Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Biological Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles from Different Plant Species

Written By

Kalyan Singh Kushwah and Deepak Kumar Verma

Submitted: July 14th, 2021 Reviewed: October 22nd, 2021 Published: November 25th, 2021

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.101355

Chapter metrics overview

130 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Green chemistry for the synthesis of different nanoparticles (NPs) from metal has become a new and promising field of research in nanotechnology in recent years. The inspire applications of metal oxide NPs have attracted the interest of researchers around the world. Various physical, chemical and biological methods in material science are being adapted to synthesize different types of NPs. Green synthesis has gained widespread attention as a sustainable, reliable, and eco-friendly protocol for biologically synthesizing a wide range of metallic NPs. Green synthesis has been proposed to reduce the use of hazardous compounds and as a state of a harsh reaction in the production of metallic NPs. Plants extract used for biosynthesis of NPs such as silver (Ag), cerium dioxide (C2O2), copper oxide (CuO), Gold (Au), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO). This review article gives an overview of the plant-mediated biosynthesis of NPs that are eco-friendly and have less hazardous chemical effects.


  • biosynthesis
  • metallic nanoparticles
  • plant extract

1. Introduction

In the last decade, novel synthesis methods for nanomaterials such as quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and their composites have been an interesting area in nanotechnology [1]. Despite the progress of the use of small metallic materials listed as nano, the debate still continues in many aspects associated with this new technological revolution. The conceptual beginnings of green chemistry and nanotechnology are among the great scientific developments that have influenced the design of experiments with the goal of environmental protection. Now the reduction in size of green chemistry and nanotechnology is one of the great scientific developments which are to preserve the environment with experiments [2]. Nanoparticles are the most fundamental component in the making of nanostructures. They are much smaller than the everyday objects around us governed by Newton’s laws of motion but larger than an atom or a simple molecule that is the subject of quantum mechanics [3]. Nanoparticles exhibit specific properties that depend on their shape, size, and morphology and enable them to interact with plants, microbes, animals [4]. Nanoparticles are a subclass of ultrafine particles with a length of more than 1 nm and less than 100 nm in two or three dimensions and which cannot exhibit size-related depth properties that can vary the NP often their morphological or physical. Their application in controlling microbial growth in green synthesis of NPs and electronics, catalysts, drugs, and biological systems has made them eco-friendly [5]. ‘Green Synthesis’ is attracting a lot of attention in current research and development on materials science methods and technology. Science will basically make green synthesis of nanomaterials through regulation, control, cleaning and therapeutic process. Some basic principles of its environmental friendliness can thus be explained by several factors such as waste prevention, pollution reduction, and the use of safe non-toxic solvent as well as renewable [6]. Nanoparticles have many applications in several fields, such as microelectronics, hydrogen storage ferrofluids, catalytic systems, and chemical nanosensors as well as nanomedicine, agriculture, food science, and energy [7]. The metallic nanoparticles have unique properties that are different from fine-grained materials which use for many agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications, resulting in increased demand and production of nanoparticles. The list of nano-based commodities silica, iron, titania, alumina, and zinc oxide [8]. These types of NPs are the most white pigment and are being used in many products such as paints, plastics, paper, etc. [9] as well as chromosomal mutations in Vicia fabaplants [10]. The number of multidrug-resistant bacteria and viral strains has been steadily increasing due to mutation, pollution, and changing environmental conditions are trying to develop drugs for the treatment of this microorganism infection to protect against this disease. Metal Nanoparticles have been found to be effective in inhibiting the growth of much infectious bacterial silver and occupy a prominent place in the category of Ag NPs metals used as antimicrobial agents [11]. Green synthesis methodologies based on biological precursors depend on various reaction parameters such as solvent, temperature, pressure, and pH conditions for the synthesis of various nanoparticles, broadly based on the availability of effective phytochemicals in various plant extracts. The leaves contain ketones, amides, terpenoids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, flavones, phenols, and ascorbic acids that are capable of reducing the metal salts into metal nanoparticles [12]. Chrysanthemum carinatumis herbaceous perennial plant have deeply tapering leaves and large white flowers on the wall and extracts play a very important role in reducing and stabilizing agents that reduce cost production and environmental impact [13, 14].


