Major species of
In different parts of the world, herbs were utilized for medicines, food, and many other purposes. In various countries, research is being done to discover the potential applications of medicinal plants in favor of human beings .
Mints have the potential to grow nears water pools, rivers, lakes, and partially moist cool spots. They also can grow under the sun. These can grow throughout the year . For its cultivation, Mediterranean Basin is a primary resource, but tropical and temperate regions are mostly noted as the best resource.
Mints are the aromatic and perennial herbs, having overground and underground stolons, which are quite widespread. They also have square, erect, and branched stems. The arrangement of their leaves is in opposite pairs, from oblong to lanceolate with the downy approach and sharp edges. The color profile of
The following is a list of some major species of Mentha used for medicinal purpose (Table 1).
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.—horsemint
Mentha pulegium L.—pennyroyal
Fresh mint leaves have been utilized for the chewing purpose. It is also used as mouthwashes to treat bleeding gums . Crushed mint leaves were utilized for the brightness of teeth during ancient times. It is also utilized in making oral dentifrices to clean and polish natural teeth. However, peppermint is beneficial for the gums of babies as it reduces the pain and gives germ-free teeth.
6.1 Conventional medicine and cosmetics
Menthol from mint is a source of essential oil which accounts for 40–90%, and it is being utilized in cosmetics and many fragrances . Menthol and mint essential oil are used in aromatherapy, which might become helpful to decrease the effect of post-surgery nausea .
6.2 Allergic effect
It is utilized in various customer products. In several people, mint can give allergic reactions including heartburn, stinging, diarrhea, headache, abdominal cramps, and anaphylaxis .
6.3 Room fragrance and aromatherapy
In ancient times, peppermint was known as the herb of kindness and warmth, and it was the first herb used in Europe as a room deodorizer. To diminish the smell of soil, the floor was covered with a sprinkled herb which spread its sweet scent throughout the room. Nowadays, because of the essential oil, peppermint is used for aromatherapy .
7. Unfavorable and toxic effect
There are several adverse side effects regarding peppermint. Peppermint and its major chemical components like menthone, menthol, pulegone, and menthofuran are proved to be toxic with a moderate effect on some individuals. Its essential oil combines with the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme in the liver microsomes of humans. The use of peppermint is restricted or must be used with caution in patients having inflammation in gall bladder and blockage of bile duct  (Table 2).
The authors are highly obliged to the Library Department, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan and IT department, Higher Education Commission (HEC, Islamabad) for access to journals, books and valuable database.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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