Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Bioactive Molecules from Medicinal Plants as Functional Foods (Biscuits) for the Benefit of Human Health as Antidiabetic Potential

Written By

Ashwini Devaraj and Gayathri Mahalingam

Submitted: 25 January 2020 Reviewed: 09 July 2020 Published: 21 August 2020

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93352

From the Edited Volume

Bioactive Compounds in Nutraceutical and Functional Food for Good Human Health

Edited by Kavita Sharma, Kanchan Mishra, Kula Kamal Senapati and Corina Danciu

Chapter metrics overview

721 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Functional foods defined as “similar in appearance to a conventional food, and is demonstrated to have physiological benefits or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.” The leading role in food industry plays ultimately by the functional food. In recent days, the designing of a functional food with the incorporation of medicinal plants, which is the natural product is the familiar one. The medicinal plants are scientifically proven, lesser side effects, and eco-friendly in nature. Many food types are chosen for the development of functional food with the incorporation of medicinal plants. Diabetes mellitus is a major chronic disease which affects the basic metabolism of insulin secretion and insulin functioning on glucose clearance from the blood stream. The modern inactive life style of the population leads to obesity and ultimately results in the major risk of diabetes mellitus and other risk factors alongside. The therapeutic alteration for DM is to minimize the burden of disease, and the targeted people were advised to follow proper physical activity and nutrient intake with healthy weight gain. The disease targeted people were recommended with the proper diet intake which aims at consuming the functional food with the incorporation of medicinal plants.


  • functional food
  • medicinal plants
  • bioactive molecules
  • diabetes mellitus
  • nutrient intake

1. Introduction

In the recent days, the world has a strong belief in the field of food, which directly contributes to the human health. Each and every individual is aware of the food intake and its effects to the benefit of the health. The food which contains all vital nutrients not only to subside the hunger but also to provide essential nourishment apart from usual benefits. This will improve the physical and mental state of the human health in a disease free condition leads to a diet related therapeutic model for the lifestyle diseases [1]. Nowadays science and technology has its wide arm in every field because of the scientific evidence that proves the benefits and harmfulness of certain thing. In food technology also, the consumers see to the scientific evidence and proof for the beneficial effects of that food item to the health. Thus in the last few decades, the urge for the healthy combo of food demands the health promoting category in the food industry by the consumers [2]. Because of the modern life culture, the people are in hurry and fast, they were in need of fast foods and lead to change in their lifestyle. Thus, the emergence of lifestyle diseases started which is by the lack of physical activity, change in eating habits, taking unhealthy food in an unbalanced way and leads to hazardous health ill effects. The basic daily recommended dietary intake of macronutrients in gender wise is listed in Table 1.

Nutrients Carbohydrates (g/d) Fat (%K Cal) Protein (g/d) Total fiber (g/d)
Gender/category of age
9–13 year 130 34 31
14–18 year 130 52 38
19–30 year 130 25–35 56 38
31–50 year 130 56 38
51–70 year 130 56 30
>70 year 130 56 30
9–13 year 130 34 26
14–18 year 130 46 26
19–30 year 130 20–35 46 25
31-50 year 130 46 25
51-70 year 130 46 21
>70 year 130 46 21

Table 1.

Recommended daily dietary intake of macronutrients for individuals – gender and age [3].

Nutrient is the term to be explained or mentioned before the definition of bioactive components in and as food. The food is a combination of vital components in a proper ratio called balanced diet. The nourishment provided by the food for the healthy functioning of the human body is said to be the nutrients [4]. About 2500 years ago, the tenet “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” espoused Hippocrates receives interest nowadays. Lifestyle and diet intake are common couple factors responsible for major chronic diseases. Major lifestyle diseases like cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, and obesity, account for 63% annual deaths [5]. Non-communicable diseases are coined as lifestyle diseases, which are linked with the people nature of living and behavior involved in diet, lifestyle, and environment [6]. Thus, the food not only helps to promote health, physical development, and growth but also to prevent or treat various disorders and diseases. Some of the daily recommended nutritional elements gender wise is listed in Table 2.