2. Plant-based biosynthesis of metallic NPs

Many researchers have discovered many plant species and components that contain antioxidant compounds such as nitrogenous base amino acids, polyphenols, and sugars [15]. These compounds perform the function of a capping agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles [16]. Generally metal nanoparticles are manufactured in two ways such as bottom-up (fabrication of material from atom to bottom atom) and top to bottom (cutting of bulk material to obtain nano-sized particles). Metal and metal oxide NPs made from plant extract are generally stable even after 1 month and do not undergo any change [17]. Green synthesis of various metallic nanoparticles has reevaluated plants for their natural ability to reduce toxic and hazardous chemicals (Figure 1). Nanoparticles of plant-related parts such as leaves, stems, flowers, bark, roots, seeds, and their metabolites have been used for biosynthesis [19]. Generally, there are three aspects that need to be considered for green biosynthesis solvent medium, non-toxic ion reducing agents, and environmentally safe NPs stabilizers [20].

Figure 1.

Work flow of plant-based biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles [18].


3. Biosynthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles

Plants have the ability to store heavy metals in their various parts. As a result, biosynthesis techniques employing plant extracts have produced a simple means to stabilize efficient growth, simple, cost-effective synthesis process, along with traditional preparation methods for the production of NPs [21]. Silver NPs have been synthesized and studied extensively due to their unique chemical, physical and biological properties [22]. Plants have biomolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates and coenzymes with the ability to reduce metal salts. Other biosynthesis processes of Ag NPs from herbal extracts perform extract-assisted biological synthesis and have yielded many advantages over chemical and physical methods of synthesis of NPs. It is also a fact that these routes are simple, cost-effective, eco-friendly for high production [23]. Synthesis of Ag NPs from Arbutus unedoleaf extracts and its organic compounds are responsible for the stabilization and reduction of ions. Various green-synthesized Ag NPs for natural capping agents can be used for drug delivery in pharmaceutical drugs. In most studies, the synthesis of Ag NPs by plant extracts is a simple method (Table 1) [54].

Biosynthesized NPsPlant extract usedSize of NPsMorphology of NPsReference
Ag NPsErigeron bonariensis13Spherical[24]
Ag NPsNigella sativa15Spherical[25]
Ag NpsMorinda tinctoria60–95Spherical[26]
Ag NPsPedalium murex50Spherical[27]
Ag NPsAdhatoda vasica10–50Spherical[28]
CeO2 NPsGloriosa superba5Spherical[29]
CeO2 NPsCentella asiatica19Spherical[30]
CeO2 NPsHibiscus sabdariffa4Spherical[31]
CeO2 NPsCymbopogon flexuosus10–40Spherical[32]
CeO2 NPsLeucas aspera4–13Spherical[33]
CuO NPsAloe barbadensis15–30Spherical[34]
CuO NPsIxora coccinea80–110Spherical[35]
CuO NPsSyzygium alternifolium17Spherical[36]
CuO NPsLeucaena leucocephala10–25Spherical[37]
CuO NPsMoringa oleifera6–61Spherical[38]
Au NPsCinnamomum zeylanicum25Spherical[39]
Au NPsScutellaria barbata20–35Spherical[40]
Au NPsSesbania drummondii6–20Spherical[41]
Au NPsAvena sativa5–20Rod[42]
Au NPsMedicago sativa2–40Tetrahedral[43]
TiO2 NPsPsidium guajava32Spherical[44]
TiO2 NPsSolanum trilobatum70Spherical[45]
TiO2 NPsNyctanthes arbortristis100–150Spherical[46]
TiO2 NPsCatharanthus roseus25–110Irregular[47]
TiO2 NPsAnnona squamosa21–25Spherical[48]
ZnO NPsSedum alfredii53Hexagonal[49]
ZnO NPsRuta graveolens28Hexagonal[50]
ZnO NPsAzadirachta indica9–25Spherical[51]
ZnO NPsEichhornia crassipes28–36Crystalline[52]
ZnO NPsPlectranthus amboinicus50–180Hexagonal[53]

Table 1.

Different type of metallic NPs biosynthesized from plants extracts.


