its anti-cancer properties [75]. Traditionally it is considered a miracle genus equipped with a broad spectrum of remedial values. Decoctions, extracts, paste, powder, juice and infusions of different parts of the plants are important herbal prescriptions in traditional medicinal systems [76]. In Indian herbal medicine, sauces are used to treat jaundice, muscle and urinary problems. Among the healing properties of other sauces, in addition to the previous cases, we can mention the effect of sexual enhancer, expectorant, antipyretic, diaphoretic and worming. Its effects in the treatment of alopecia, bronchitis, headache, constipation, eczema, epilepsy, muscle pain and urinary problems can also be mentioned. The decoction of the plant with honey is suitable for purifying the blood, and this plant is also used to accelerate the healing of abscesses [77].

11. Conclusion

Cuscuta, commonly known as dodder, is a genus of the Convolvulaceae family. Approximately 170 species of Cuscutaare extensively distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of the world. Species of this genus are widely used as essential constituents in functional foods and traditional medicinal systems. Various parts of many members of Cuscutahave been found efficacious against a variety of diseases. Phytochemical investigations have confirmed the presence of biologically active moieties such as flavonoids, alkaloids, lignans, saponins, phenolics, tannins and fatty acids. Pharmacological studies and traditional uses of these plants have proved that they are effective anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-osteoporotic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antipyretic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-hair fall and anti-stereogenic agents.


This work was supported by grants from of Shahed University.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.