Adult male Adult female
Energy (kcal) 2400–3000 2200
Protein(g) 56 50
Vit. A (IU) 900 800
Vit. D (IU) 600 600
Vit. C (IU) 90 75
Vit. E (IU) 15 15
Folate (mcg) 400 400
Ca (mg) 1000 800–1000
Ph (mg) 700 700
Fe (mg) 18 8
Zn (mg) 11 8
I (mg) 18 8
Se (mg) 55 55

Table 2.

Daily nutritional requirement in gender based on recommended dietary intakes [7].


2. Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most deadly chronic diseases with metabolic disorder which is associated with major life threatening complications. The diabetes is a growing global problem which affects the metabolism and results in many complications leads tom death at early stages of life. Diabetes is of three types: type 1 – non-insulin dependent diabetes, type 2 – insulin dependent diabetes, type 3 – gestational diabetes. According to international diabetic federation (IDF), type 2 diabetes is accounting 90% of worldwide diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in 2030 is 1.2 billion, where as in 2045, it increases to 1.3 billion unconditionally shown in Figure 1. It is mainly because of insulin insufficient secretion to lower the blood glucose level because of impairment of pancreatic beta cells. The elevated blood glucose level in the body is because of insulin impairment termed as insulin resistance. The major cause of insulin impaired diabetes is due to improper physical activity, unhealthy food habits, and increase of obese condition [8]. As defined by WHO, the obese condition and overweight of body are the major risk factors for the cause of diabetes [5]. The risk factors are directly correlated to the food intake, physical inactivity, and modern lifestyle, thus the energy imbalance plays a vital role in the prevalence of diabetes worldwide. Thus, the improper food habit and inactiveness of modern lifestyle inculcate the human life in a dangerous route where the people are unaware of diabetes emergence in their life. Prevalence of diabetes is estimated by sex among 65–99 years old adult population by IDF in Figure 2 [9].

Figure 1.

Prevalence of diabetes worldwide, IDF.

Figure 2.

Prevalence of diabetes estimated by sex among 65–99 years old adult population [7].

The major risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus are unhealthy eating, lack of physical exercise, obesity, and family epigenetics. Thus, the overeating of unhealthy food leads to increased body weight because of lack of exercise, results in obese condition. This obese condition portrays the beta cell destruction results in insulin impairment. It takes many years to exhibit the hyperglycemic condition in the body [10]. Various studies show that the high intake of fatty food gradually results in the lack of glucose resistant. The intake of unsaturated fatty acid is good for diabetic patients while the saturated and the Trans fats are associated with diabetic risk in a very high ratio. Reduced insulin secretion in the pancreas associated with decreased glucose uptake due to insulin excitation in muscles, also increased fundamental liver glucose production, thus glucose absorption in gastrointestinal tract is increased. This is the pathophysiological structure of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

2.1 Medicinal plants and DM

As earlier defined by WHO, the cure for diabetes mellitus is possibly from the usage of medicinal plants in the form of herbal medicine whose remedies and proportion are involved in the control of the same. The scientific evidence and therapeutic application of the medicinal plants is the ultimate goal for the researchers and healthcare systems in the management of diabetes [11]. From the olden days, the management of severe diseases has its loophole in the potential of some medicinal plants which acts as drugs. These are having high belief that the drugs prepared from the medicinal plants are lesser side effects, and risk of toxicity is minimal and free from harmful effects [12]. Thus, World Health Organization recommends the usage of medicinal plants of traditional methods for the management of diabetes mellitus because of its lesser side effects when compared to the synthetic drugs. The usage of medicinal plants is extensively benefited worldwide for the management of various diseases in the pharmaceutical industry. Since plants are the rich source of phytochemicals whose benefits are countless and endless. In the pharma industries for most of the chronic diseases, the drugs are synthesized by using 50% of the medicinal plants from the historical origin [13].

The complications of diabetes mellitus are countless, which leads to gradual impairment of vital body parts one by one. The challenging part of diabetes is its management for maintaining the blood glucose level to normal range. The traditional usage of medicinal plants for the management of diabetes because of the bioactive molecules present in it which fight against the condition [14]. From the ancient history, the medicinal plants are having its main role for the curing of many diseases which paves the way for the utilization of the same to the management of diabetes mellitus. Thus, our ancestors commonly used the medicinal plants in the food itself, and the leaf, stem, fruits, flowers, and roots all are utilized in the management of various diseases. This enlightens the idea of using medicinal plants in the management of DM.


