Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Public-Private Participation in Funding University Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Nigerian Case-Study for Sustainable Development

Written By

Lawrence Jones-Esan

Reviewed: 16 August 2021 Published: 03 January 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.99940

From the Edited Volume

Higher Education - New Approaches to Accreditation, Digitalization, and Globalization in the Age of Covid

Edited by Lee Waller and Sharon Waller

Chapter metrics overview

392 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


The developing countries in Africa still cannot withstand the pressure of the highly competitive global education market. Together with the large numbers of people who make a living in various innovative companies, these countries have solved key contemporary issues affecting global education. For this reason, it is necessary to actively respond to current technological innovation and educational challenges and to eliminate new technology graduates who can effectively interact with students through the responsive expansion of education and training. Expansion of education can produce effective expansion that promotes educational development, but due to budget constraints, most African governments cannot successfully and sustainably implement such educational programs. This is difficult. However, public-private partnership efforts provide a way out of this financial dilemma. The Sub-Saharan Africa initiative has achieved important educational objectives, such as: ensuring relevance for quality; secure funding for sustainability and establish resource mobilization partnerships and connections; and promote international cooperation. This discussion is relevant to the basic conditions for a successful public-private partnership with educational institutions and extended education and sheds light on the impact, lessons, and challenges. The public is increasingly concerned about the importance of higher education in the 21st century. This chapter explores some of the key functions of an innovative education system that supports the development of education in Nigeria and enhances people’s ability to use information. Nigeria’s education system re-emphasizes the importance of public and private universities, but the country does not have a sustainable education system and well-equipped educational institutions to support people’s ability to use information, learning, education, and research activities.


  • private-public participation
  • university funding process
  • sub-Saharan Africa
  • Nigerian educational system
  • sustainable development

1. Introduction

According to Oketch [1] general education in all societies, especially university education, is an indispensable tool for national economic growth and development [1]. Experience has shown that if the citizens of a country are not well educated and adequately trained, rapid economic and social development cannot be guaranteed. As we all know, universities are companies that produce and distribute public goods, which is knowledge. The production of knowledge in universities has always been focused on teaching, learning, and research so that university education is considered a large investment that requires a large number of economic resources, so the funds allocated to college education are called long-term investments. There are huge benefits for people and society.

Tikly [2] explored the education is often seen as a transformative role in the sustainable development policy agenda and sustainable development goals of the African continent. However, these assumptions are based on an insufficient critique of the historical role of education in supporting unsustainable development. This article critiques the relationship between African education policy and sustainable development as Africa’s position on non-colonial conditions, colonial heritage, and the modern globalization process. In educational policy, education plays a transformative role in sustainable development, and economic, cultural, and political changes must be considered fundamentally to facilitate social and environmental definitions. I insist that a more comprehensive process should be used.

Dibie and Dibie [3] explained the nature of public governance leadership, conflict, and economic development paralysis in selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa. He believes that ineffective political leadership and conflict will affect economic growth and poor social development. Servant leadership and democratic representation are ongoing development processes that can be achieved by participating in the development of the citizens themselves. The dynamics of development and participation at the national and grassroots level should include the exposure of government transformation agents to peace, participatory learning, and role models. This document uses data from primary and secondary sources to analyze issues such as political conflict, peace, leadership, and economic growth. The conceptual framework is structural conflict theory, negative and positive peace theory, frustration attack theory, and physiological theory is based on human desire theory and economic theory. The results of the study show that there is a negative correlation between authoritarian political leadership and economic growth in Africa. In many African countries, there is also a positive relationship between authoritarian political leadership and conflict. This article recommends internal and external mediation and peace education mechanisms to prevent conflicts from spreading or becoming avoidable crises. Therefore, the government, the private sector, and NGOs must work together to free citizens from the cultural and ethnic factors that enslaved them to restore justice and equality. Sub-Saharan African countries have established capacity-building work that can help promote changes in behavior, attitudes, peace, and humanistic paradigms, be peaceful and provide a basis for self-reliance and participation in sustainable development and it shared governance and inclusive democracy.