  1. 1. Norton DA, Carpenter MA. 1998. Mistletoes as parasites: Host specificity and speciation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 1998;13:101-105
  2. 2. Parasitic HS. Flowering Plants. Published with grants from. Leiden. Boston: Aage V. Jensens Fond, and The Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation; 2008. p. 454
  3. 3. Anjum F, Bukhari SA, Shahid M, Anwar S, Afzal M, Akhter N. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant potential of parasitic plant collected from different hosts. Journal Food Process Technol. 2013;4:1-6
  4. 4. Jafari E, Bahmanzadegan A, Ghanbarian G, Rowshan V. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content from aerial parts of three Cuscuta species. Anal Chem Lett. 2015;5:377-384
  5. 5. Bhagat M, Arora JS, Saxena AK. In vitro and in vivo antiproliferative potential of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2013;6:690-695
  6. 6. Rao VS, Dasaradhan P, Krishnaiah KS. Antifertility effect of some indigenous plants. The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1979;70:517-520
  7. 7. Costa-Lotufo LV, Khan MT, Ather A, Wilke DV, Jimenez PC, Pessoa C, et al. Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in bangladeshi folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;99:21-30
  8. 8. Begum HA, Hamayun M, Zaman K, Hussain A, Ruaf M. Phytochemical evaluation of ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants of mardan, pakistan. J Adv Bot Zool. 2015;3:1-5
  9. 9. Qureshi R, Bhatti GR. Ethnobotany of plants used by the thari people of nara desert, pakistan. Fitoterapia. 2008;79:468-473
  10. 10. Sharma H, Kumar A. Ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants of rajasthan (india): A review. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:1107-1112
  11. 11. Malhotra SP, Dutta BK, Gupta R, Gaur YD. Medicinal plants of the Indian arid zone. J Agric Tradit Bot Appl. 1966;13:247-288
  12. 12. Yang L, Chen Q , Wang F, Zhang G. Antiosteoporotic compounds from seeds of Cuscuta chinensis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;135:553-560
  13. 13. Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A. Plant resources of tropical Africa 11 (2): Medicinal plants 2. Plant resources of tropical Africa 11. Medicinal Plants. 2013;2:101-105
  14. 14. Sharma L, Khandelwal S. Weeds of rajasthan and their ethno-botanical importance. Stud Ethno-Med. 2010;4:75-79
  15. 15. Jang IM. Treatise on asian herbal medicines. Seoul: Haksulpyunsu- kwan in Research Institute of Natural Products of Seoul National University; 2003
  16. 16. Zekry SH, Abo-elmatty DM, Zayed RA, Radwan MM, ElSohly MA, Hassanean HA, et al. Effect of metabolites isolated from Cuscuta pedicellata on high fat diet-fed rats. Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2015;24:1964-1973
  17. 17. Raza MA, Mukhtar F, Danish M. Cuscuta reflexa and Carthamus Oxyacantha: Potent sources of alternative and complimentary drug. Springer Plus. 2015;4:76-82
  18. 18. Dioscorides P. Alhashayesh. Translated by: Tabatabaie SM. The Written Heritage Research Institute. Tehran. Iran. 2013; 4:196-197.
  19. 19. Kuijt J. The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1969
  20. 20. Liao GI, Chen MY, Kuoh CS. (Cuscuta L. Convolvulaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania. 2000;45:226-234
  21. 21. Parker C, Riches CR. Parasitic Weeds of the World: Biology And Control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International; 1993
  22. 22. Yuncker TG. The genus Cuscuta. Mem Torrey Bot Club. 1932;18:109-331
  23. 23. Ghahreman A. Colorful Flora of Iran. Vol. Volumes 1 to 20. Tehran, Iran: Forest and Rangeland Research Institute. University Tehran; 1995
  24. 24. Patel S, Sharma V, Chauhan NS, Dixit VK. An updated review on the parasitic herb of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Jo Chin Integr Med. 2012;10:249-255
  25. 25. Donnapee S, Li J, Yang X, Ge AH, Donkor PO, Gao XM, et al. Cuscuta chinensis Lam.: A systematic review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional herbal medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;157:292-308
  26. 26. Jang JY, Kim HN, Kim YR, Choi YH, Kim BW, Shin HK, et al. Aqueous fraction from Cuscuta japonica seed suppresses melanin synthesis through inhibition of the p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase signaling pathway in B16F10 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012;141:338-344
  27. 27. Folarin RO, Omirinde JO, Bejide R, Isola TO, Usende LI, Basiru A. Comparative hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen intoxication in wistar rats. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014;2014:1-6
  28. 28. Dangwal LR, Rana CS, Sharma A. Ethno-Medicinal Plants From Transitional Zone of Nanda evi Biosphere Reserve, District Chamoli, Uttarakhand, India. Vol. 2. India: NISCAIR-CSIR; 2011. pp. 116-120
  29. 29. Haq F. The ethno botanical uses of medicinal plants of Allai Valley, Western Himalaya Pakistan. Int J Plant Res. 2012;2:21-34
  30. 30. Meena AK, Rao MM. Folk herbal medicines used by the Meena community in Rajasthan. Asian J Tradit Med. 2010;5:19-31
  31. 31. Agha AM, Sattar EA, Galal A. Pharmacological study ofCuscuta campestrisYuncker. Phytotherapy Research. 1996;10:117-120
  32. 32. Ferraz HO, Silva MG, Kato ETM, Barros S, Bacchi EM. Antiulcer and antioxidant activities and acute toxicity of extracts of Cuscuta racemosa Mart (Convolvulaceae). Lat Am Jo Pharm. 2011;30:1090-1097
  33. 33. Ali A, Haider MS, Hanif S, Akhtar N. Assessment of the antibacterial activity of Cuscuta pedicellata Ledeb. Afri J Biotechnol. 2014;13:430-433
  34. 34. Lakhdari W, Dehliz A, Acheuk F, Mlik R, Hammi H, Doumandji-mitiche B, et al. Ethnobotanical study of some plants used in traditional medicine in the region of Oued Righ (Algerian Sahara). J Med Plants Stud. 2016;4:6-10
  35. 35. Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2006;2:54-63
  36. 36. Sepehr MF, Jameie SB, Hajijafari B. The Cuscuta kotschyana effects on breast cancer cells line MCF7. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:6344-6351
  37. 37. Villa N, Pacheco Y, Rubio E, Cruz R, Lozoya E. Essential oil composition, carotenoid profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the parasitic plant Cuscuta mitraeformis. Bol latinoam Caribe plantas med aromát. 2017;16:463-470
  38. 38. Weimann C, Heinrich M. Indigenous medicinal plants in Mexico: The example of the Nahua (Sierra de Zongolica). Botanica Acta: Journal of the German Botanical Society. 1997;110:62-72