4. Biosynthesis of cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles

Plants produce biologically active compounds to protect themselves. In plants, it is well organized and unique with various valuable metabolites that use phytochemical biologically active substances. These biocompounds are responsible for the reduction of metal ions during the synthesis of NPs [55]. Cerium dioxide has high catalytic properties due to their broad band gap energy and binding energy, indicating many applications [56]. Depending on the chemistry, the reaction kinetics are affected by the reaction temperature, and this determines the time that most of the temperature difference occurs as a result of changes in the synthesis of NPs [57]. Various compounds such as cerium nitrate, cerium acetate, and cerium chloride have been used as synthesis precursors, and extracts of several plant parts such as leaves, flowers, have been used as reducing agents. The synthesized CeO2 NPs are spherical shape and crystalline in nature (Table 1) [58].


5. Biosynthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles

The parameters of plant extracts such as phytochemicals, metal salt concentration, temperature and pH control the rate of formation of nanoparticles as well as their stability and yield [59]. Extracts of plant leaves are considered a good source for metal and metal oxide NPs synthesis. Additionally, plant leaf extracts play a greater role as reducing and stabilizing agents of the biosynthesis process, the phytochemical composition of plant leaf extract is also an important factor in the synthesis of CuO NPs [60]. Green synthesis of Cu NPs can reduce the use of many hazardous chemical substances; many methods use L-ascorbic acid as a reducing agent in synthesis, and the synthesized Cu NPs were highly stable (Table 1) [61].


6. Biosynthesis of gold (Au) nanoparticles

Water is the most accessible and cheapest solvent on earth. Since the advent of nanotechnology, water has been used as a solvent for the synthesis of various NPs [62]. Most research on the biosynthesis of NPs was done from angiosperms using plant extracts, mainly in gold NPs synthesis. Mechanisms of metal depletion and stabilization have also been explored by phytochemicals of plants. They can be helpful in forming NPs [63]. Plant extracts showed the green synthesized NPs to be effective in ions reduction. High variability suggests that this may be one of the reasons that produced large amounts of Au NPs using plant extract (Table 1) [64].


7. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles

The high prevalence of TiO2 NPs is due to their many versatile applications resulting from the stability of chemical structure, optical, electrical, and physical properties. These characteristics offer a wide range of TiO2 is present in three different mineral forms such as anatase, rutile, and brocite. It is generally preferred due to its photocatalytic activity [9]. The synthesis of TiO2 NPs by plant leaf extracts is mixed with metal precursor solutions in various reactions and temperature conditions [65]. The high production and widespread use of TiO2 NPs have led to little effort for biogenic production. Several plant species have been investigated for the production of TiO2 NPs. Several processes have been developed in the last two decades to synthesize biogenic NPs. These methods effectively control the properties of NPs in which most of the potential toxicity materials are used (Table 1) [66].


8. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles

The biosynthesis of ZnO NPs an alternative to physical and chemical methods for the formation of NPs, it is representing an area of significant discovery for a wide range of applications (Figure 2) [73]. In recent times, the green method for the synthesis of NPs has become an area of great interest in this direction because the use of conventional chemical methods is very expensive, and as a reducing agent of chemical compounds or organic solvents use is required which produces toxicity [74]. Various studies where the plant-based synthesis of ZnO NPs from various zinc compounds was made using extracts from different parts of the plants are represented in Table 1 [75].

Figure 2.

Scanning electron microscopic images of biosynthesized NPs: (A) Silver NPs [67], (B) Cerium dioxide NPs [68], (C) Copper oxide NPs [69], (D) Gold NPs [70], (E) Titanium dioxide NPs [71], (F) Zinc oxide NPs [72].

XPS spectra of AgNPs were measured using a hemispherical analyzer (Physical Electronics 1257 system). For the XPS, a twin anode (Mg and Al) with X-ray source was operated at 400 W of constant power and using Al Kα radiation (1486.6 eV). The samples were placed in a sample stage with an emission angle of 45°. The measurements were carried out by suspending AgNPs on a gold film while gold was served as metallic reference. Au 4f binding energy was 84 eV for samples without any charging effect (Figure 3).

Figure 3.