The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development is halfway through its milestone. However, the overall impact on educational thinking and practice remains unknown in most parts of the world. Although there are some efforts and initiatives to promote and identify the role of education in the global pursuit of sustainable development, many of these efforts are not yet fully understood and are unknown in most communities around the world. In most of Africa, they can say that they have never seen or heard of a 10-year education for sustainable development. Most institutions, including schools, governments, businesses, civil society, and individuals, do not yet understand or understand the role of education in the pursuit of sustainable development. It argues that the decade has received all the attention in some circles, but this issue has been neglected in most of Africa’s education policies and practices. It calls for more attention to the role of education in sustainable development in Africa and revisits what sustainable development means to Africans elsewhere and in culture. Using this as a starting point, he demanded that he explore more meaningful education and philosophy to address the unique challenges of Africa [4].


2. Literature review

Rose et al. [5] revealed outlines the main characteristics of educational research created by scholars in sub-Saharan Africa as outlined in the African Education Research Database. The database is compiled by at least one researcher in the region, classifies social science research that affects education policies and practices in sub-Saharan Africa, and publishes them in well-known journals. By specifically cataloging research conducted by researchers in sub-Saharan Africa, the African Education Research Database is a unique resource for education development research and policy in the region.

According to Assongu et al. [6] Information and communication technology department promoted inclusive education in 42 sub-Saharan African countries between 2004 and 2014. The relationship between inequality, information and communication technologies (ICT), and inclusive human education were investigated. The empirical evidence is based on the generalized law of moments. The following findings have been determined. First, the Gini coefficient and the Atkinson index are 0.400 and 0.625, respectively, which are the positive impact of Internet penetration on inclusive education and exceed the income inequality threshold for inclusive education. Second, when the Gini coefficient and the Atkinson Palm index are 0.574, 0.676, and 9,000, respectively, they are the income inequality threshold, if they are exceeded; they do not have a positive impact on inclusive band subscription education and fixed width. As a key policy implication, ICT cannot exceed the threshold of inequality established to promote inclusive education in the sample countries. Other impacts will be discussed under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) [6].

This paper combines a large-scale literature review of educational publications by researchers from sub-Saharan Africa and a description of researchers’ priorities and practices. According to the International Policy Statement (Sustainable Development Goals in Education and Agenda 2063 of the African Union), the 48 countries of the region are reviewing their research topics, key models, funding, and analysis of co-citations to qualify for increased academic participation. Furthermore, the evidence presented in this article challenges claims of excellence in research projects in North Sub-Saharan Africa [7].

This study confirms whether telecommunications infrastructure can promote economic growth in countries with good educational opportunities compared to countries with few educational opportunities. Using a panel of 45 countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1993 to 2015, the estimated results of the two-step fixed-effects operation and the use of effective methods for the time being a widespread show that in countries with good educational opportunities, the Internet is promoting economic growth. While mobile phone screens do not do this. These results indicate that education is considered very important for the Internet, but it seems that it has nothing to do with the use of mobile phones [8].

Banya and Elu [9] studied World Bank and other contributor agency’s policy changes in the direction of financing of higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. It concludes that policy vicissitudes have unfavorably affected these institutions. The suggestion is that the exclusive background of each state plays a role in higher education financial policy structure and completion.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the background of Nigeria’s education laws and policies and the implementation of youth education. The main focus is on university admissions policies and legislation, guiding case studies and the impact of education policies on young people’s education. This work was first published in the Ohio Education Law Yearbook in 2018. The author of this work has always been passionate about youth education in Nigeria, but it is currently declining due to the strictness of JAMB admissions. I am looking for a solution. The study uses qualitative and quantitative methods to solicit the opinion of educators and a small number of young people affected by the system. The qualitative approach provides information on the history of education policies introduced by the UK and the US in Africa but has not met the needs and expectations of the Nigerian community in the region [10]. Therefore, the Nigerian government decided to formulate its national policy to meet the educational needs of indigenous and Nigerian peoples. Through the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, we can analyze and draw conclusions that can improve the current policies implemented to streamline the Nigerian educational system. The fact that many young Nigerians study abroad shows that there is a high demand for education, which is why the government has taken steps to make it easier for young people to receive a university education [11].