  39. 39. Holm LG, Holm L, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. 1st ed. Wiley: John Wiley & Sons; 1997
  40. 40. Prather LA. Biology of Cuscuta Attenuata Waterfall. Proc Oklahoma Acad Sci. 1990;73:7-13
  41. 41. Diggs GM, Lipscomb BL, O’Kennon RJ, Mahler WF, Shinners LH. Shinners’ and Mahler’s illustrated flora of North Central Texas. 1st ed. Botanical Research Institute of Texas; 1999
  42. 42. Petrovska BB. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2012;6:1-5
  43. 43. Ogbulie JN, Ogueke CC, Okorondu S. Antibacterial properties of A. cordifolia, M. flurum, U. chamae, B. pinnatum, C. albidum and A. ciliata on some hospital isolates. Niger J Microbiol. 2004;18:249-255
  44. 44. Chopra RN, Nayar L, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: CSIR; 1956
  45. 45. Chopra R, Chopra I, Handa K, Kapur L. Indigenous drugs of India. Calcutta: UN Dhur and Sons, Pvt. Ltd.; 1958. p. 358
  46. 46. Ghayoumi A, Mashayekhi A. Scleroderma treatment in Iranian traditional medicine: A case report. Adv Herb Med. 2016;2:1-4
  47. 47. Tavili A, Farajollahi A, Pouzesh H, Bandak E. Treatment induced germination improvement in medicinal species of Foeniculum vulgare Miller andCuscuta epithymum(L.) L. Modern Applied Science. 2010;4:163-169
  48. 48. Youssef SA. Medicinal and non-medicinal uses of some plants found in the middle region of Saudi Arabia. J Med Plants Res. 2013;7:2501-2517.v
  49. 49. Haq F, Ahmad H, Alam M. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of Nandiar Khuwarr catchment (District Battagram). Pakistan J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:39-48
  50. 50. Senthilkumar S, Vijayakumari K. A review-pharmacology of medicinal plants. Int J Univers Pharm Bio Sci. 2016;5:37-59
  51. 51. Dangwal LR, Sharma A, Rana CS. Ethnomedicinal plants of the Garhwal Himalaya used to cure various diseases: A case study. N Y Sci J. 2010;3:28-31
  52. 52. Uniyal B, Shiva V. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plants among rural women of the Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal. Indian Journal Tradit Knowl. 2005;4:259-266
  53. 53. Ballabh B, Chaurasia OP, Ahmed Z, Singh SB. Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh—used against kidney and urinary disorders. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2008;118:331-339
  54. 54. Herbal glossary. Semen cuscutae. Available from: Accessed: April 15, 2011.
  55. 55. Biswas S. Phytochemical investigation and chromatographic evaluation with antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential ofCuscuta epithymum. Int Journal Pharm. 2012;8:422-427
  56. 56. Suresh V. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities ofCuscuta reflexaRoxb. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011;134(3):872-877
  57. 57. Jafarian A, Ghannadi A, Mohebi B. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts ofCuscuta chinensisandCuscuta epithymumon Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells. Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;9:115
  58. 58. Costea M, Spence I, Stefanović S. Systematics ofCuscuta chinensisspecies complex (subgenus Grammica, Convolvulaceae): Evidence for long-distance dispersal and one new species. Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 2011;11:373-386
  59. 59. Abdel Khalik K. Seed morphology ofCuscutaL. (Convolvulaceae) in Egypt and its systematic significance. Feddes Repertorium: Zeitschrift für botanische Taxomonie und Geobotanik. 2006;117(3-4):207-224
  60. 60. Ghazanfari T. Cytotoxic effects ofCuscutaextract on human cancer cell lines. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 2013;24:87-94
  61. 61. Mobli M. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2015;292:21-35
  62. 62. Taraphdar AK, Bhattacharya RK. Natural products as inducers of apoptosis: Implication for cancer therapy and prevention. Current Science. 2001;80:1387-1396
  63. 63. Dawson JH, Musslman LJ, Wolswinkel P, Dorr I. Biology and control ofCuscuta. Review Weed Science. 1994;6:265-317
  64. 64. Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1997
  65. 65. Bardgett RD, Smith RS, Shiel RS, Peacock S, Simkin J, Quirk H. Parasitic plants indirectly regulate below-ground properties in grassland ecosystems. Nature. 2006;439:969-972
  66. 66. Press MC, Phoenix GK. Impacts of parasitic plants on natural communities. New Phyto. 2005;166:737-751
  67. 67. Crellin JK, Philpott J. Herbal Medicine Past and Present: A Reference Guide to Medicinal Plants. Durhan and London: Duke University Press; 1990
  68. 68. Williamson G, Barron D, Shimoi K, Terao J. In vitro biological properties of flavonoid conjugates found in vivo. Free Radical Research. 2005;39:457-469
  69. 69. Zhao CG, Si SL, Gao W, Pang JP. Spectrometric analyses of microelements contained in 6 Chinese herbs for miscarriage prevention. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1990;15:43-44
  70. 70. Cheng PP, Shi J, Du P, Liu DH, Cao X, Wen X. Fatty acid in theCuscuta chinensislam by capillary gas chromatography. Academic Periodical of Farm Products Processing. 2013;8:116-118
  71. 71. Löffler C, Czygan FC, Proksch P. Phenolic constituents as taxonomic markers in the genusCuscuta(Cuscutaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 1997;25(4):297-303
  72. 72. Brendle T, Gruenwald J, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 2nd ed. Montvale: Medical Economics Company; 2000. p. 254
  73. 73. Beeniaz Z. Use of natures as a green sorbent to extract and pre-concentrate small amounts of cobalt, phytochemical study of epithymum and preparation of a rose-flavored beverage [thesis]. Kerman, Iran: Kerman Shahid Bahonar University; 2004. 55 Pp
  74. 74. Szymańska R, Kruk J. Tocopherol content and isomers’ composition in selected plant species. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2008;46:29-33. DOI: 10.1016/j. plaphy. 2007.10.009
  75. 75. Norton K. Pre-menstrual syndrome and chinese herbs - Cuscuta (TuSiZi). Available from: April 15, 2011.
  76. 76. Noureen S, Noreen S, Ghumman SA, Batool F, Bukhari SNA. The genusCuscuta(Convolvolaceac): An updated review on indigenous uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences. 2019;22:1225-1252
  77. 77. Nisa M, Akbar S, Tariq M, Hussain Z. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis water extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. Oct. 1986;18:21-31

Written By

Khahdijeh Ahmadi, Heshmat Omidi and Majid Amini Dehaghi

Submitted: May 4th, 2021 Reviewed: November 9th, 2021 Published: January 26th, 2022