X-ray photoelectron Spectroscopy of AgNPs [76].

Raman spectra were measured using a Bruker Raman spectrometer; model Senterra with laser excitation at 633 nm, and laser power at 10 mW. Spectral data were collected using a 50× microscope objective (NA = 0.51) with 30 s integration time. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) samples were prepared by mixing 360 μL of colloidal solution with 40 μL of aqueous solutions of the probe molecule, resulting in a final R6G concentration of 1.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 (Figure 4).

Figure 4.

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectrum of AgNPs [77].


9. Conclusion

Today, nanotechnology is considered to be very essential to help promote ultra-modern farming systems with very little environmental damage. Since the beginning, methods of synthesis of plant-based NPs using bioprocess have been considered eco-friendly and cost-effective for the last decades. Many types of natural extracts such as plant leaves have been employed as efficient resources for the synthesis of NPs. A large number of NPs are being explored in many areas of agriculture and biotechnology.


Conflict of interest

Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest for publication of this article.


  1. 1. Kim JS, Kuk E, Yu KN, Kim JH, Park SJ, Lee HJ, et al. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine (London). 2007;3:95-101
  2. 2. Ahluwalia VK. Green Chemistry: Environmentally Benign Reaction. India: Ane Books Pvt Ltd.; 2009
  3. 3. Horikoshi S, Serpone N, editors. Microwaves in Nanoparticle Synthesis: Fundamentals and Applications. Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons; 2013
  4. 4. Husen A, Siddiqi KS. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: Concept, controversy and application. Nanoscale Research Letters. 2014;9(1):229
  5. 5. Lokina S, Stephen A, Kaviyarasan V, Arulvasu C, Narayanan V. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2014;76:256-263
  6. 6. Singh J, Dutta T, Kim KH, Rawat M, Samddar P, Kumar P. Green’synthesis of metals and their oxide nanoparticles: Applications for environmental remediation. Journal of Nanobiotechnology. 2018;16(1):84
  7. 7. Pal SL, Jana U, Manna PK, Mohanta GP, Manavalan R. Nanoparticle: An overview of preparation and characterization. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2011;1(6):228-234
  8. 8. Kouvaris P, Delimitis A, Zaspalis V, Papadopoulos D, Tsipas SA, Michailidis N. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles produced using Arbutus Unedo leaf extract. Materials Letters. 2012;76:18-20
  9. 9. Verma DK, Patel S, Kushwah KS. Synthesis of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and Impact on morphological changes, seeds yield and phytotoxicity ofPhaseolus vulgarisL. Tropical Plant Research. 2020;7(1):158-170
  10. 10. Kushwah KS, Patel S. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on Faba bean (Vicia fabaL.) and induced asynaptic mutation: A meiotic study. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2019;7:1-12
  11. 11. Jones SA, Bowler PG, Walker M, Parsons D. Controlling wound bioburden with a novel silver-containing Hydrofiber® dressing. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 2004;12(3):288-294
  12. 12. Doble M, Rollins K, Kumar A. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Burlington: Academic Press; 2010
  13. 13. Kushwah KS, Verma RC, Patel S, Jain NK. Colchicine induced polyploidy inChrysanthemum carinatum L. Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology. 2018;6(193):2
  14. 14. He Y, Du Z, Lv H, Jia Q, Tang Z, Zheng X, et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles byChrysanthemum morifoliumRamat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2013;8:1809
  15. 15. Vanathi P, Rajiv P, Narendhran S, Rajeshwari S, Rahman PK, Venckatesh R. Biosynthesis and characterization of phyto mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles: A green chemistry approach. Materials Letters. 2014;134:13-15
  16. 16. Zayed MF, Eisa WH, Shabaka AA.Malva parvifloraextract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2012;98:423-428
  17. 17. Huang L, Weng X, Chen Z, Megharaj M, Naidu R. Synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using oolong tea extract for the degradation of malachite green. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2014;117:801-804
  18. 18. Goutam SP, Saxena G, Roy D, Yadav AK, Bharagava RN. Green synthesis of nanoparticles and their applications in water and wastewater treatment. In: Saxena G, Bharagava RN, editors. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste for Environmental Safety. Singapore: Springer; 2020. pp. 349-379