Nigerian policy is inconsistent with the promotion of youth entrepreneurship in the state of Anambra, which will be a guide to becoming self-employed. Most young adults in Anambra lack information about the characteristics of businesses to become self-employed. The problems facing Anambra Province as a result of youth unemployment include rising crime rates, substance abuse, kidnapping, and suicide rates. In line with human capital theory, the purpose of this case study was to examine the entrepreneurial strategies required for young Anambra State youth to become self-employed after graduating from university. Twenty young entrepreneurs participated in individual interviews, and 5 participated in focus groups, with 5 policymakers participating in other individual interviews. The data were coded and analyzed using Yin’s five-step procedure, repeating the entire process of compiling, assembling, analyzing, disassembling, and displaying the theme three times. New topics were instruction, vocational training, and temporary programs. These results show that adolescents who participate in these programs (Mentorship, Vocational training, and Provisional) acquire entrepreneurial strategies over young people who do not and as a result run more profitable businesses. The researcher showed that. Positive social change implications are for college students with post-graduation hope, introducing vocational education to policymakers that can expand youth mentoring programs to increase employment rates and improve quality of life. Includes recommending the creation of an educational program for. University students can develop businesses that can lead to job creation and empower young entrepreneurs for the growth and development of the nation [12].

Sub-Saharan Africa’s financial system has weak support for long-term physical sector development. The bank financing plans of these economies promoted non-competitive market mechanisms, resulting in high-interest margins. The study applied descriptive research improved causality technique to test the dynamic relationship between private participation in infrastructure, interest rate differentials, and the quality of institutional supervision in four sub-Saharan African economies: Kenya, Mauritius, South Africa, and Nigeria. The results prove that private participation in infrastructure can lead to lower spreads. The study recommends that public-private partnerships invest in project implementation at a lower marginal cost [13].

Social responsibility is a participatory process in which citizens engage to hold politicians, policymakers, and public officials accountable for the services they provide. At the 15th regular meeting of the African Union, African leaders recognized the need for strong decentralized health programs that provide adaptive access to local politics, full social participation in the design and implementation of programs that connect civil society and private sector entities connected with Socio-cultural and administrative environment. Despite the growing use of social responsibility, the evidence on how it is being used in the healthcare sector is limited. The purpose of this systematic review was to characterize conditions that promote effective social responsibility in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched the electronic database for related papers published between 2000 and August 2017. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were vetted English-language publications describing social responsibility interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Qualitative and quantitative study designs were eligible. 14 related studies were included in the review. The findings show that effective social responsibility interventions include leveraging partnerships and building alliances. It depends on the situation. Integrate the collection and analysis of data and information. Leader clearly defined roles, standards, and responsibilities. Meaningful civic engagement, Barriers to health care systems, corruption, fears of retaliation, and limited funding appear to be major challenges for effective socially responsible interventions. Although the Global Obligation Standard is an important guide, the successful implementation of global health efforts depends on national circumstances [14].


3. Funding higher education in Nigeria

The fundamental basis of public financing for education is adequate knowledge and skills to improve the quality of life, and people acquire new technical knowledge to achieve reliable productivity and production capacity [15]. The development process must be capable. Nigerian public sector education funding is based on this concept. To perpetuate society, the new generation must be given the proper methods to acquire the knowledge accumulated by the previous generation. First, the University of Ibadan is the only university in the country and has provided sufficient funding in all aspects of education and research. The first-generation universities have established and maintained internationally recognized and respected standards, some of which have already received funding [16].


4. Effects of inadequate funding on tertiary institutions

Over the past 30 years, Nigerian higher education enrollment has increased and there has been a significant increase in enrollment opportunities through the establishment of more educational institutions. However, unfortunately, many indicators that can guarantee the quality of higher education are not taken into account when seeking to achieve the country’s quantitative goals [17].