3. Bioactive molecules and functional food

The plants whose bioactive molecules are so called phytochemicals, which makes the plant to be said as medicinal plant. The medicinal plants contain some potential biological properties that help the human beings to get rid of some diseases and protect them from hazardous health issues [15]. The application of phytochemicals is in many fields such as food industry, health and nutrition, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals also. Thus, medicinal plants are having ancient origin for the home made treatment and desirable beneficial effects to human health. The bioactive molecules are called so because it is the biologically active compounds which give additional nutritional value than the primary nutrition. Thus the food contains some additional nutritional value because of the bioactive molecules present in it said to be known as functional food. The phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, terpenes and antioxidants, and polyunsaturated fatty acids like omega 3 fatty acids containing foods are called as functional foods [16].

According to American dietetic association, functional foods are said to be the food and its components which provide some additional nutrition than the basic nutrition. Examples for the functional food are the fortified food, enhanced or enriched foods which are having good health impact for the growth and development [17]. The pharmaceutical compounds than giving as drug form it can be provided as nutritional supplement with added advantage [12]. The functional food is similar to normal conventional food but beyond normal physiological role, it is having additional nutritional content that said to be as enhanced, enriched, or fortified food [18]. The functional properties are added in many food products like bread, biscuits, powders, mixes, decoction, suranams, also as various forms. The addition of nutrient rich food stuff in all the diets like legumes, grains, nuts, fruits, and vegetables will eventually result in less glycemic index foods and low fat substances which are good for type 2 DM [19]. Various probiotics, prebiotics, and also combination of both called symbiotic combo of functional foods are utilized [20]. The risk factors of DM and link to food habit are stated in Figure 4.

Figure 4.

Risk factors of DM and link of food intake.

3.1 Functional food: biscuits

Among various functional foods, biscuits are of having wide range of advantages like a product with less moisture content, easily available, less cost, ready to consume at any time, can be prepared as varieties because of changing the proportion of the major ingredients. Biscuits can be made in wide functionality and nutritional value [21]. Biscuits are rich in cereal and best nutraceutical for delivery health benefits to the consumers in a right proportion. It can be used in the daily diet and improve the health state of human beings [22]. Biscuits can be available in different tastes, and variations also possess prolonged shelf life which suits all age group people [23]. In this review, especially biscuits are covered because of its efficacy and possess good functional properties in Table 3.