  19. 19. Reddy NJ, Vali DN, Rani M, Rani SS. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles byPiper longumfruit. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2014;34:115-122
  20. 20. Cruz D, Falé PL, Mourato A, Vaz PD, Serralheiro ML, Lino ARL. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of Ag nanoparticles biosynthesized byLippia citriodora(Lemon Verbena). Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2010;81(1):67-73
  21. 21. Marchiol L. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles in living plants. Italian Journal of Agronomy. 2012;7(3):e37-e37
  22. 22. Velmurugan P, Sivakumar S, Young-Chae S, Seong-Ho J, Pyoung-In Y, Jeong-Min S, et al. Synthesis and characterization comparison of peanut shell extract silver nanoparticles with commercial silver nanoparticles and their antifungal activity. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2015;31:51-54
  23. 23. Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Andean blackberry fruit extract. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2017;24(1):45-50
  24. 24. Kumar V, Singh DK, Mohan S, Hasan SH. Photo-induced biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract ofErigeron bonariensisand its catalytic activity against Acridine Orange. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2016;155:39-50
  25. 25. Amooaghaie R, Saeri MR, Azizi M. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles synthesized fromNigella sativaleaf extract in comparison with chemical silver nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2015;120:400-408
  26. 26. Ramesh Kumar K, Nattuthurai GP, Mariappan T. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles fromMorinda tinctorialeaf extract and their larvicidal activity againstAedes aegyptiLinnaeus 1762. Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology. 2014;5(6):1-5
  27. 27. Anandalakshmi K, Venugobal J, Ramasamy V. Characterization of silver nanoparticles by green synthesis method usingPedalium murexleaf extract and their antibacterial activity. Applied Nanoscience. 2016;6(3):399-408
  28. 28. Latha M, Priyanka M, Rajasekar P, Manikandan R, Prabhu NM. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of theAdathoda vasicaLinn extract mediated silver nanoparticles. Microbial Pathogenesis. 2016;93:88-94
  29. 29. Ting X, Wei S, Wang X, An-qi Y F. Positive effect of composite titanium on crop. Hunan Agricultural Science. 2018;1:51-54
  30. 30. Sankar V, SalinRaj P, Athira R, Soumya RS, Raghu KG. Cerium nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract ofCentella asiatica: Characterization, determination of free radical scavenging activity and evaluation of efficacy against cardiomyoblast hypertrophy. RSC Advances. 2015;5(27):21074-21083
  31. 31. Thovhogi N, Diallo A, Gurib-Fakim A, Maaza M. Nanoparticles green synthesis byHibiscus sabdariffaflower extract: Main physical properties. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2015;647:392-396
  32. 32. Maensiri S, Labuayai S, Laokul P, Klinkaewnarong J, Swatsitang E. Structure and optical properties of CeO2 nanoparticles prepared by using lemongrass plant extract solution. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. 2014;53(6S):06JG14
  33. 33. Malleshappa J, Nagabhushana H, Prashantha SC, Sharma SC, Dhananjaya N, Shivakumara C, et al. Eco-friendly green synthesis, structural and photoluminescent studies of CeO2: Eu3+ nanophosphors usingE. tirucalliplant latex. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2014;612:425-434
  34. 34. Gunalan S, Sivaraj R, Venckatesh R.Aloe barbadensis Millermediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2012;97:1140-1144
  35. 35. Vishveshvar K, Krishnan MA, Haribabu K, Vishnuprasad S. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ixiro coccinea plant leaves and its characterization. BioNanoScience. 2018;8(2):554-558
  36. 36. Yugandhar P, Vasavi T, Rao YJ, Devi PUM, Narasimha G, Savithramma N. Cost effective, green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using fruit extract ofSyzygium alternifolium(Wt.) Walp., characterization and evaluation of antiviral activity. Journal of Cluster Science. 2018;29(4):743-755
  37. 37. Aher YB, Jain GH, Patil GE, Savale AR, Ghotekar SK, Pore DM, et al. Biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using leaves extract of Leucaena leucocephala L. and their promising upshot against diverse pathogens. International Journal of Molecular and Clinical Microbiology. 2017;7(1):776-786