It has been observed that political factors, especially in the university system, are the main motivation behind many expansion policies [18]. Capital projects that met the actual expansion plan did not take off even if they were successful. Due to a lack of funds, I had to give up. According to Ogunode Niyi Jacob and Adah Samuel [19], due to the limited resources available, there is pressure to convene meetings, which leads to downward pressure on employee wages and deteriorating working conditions. Its effects include high-level “brain drain” among faculty and staff, relentless strikes, and resistance to student riots. All of these are aimed at affecting the quality of higher education in Nigeria. Ezeanolue et al. [20] assumes from a unique perspective that the secondary impact of reduced participation by higher education institutions (Nigerian universities) can be explained by a variety of mechanisms, including:

  • Reduced experiment/practical classes

  • Restricted access

  • Reduced participation in academic conferences,

  • Reduced purchase of library books, chemical products, and experimental basic equipment

  • New appointment freeze

  • Virtual prohibition of research funding and reduction of research funding

  • Also narrowed the scope of the strategy, losing the diversity of research and education in the central area

  • The risk of closing the current undemanding and expensive research (unprofitable)

  • down One step to losing autonomy mainly depends on external directors (financial support from a third party)

  • Internal unification and administrative expansion

  • The increased administrative burden due to costs and research and education

  • Due to increased competition, between universities, coordination (harmony) decreases.


5. Possible sources of funding higher education in Nigeria

Financing higher education in Nigeria is a major national issue today [21]. The current political and social factors that have a great impact on the global economy require diversification of educational sources, mainly due to dependence on sales sources, and educational development [22] may be inhibited. However, he emphasized these things because there are options to support higher formations;

  1. Discovery of government occupants

  2. Commercial organizations occasionally use private donations in the form of sponsors for specific purposes

  3. Tuition and fees

  4. Gifts, sponsorships, and promotions

  5. Acceptance of investments

  6. Assistance (company, license, parent-student association)

  7. Research questions and activities

  8. Exercise community, etc.


6. Current funding modalities of public higher education in sub-Saharan Africa

Advantages and Limitations:

In general, there are three (3) major ways to fund public higher education institutions in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Government funding modality

  2. Donor support modality; and

  3. Cost-sharing modality

6.1 Government funding modality

At least in the context of African higher education institutions, there are two general models for supporting higher education: the public model and the market-based model. All other types are organized in a continuum. The funding for the public model comes from the central government. This model allows individual agencies and government funds to be allocated according to the budget provided by the government and government policy priorities [23]. Higher education institutions can obtain: a) Unspecified amount of funds available for each institution, including lump-sum funds for research funds, education and institutional elements [23] and b) funds designated for specific purposes. These components vary by country.

Limitations of the government model:

  1. Public universities continue to rely on government funding because they cannot generate internal financial resources through income diversification.

  2. The loss of institutional autonomy and academic freedom and the government’s delay (sometimes insufficient) of the financial resources required for public universities and expenditures. Documentary evidence shows that there is a discrepancy between public university budget applications (approved by the council of each university) and government-approved budgets for public universities in Africa.

6.2 Donor support modality

Due to the lack of government investment in R&D, donor support is the main alternative funding model for R&D in most African public universities. As mentioned above, despite the African Union Commission’s commitment to invest 1% of GDP in R&D activities, African governments invest less than 1% of GDP in R&D. The aid aspect of donors of financial aid for public higher education operates on a donor aid model, in which public universities in Africa are beneficiaries and funders of research and development activities are de facto donors, now called dossiers and politicians. “Partners for development”. The advantage of the donor support model is mainly to determine the research agenda of the donors (mainly northern universities and research institutions and universities) through unequal contacts and research cooperation, thus determining the research results or outcomes of the research of the African public universities. With its unique internationalization capabilities. A major limitation in donor support is the loss of institutional autonomy and ownership of the research agenda. Therefore, researchers in African public universities do not have research tasks or research results. The extension of the above restriction is that researchers from African public universities conduct self-censorship to obtain more research funds to buy portable cars, office air conditioners, overseas travel seminars, etc. It is important to improve the working conditions of researchers in public universities in Africa. It is usually related to improving research productivity, but it is funded by the African government [24].

6.3 Cost sharing modality

This form is mainly implemented using government-funded student loan programs (public and private university students) and income diversification activities, which do not work in many mature African countries. Student loan programs cannot operate effectively because loan recipients refuse to repay loans (due to low loan recovery rates), especially due to the lack of transparency in identifying poor students and politicizing loan programs. According to anecdotal evidence, African politicians often use higher education student loan programs to set their political and populist agendas. The main assumption of the African higher education cost-sharing policy (implemented there) is that higher education is private property, creating more historical income for graduates and their families. Therefore, the cost is borne by the beneficiary [25].

If implemented carefully, the cost-sharing method of financing public higher education has great potential and can bring a lot of additional revenue to public universities. Institutional autonomy and academic freedom can also be increased by increasing fiscal autonomy. The limitations of the current method of cost-sharing for higher education funds implemented in African universities are as follows:

  • Universities tend to focus on income-generating activities that are considered profitable. The so-called commercialized evening academic courses, and

  • Misunderstandings about the strong resistance of African countries (students and parents) to “free social services” and the cost-sharing of higher education. In many African countries implementing higher education exchange, resistance to higher education sharing is one of the main reasons for the low loan recovery rate.


7. Performance-based funding

In this funding model, the allocation of resources to universities is based on past performance of certain teaching, learning, and research outcomes. For example, as part of NPM (New Public Management), such as student enrollment, graduate enrollment and graduation, and the number of research papers published in indexed journals, the public higher education system provides funding based on the performance. Strengthen institutional responsibilities and improve efficiency. In general, it is a coordination tool that improves the transparency and efficiency of public spending by linking it with quantifiable indicators that improve the quality of higher education [26].

In sub-Saharan Africa, performance-based college funding is effective South Africa. Based on research evidence, this model compares South African public universities with other public universities in Africa it’s relatively improved productivity.


8. Research performance-based funding system

The system focuses on the research results and productivity of public universities and public research institutions to improve the quantitative and qualitative research results of research results. The resources of this system are assigned to the best-performing public research institutions and universities [27].

The system is used as a central coordination mechanism adopted by most EU member states to improve the efficiency and results of public sector research systems and promote research excellence.


9. Rising social demand and sustainable financing

International aid to support higher education averages USD600 to USD800 million a year, representing a quarter of all international aid to the education sector in sub-Saharan Africa. This relatively low percentage reflects that most donors are now emphasizing the educational achievements of basic education development. In addition to a small amount of aid, two main factors limit the impact of aid. First, only 26% of support for higher education is transferred directly to African universities and research centers. The remainder will be paid through scholarships abroad or transferred directly to the donor students’ universities. Second, the lack of donor coordination is also very detailed. At the same time, aid further supports the entire education sector and is provided in the form of general or departmental budget support. This gives the government more flexibility in how it allocates its budget for education. However, in the event of economic or financial difficulties, aid to higher education may conflict with other priorities, be it poverty alleviation, food subsidies, or energy [28].

Cost-sharing is increasingly being incorporated into the financing strategy of the higher education sector and should include specific scholarships or loans to maintain or increase the chances of enrolling students from poor families. Effective student loan programs are possible in sub-Saharan Africa, but they require proper design and proper implementation. African student loans must be accompanied by other forms of financial assistance, including careful use of grants and tolerance for repayment and eventual forgiveness in the case of low lifetime income or other conditions, especially if there is real evidence that some people hate debt students.

9.1 Investment budget allocation practices

According to budgeting modalities the decision to allocate investment budgets for higher education institutions is considered to be made through a fairly transparent and reasonable process. University campus construction is usually planned, prioritized, and expensive within the scope of the physical development plan approved by the educational institution. The following system monitoring agencies have compiled their own sub-sector investment key lists. However, investment allocation decisions may be subject to external influences and negotiations on behalf of the university authorities, because investment projects will not be affected by the pressure of the operating budget of the stakeholder group. For example, the problem is unlikely to occur when quietly and administratively replacing a highway resurfacing project with a university classroom construction project. Three relatively new investment fund allocation mechanisms (designated financing, performance contracts, and competitive funds) solve this problem by incorporating clearer and more transparent decision-making criteria (Table 1) [29].