  38. 38. Galan CR, Silva MF, Mantovani D, Bergamasco R, Vieira MF. Green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles impregnated on activated carbon usingMoringa oleiferaleaves extract for the removal of nitrates from water. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2018;96(11):2378-2386
  39. 39. Smitha SL, Philip D, Gopchandran KG. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles usingCinnamomum zeylanicumleaf broth. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2009;74(3):735-739
  40. 40. Wang Y, He X, Wang K, Zhang X, Tan W.Barbated Skullcupherb extract-mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and its primary application in electrochemistry. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2009;73(1):75-79
  41. 41. Sharma NC, Sahi SV, Nath S, Parsons JG, Gardea-Torresde JL, Pal T. Synthesis of plant-mediated gold nanoparticles and catalytic role of biomatrix-embedded nanomaterials. Environmental Science & Technology. 2007;41(14):5137-5142
  42. 42. Gardea-Torresdey JL, Parsons JG, Gomez E, Peralta-Videa J, Troiani HE, Santiago P, et al. Formation and growth of Au nanoparticles inside live alfalfa plants. Nano Letters. 2002;2(4):397-401
  43. 43. Armendariz V, Herrera I, Peralta VJR, Jose YM, Troiani H, Santiago P, et al. Size controlled gold nanoparticles formation by Biocatalytic Synthesis Pathways, Transformation, and Toxicity of NPs 1719 Avena sativa biomass: Use of plants in nanobiotechnology. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2004;6:377-382
  44. 44. Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Jayaseelan C, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Kirthi AV, et al. Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles usingPsidium guajavaextract and its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2014;7(12):968-976
  45. 45. Rajakumar G, Rahuman AA, Jayaseelan C, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S, Kamaraj C, et al. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to controlPediculus humanus capitis,Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicumandAnopheles subpictus. Parasitology Research. 2014;113(2):469-479
  46. 46. Sundrarajan M, Gowri S. Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaves extract. Chalcogenide Letters. 2011;8(8):447-451
  47. 47. Velayutham K, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S, Jayaseelan C, et al. Evaluation ofCatharanthus roseusleaf extract-mediated biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles againstHippobosca maculataandBovicola ovis. Parasitology Research. 2012;111(6):2329-2337
  48. 48. Roopan SM, Bharathi A, Prabhakarn A, Rahuman AA, Velayutham K, Rajakumar G, et al. Efficient phyto-synthesis and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles using Annona squamosa peel extract. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2012;98:86-90
  49. 49. Qu J, Luo C, Hou J. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles from Zn-hyperaccumulator (Sedum alfrediiHance) plants. Micro & Nano Letters. 2011;6(3):174-176
  50. 50. Lingaraju K, Naika HR, Manjunath K, Basavaraj RB, Nagabhushana H, Nagaraju G, et al. Biogenic synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles usingRuta graveolens(L.) and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Applied Nanoscience. 2016;6(5):703-710
  51. 51. Bhuyan T, Mishra K, Khanuja M, Prasad R, Varma A. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles fromAzadirachta indicafor antibacterial and photocatalytic applications. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. 2015;32:55-61
  52. 52. Kumari M, Khan SS, Pakrashi S, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on root cells ofAllium cepa. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011;190(1-3):613-621
  53. 53. Fu L, Fu Z. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract–assisted biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity. Ceramics International. 2015;41(2):2492-2496
  54. 54. Mazumdar H, Haloi N. A study on biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles by Pleurotus sp. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research. 2011;1(3):39-49
  55. 55. Arumugam A, Karthikeyan C, Hameed ASH, Gopinath K, Gowri S, Karthika V. Synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles usingGloriosa superbaL. leaf extract and their structural, optical and antibacterial properties. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2015;49:408-415
  56. 56. Walkey C, Das S, Seal S, Erlichman J, Heckman VKK, Ghibelli L, et al. Environmental Science Nano. 2015;2:33-53