Budgeting modalityKey featureRequirements for data and technical expertiseImpact on sector performance
Historically basedRewards concession skillsMinimalMaintains position quo
Effort basedRewards development of inputsModerateEncourages expansion
NormativeRewards loyalty to defined normsModerateEncourages consistency
Recital basedRewards outcome accomplishmentsConsiderableEncourages quality and significance

Table 1.

Budgeting modalities.


10. Business and education development in Nigeria

This content is about the huge capacity of Nigeria, the African continent, especially the largest market on the African continent. It is not easy to establish a successful foundation on the African continent, but the African continent has a huge investment capacity that cannot be ignored. Especially in Nigeria, this commitment creates a test case for the African strategy of consumer goods companies. This is not only because of scale but also because of Nigerian culture that has been traded for nearly a century [30].

According to Africa’s engine of growth and GDP the attached picture, the growth momentum of Africa, especially Nigeria, is much greater than that of the United States. Not surprisingly, the annual rate of change in Africa is also higher than in the rest of the world. The graph shows that after Nigeria, future investment in new business opportunities may be concentrated on the African continent (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Africa’s engine of growth and GDP.

On the other hand, many problems are not solved currently in the continent with new opportunities. A shortage of electricity is one of the worst problems. Nigeria has one of the world’s highest rates of road deaths and the government only recently made lessons and tests mandatory for new drivers, not the existing drivers that had brought out many casualties. Back to the shortage of electricity and other resources, these inefficient supply chains inevitably increase the cost of doing business, and another problem about getting goods to customers is not adjusted fully in the current market. The high cost of construction and land disputes have disrupted the growth of formal retailing that made the fragmented market difficult to forecast sales. Therefore, it is more obvious to increase the cost of doing business due to the dispersed customers with inefficient supply chains.

The Federal Ministry of Education announced the temporary closure of all schools in Nigeria, effective March 23rd, in a bid to contain the spread of the COVID-19 [31]. The Learn from Home Program designed by the Ministry in April 2020 was focused on a small percentage of public secondary students leaving millions of students in public tertiary institutions stranded for over 3 months.

Inadequate funding has been identified as one of the main hindrances to growth in Nigeria’s public education sector [32]. According to Nigerian Bureau of statistics in Figure 2, at face value, it may appear that the education budget has relatively increased over the years; however, Figure 3 puts it into perspective.

Figure 2.

Education budget vs total budget, 2011–2020. (Source: Nigerian Bureau of Statistics).

Figure 3.

Nigeria’s education budget, 2011–2020. (Source: Nigerian Bureau of Statistics).

11. The market model

The main course behind this model is a highly educational interesting part of the products or consumer/beneficiary, so if it is mobilized through dialog and effective marketing strategy, stakeholders of high education products or the consumer/beneficiary consisting. Market models emphasize marketing principles and market-driven approximation injection to do it completely circulatory. The model also needs to convert the transformation of traditional or developed universities (General in Africa) into a company or University of public or private [33]. Stakeholders or consumers of higher education products in the context of market models are: can contribute to higher education costs, such as the privatization of higher education institutions, sales, patent sales, and patent sales [34]. Research products -The contribution to the education costs of students/parents are due at a cost-sharing. Government agencies provide basic university funds through direct picking to public universities and provide higher education taxes [35]. Private sector: This is the possible use of graduates, the development of capital, the sponsorship of the students, the financing of the president of the professor, the financing of the investigation of contracts and the specialized research, and the financing of professional development (For example, it can contribute to the possible educational costs of the External Donor’s Office and Meetings, it offers direct subsidies to higher education institutions, teachers, schools and investigators [36]. Financial institutions can provide funds for higher education through the payment of registration and other expenses related to educational loans. Graduates indirectly provide direct donations and gifts to higher education institutions to establish donations and trust funds. The donations of graduates and gifts are one of the sources of traditional income for Universe Solids in the United States, but unfortunately, it is not adopted by the institutions of African Higher Education, except public universities in South Africa.

12. Conclusion

In the context of establishing a vibrant and strong higher education subsector that can effectively promote the socio-economic and technological development of Africa in the 21st century, the current methods of funding public higher education are unsustainable (some have failed). Therefore, there is an urgent need to provide alternative funding for higher education. The proposed funding model for higher education has been tested in other countries around the world and proved to be successful. Take a look, there is no reason to doubt its success in Africa. In 2000, the Dakar World Education Forum promised that countries with reliable plans could not achieve the goal of education for all due to a lack of external funding. The most recent report reiterated this commitment, but now a new explanation is needed. This commitment can be seen as a truly altruistic gesture, increasing the scholarship to the level required for all children to enroll. It can also be seen as part of the neoliberal ambition to globalize contingent loan management as a means for financial institutions to maintain their influence and control over investment in education. Whatever the motivation for, it’s time to re-examine whether these promises have been made and are fit for purpose 20 years from now. Some forecasts based on the promotion of education grants are feasible, or plans have been made that are more reliable than sustainable plans. External support for investment in education can be a catalyst and should be increased. However, the number of domestic imports and political will cannot exceed the level that can be maintained until 2030 and beyond. Higher levels of debt, directly or indirectly supported by public funds in the future, are not conducive to sustainable investment in education.

If an appropriate allocation decision is made, raise its funds for development to maintain the ambition of most African governments to become financial entities shortly and support public products such as national education. The problem of the financial gap in Wuyuehu’s education has changed from an absolute lack of internal taxation to an investment in a modern taxation system, solving the problems of imbalanced distribution and low mobilization efficiency, and increasing the conversion rate through investment. This is the challenge of aid in providing support, which is a self-sustaining catalyst for change.