  57. 57. Song JY, Kwon EY, Kim BS. Biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles usingDiopyros kakileaf extract. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 2010;33(1):159
  58. 58. Malleshappa J, Nagabhushana H, Sharma SC, Vidya YS, Anantharaju KS, Prashantha SC, et al. Leucas aspera mediated multifunctional CeO2 nanoparticles: Structural, photoluminescent, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2015;149:452-462
  59. 59. Dwivedi AD, Gopal K. Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles usingChenopodium albumleaf extract. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2010;369(1-3):27-33
  60. 60. Malik P, Shankar R, Malik V, Sharma N, Mukherjee TK. Green chemistry based benign routes for nanoparticle synthesis. Journal of Nanoparticles. 2014;2014
  61. 61. Xiong J, Wang Y, Xue Q, Wu X. Synthesis of highly stable dispersions of nanosized copper particles using L-ascorbic acid. Green Chemistry. 2011;13(4):900-904
  62. 62. Yoosaf K, Ipe BI, Suresh CH, Thomas KG. In situ synthesis of metal nanoparticles and selective naked-eye detection of lead ions from aqueous media. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2007;111(34):12839-12847
  63. 63. Verma DK, Patel S, Kushwah KS. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and impact on growth, chlorophyll, yield and phytotoxicity ofPhaseolus vulgarisL. Vegetos. 2020;33:648-657
  64. 64. Narayanan KB, Sakthivel N. Green synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles by terrestrial and aquatic phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2011;169(2):59-79
  65. 65. Mittal AK, Chisti Y, Banerjee UC. Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts. Biotechnology Advances. 2013;31(2):346-356
  66. 66. Ai J, Biazar E, Jafarpour M, Montazeri M, Majdi A, Aminifard S, et al. Nanotoxicology and nanoparticle safety in biomedical designs. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2011;6:1117
  67. 67. Pushkar DB, Sevak PI. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Couroupita guianensis fruit pulp and its antibacterial properties. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;5(9):1174-1187
  68. 68. Miri A, Darroudi M, Sarani M. Biosynthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles and its cytotoxicity survey against colon cancer cell line. Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 2020;34(1):e5308
  69. 69. Buazar F, Sweidi S, Badri M, Kroushawi F. Biofabrication of highly pure copper oxide nanoparticles using wheat seed extract and their catalytic activity: A mechanistic approach. Green Processing and Synthesis. 2019;8(1):691-702
  70. 70. Ali SG, Ansari MA, Alzohairy MA, Alomary MN, AlYahya S, Jalal M, et al. Biogenic gold nanoparticles as potent antibacterial and antibiofilm nano-antibiotics againstPseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibiotics. 2020;9(3):100
  71. 71. Nabi G, Raza W, Tahir MB. Green synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticle using cinnamon powder extract and the study of optical properties. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. 2020;30(4):1425-1429
  72. 72. Ogunyemi SO, Abdallah Y, Zhang M, Fouad H, Hong X, Ibrahim E, et al. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using different plant extracts and their antibacterial activity againstXanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae. Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology. 2019;47(1):341-352
  73. 73. Makarov VV, Makarova SS, Love AJ, Sinitsyna OV, Dudnik AO, Yaminsky IV, et al. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts ofHordeum vulgareandRumex acetosaplants. Langmuir. 2014;30(20):5982-5988
  74. 74. Hussain I, Singh NB, Singh A, Singh H, Singh SC. Green synthesis of nanoparticles and its potential application. Biotechnology Letters. 2016;38(4):545-560
  75. 75. Qu J, Yuan X, Wang X, Shao P. Zinc accumulation and synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles usingPhysalis alkekengiL. Environmental Pollution. 2011;159(7):1783-1788
  76. 76. Carmona ER, Benito N, Plaza T, Recio-Sánchez G. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using leaf extracts from the endemicBuddleja globosahope. Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 2017;10(4):250-256
  77. 77. Soares MR, Corrêa RO, Stroppa PHF, Marques FC, Andrade GF, Corrêa CC, et al. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles usingCaesalpinia ferrea(Tul.) Martius extract: Physicochemical characterization, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity. PeerJ. 2018;6:e4361

Written By

Kalyan Singh Kushwah and Deepak Kumar Verma

Submitted: July 14th, 2021 Reviewed: October 22nd, 2021 Published: November 25th, 2021