  1. 1. Oketch, M. (2016). Financing higher education in sub-Saharan Africa: some reflections and implications for sustainable development. Higher Education, 72(4), 525-539.
  2. 2. Tikly, L. (2019). Education for sustainable development in Africa: a critique of regional agendas. Asia Pacific Education Review, 20(2), 223-237.
  3. 3. Dibie, R., & Dibie, J. (2017). Analysis of the paralysis of government leadership in sub-Saharan Africa. Africa’s Public Service Delivery & Performance Review, 5(1).
  4. 4. Manteaw, O. O. (2012). Education for sustainable development in Africa: The search for pedagogical logic. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(3), 376-383.
  5. 5. Rose, P., Downing, P., Asare, S., & Mitchell, R. (2019). Mapping the landscape of education research by scholars based in sub-Saharan Africa: Insights from the African Education Research Database. REAL Centre, (June), 1-80. Retrieved from
  6. 6. Asongu, S. A., Orim, S. M. I., & Nting, R. T. (2019). Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan Africa. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146, 380-389.
  7. 7. Mitchell, R., Rose, P., & Asare, S. (2020). Education research in sub-saharan africa: Quality, visibility, and agendas. Comparative Education Review.
  8. 8. Donou-Adonsou, F. (2019). Technology, education, and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Telecommunications Policy, 43(4), 353-360.
  9. 9. Banya, K., & Elu, J. (2001). The World Bank and financing higher education in sub-Saharan Africa. Higher Education, 42(1), 1-34
  10. 10. Akinyemi, S. A. (2020). Understanding Factors that Increase Citizens’ Participation in Community Development Projects in Lagos, Nigeria. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 351. Retrieved from
  11. 11. Achinewhu-Nworgu, E. (2019). An Overview of Nigerian Education Law and Policy: A Case Study of University Admission Policy (JAMB) and Impact on Youth Educational Development. Bulgarian Comparative Education Society
  12. 12. Nwosu M. (2019). Youth Entrepreneurship Among University Graduates in Anambra, Nigeria. The Effect of Workplace Characteristics on Millenial Worker Organizational Commitment, 1-229
  13. 13. Eke, P. O., & Omankhanlen, A. E. (2019). Public-private partnership and financial structure development: Cointegration lessons for selected sub-sahara African economies. Annals of Economics and Finance, 20(2), 783-802
  14. 14. Danhoundo, G., Nasiri, K., & Wiktorowicz, M. E. (2018). Improving social accountability processes in the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 18(1).
  15. 15. Ehizuelen, M. M. O. (2018). Education and Skills Development in China-Africa Cooperation. Frontiers of Education in China, 13(4), 553-600.
  16. 16. Famade Oladiran Afolayan. (2015). Funding Higher Education in Nigeria\n. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 5(1), 63-68. Retrieved from Issue-1/Version-1/J05116368.pdf
  17. 17. Akinyemi, S. (2012). Funding Strategies for Qualitative University Education in Developing Economies: The Case of Nigeria. International Journal of Higher Education, 2(1).
  18. 18. Akindele, I. (2014). Towards the Stemming of the Tide of Strikes in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Stakeholders’ Roles and Responsibilities. European Journal of Academic Essays, 1(7), 18-26. Retrieved from
  19. 19. Ogunode Niyi Jacob, & Adah Samuel. (2020). Educational policy in Nigerian: Challenges of Implementation and Ways Forward. Middle European Scientific Bulletin, 4, 1-9.
  20. 20. Ezeanolue, E. E., Iheanacho, T., Patel, D. V., Patel, S., Sam-Agudu, N., Obiefune, M., … Siberry, G. (2019). Challenges and strategies for improving training of mid-level research personnel in Nigeria. Annals of Global Health, 85(1).
  21. 21. Alade, I. A. (2015). MANAGEMENT AND FUNDING FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE CURRICULA OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA. International Journal of Educational Development in Africa, 2(1), 84-100.
  22. 22. Lawal Mohammed Anka, & Khaskhelli, A. (2011). Quality Higher Education for Sustainable Development in Nigeria Source. Journal of Business Strategies, 5, 36-55
  23. 23. Pundy, P. (2003). The South Africa experience with developing and implementing a funding formula for tertiary education system. A case study presented at the regional training conference on improving tertiary education in sub-Saharan Africa: Things that work. Accra, September 23-25
  24. 24. Kayode, D. J., & Naicker, S. R. (2019). An investigation into issues impeding higher education effectiveness in public universities. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 8(1), 58-81.
  25. 25. Ogbogu, C. O. (2011). Modes Of Funding Nigerian Universities And The Implications On Performance. Journal of International Education Research (JIER), 7(4), 75-82.
  26. 26. Ngutsav, A., Akighir, D. T., & Terhemba, P. (2017). Education Financing, Labour Productivity, and Economic Development in Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Studies in Economics and Public Sector Management, 5(1), 22-39
  27. 27. Iyalomhe, F. O., Cirella, G. T., Russo, A., Jensen, A., & Idogho, P. (2017). Environmental Management System for Nigeria’s Higher Education. Consilience, 18(18), 84-110. Retrieved from
  28. 28. World Bank. (2010). Financing higher education in Africa. The World Bank
  29. 29. Teferra, D. (2013). Funding higher education in Africa: State, trends and perspectives. Journal of Higher Education in Africa/Revue de l’enseignement supérieur en Afrique, 11(1-2), 19-51
  30. 30. (2014, September 3). Business Development in Africa. AFR 110: Intro to Contemporary Africa.
  31. 31. Ogunode, N. J., I, A., & A.E, L. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the Higher Institutions Development in Nigeria. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(I), 168-172
  32. 32. Omodero, C. O., & Nwangwa, K. C. K. (2020). Higher education and economic growth of Nigeria: Evidence from co-integration and granger causality examination. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(3), 173-182.
  33. 33. Treshchevsky, Y., Igolkin, I., & Shatalov, M. (2019). Internationalization of the educational services market through development of the system of remote education: Possibilities and barriers. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(3), 478-485.
  34. 34. Du Preez, R. (2015). Towards a 21st century university : teachings from consumer behaviour applicable to higher education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 29(5), 140-155. Retrieved from
  35. 35. Kwasi-Agyeman, F., Langa, P., & Swanzy, P. (2020). Higher Education Funding and Student Access in the Global South. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, 12(Fall), 83-98.
  36. 36. Bitzer, E., & De Jager, E. (2018). The views of commerce students regarding “free” higher education in South Arica. South African Journal of Higher Education, 32(4).

Written By

Lawrence Jones-Esan

Reviewed: 16 August 2021 Published: 03 January 2022