S. No. Medicinal plants Common names Bioactive molecules Functional food Reference
1 Lupinus albus Sweet white lupin (SWL) grains Dietary fiber and phenolic compounds SWL biscuits [24]
2 Cissus quadrangularis stem powder Hadjor Phytosterols, phenols, ascorbic acid, and calcite Biscuits and cookies [25]
3 Musa paradisiaca Banana Higher protein and phenol content Biscuits products [26]
4 Ipomoea batatas, Daucus carota, and Musa paradisiaca Sweet potato, carrot and banana Micro and macronutrients Whey protein and banana incorporated biscuits [27]
5 Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed Roselle seed Protein content, dietary fiber and micronutrients Biscuits and cookies [28]
6 Ammannia baccifera L. Monarch redstem Phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids Drug formulation [29]
7 Lepidium sativum Garden cress seed Proteins, minerals and essential amino acids Garden cress seed biscuit [30]
8 (Fragaria ananassa) extract (Fisetin) Strawberry Fisetin – a flavonol Biscuits [31]
9 Beta vulgaris Sugar beet molasses Protein potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron content. Ginger nut type biscuits [21]
10 Phaseolus vulgaris Common bean Improved nutritional properties Biscuits [32]
11 Betifore-type Egyptian butter cookie type α-amylase added Cookies [21]
12 (Avena sativa), and maltitol Oats Inulin, a fructooligosachararide (FOS) Biscuits [33]
13 (Musa species), (Citrus sinensis), (Citrullus lanatus), (Ananas cosmosus) and (Carica papaya) Banana, oranges, watermelon, pineapple, pawpaw High fiber Biscuits [34]
14 Cinnamomum verum Cinnamon powder Protein and dietary fiber Butter biscuits [35]
15 De-oiled peanut meal flour (DPMF) Nutritionally rich Biscuits [36]
16 Amla (Emblica officianalis), (Moringa oleifera) and (Vitis vinifera) Drumstick leaves, raisins. Antioxidant effect Biscuits [37]
17 Hylocereus undatus Pitaya Nutritional quality Biscuits [38]
18 Fructo - ligosaccharide (FOS), A prebiotic soluble fiber Cookies [39]
19 Vitis Grape Seed Powder Fatty acids and tocopherols Iranian Sangak Bread [40]
20 Beta vulgaris L. Beetroot Antioxidants Mayonnaise [41]
21 Curcuma longa L. Turmeric flower Formulating healthy cookie Cookies [42]
22 Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) Protein and fiber content Cookies [43]
23 Carica papaya Papaya pulp flour (PPuF) Protein and fiber content Cookies [44]
24 Sour cherry pomace extract Polyphenols anthocyanins, antioxidant activity Cookies [45]
25 Linum usitatissimum flour Flaxseed Dietary fiber and linolenic acid Cakes [46]
26 Hordeum vulgare, Brassica nigra, Linum usitatissimum Barley mustard, defatted mustard, flaxseed meal and flaxseed oil Lowering blood lipids Functional prebiotic biscuits [47]
27 Citrus limetta Sweet lime Antioxidant potential Herbal Juice [48]
28 Moringa olifera leaves Drumstick leaves Beta-carotene Biscuits [49]
29 Holy Basil and Moringa Thulasi Protein and fiber enriched Herbal biscuit [50]
30 Inulin (Raftilin) (in combination with one of the following raw materials: soy flour, amaranth, carob apple fiber or oat fiber) Essential mineral (Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Fe) content and protein content Biscuits [51]
31 Psyllium fiber content Fiber incorporation Biscuits [23]
32 Green tea extract (GTE) was Stability Biscuits [52]
33 (Trigonella foenum graecum) and (Momorodica charantia), Gudmar leaves Fenugreek seeds, bitter gourd fruit. Hypoglycemic properties Idli and vegetable soup [53]
34 Moringa oleifera Drumstick Nutritional value of food Fortifying amala (stiff dough), ogi (maize gruel), bread, bis-cuits, yoghurt, cheese [54]
35 Sesamum indicum powder Black sesame Antioxidant properties Cookies [55]
36 (Musa species), (Citrus sinensis), (Citrullus lanatus), (Ananas cosmosus), and (Carica papaya) Banana, oranges, watermelon, pineapple, pawpaw Dietary fiber, antidiabetic Fiber-enriched cake [56]
37 Mangifera indica L. Mango Phenolic content Biscuits [57]
38 Trigonella foenum graecum L Fenugreek Saponins Biscuits [58]
39 Soybean (Glycine max), Mushroom Mushroom, soy bean Protein supplemented cereal snack Biscuits [59]
40 Multigrain flour Bengal gram flour (BGF),germinated pearl millet Reduced -calorie Biscuits [60]
41 Spinacia oleracea L. Spinach Antioxidant properties Biscuits [61]
42 Spirulina platensis Spirulina Antioxidant activity Biscuits [62]

Table 3.

The incorporation of various bioactive molecules from the medicinal plants in the functional food – biscuits.


4. Conclusion

The functional food acts as a bridge between the nutritional diet and healthy living. The importance of medicinal plant incorporation is well known by the public from the ancient time but they were unaware of it. Nowadays its innovative way of incorporation in many kinds of food by means of scientific approach in order to avoid all kinds of queries and confusions is well understood. Overall, the maintenance of healthy living through nutritional approach is by the consumption of medicinal plant incorporated functional food also by having a physical activity to prevent the diseases from consuming life and have a healthy weight gain to avoid unnecessary health issues and sufferings. The potentiality and consequences of functional food suggest many inspiring opportunities on the whole. As a segment of a varied diet, on regular basis at effective levels, the consumption of functional food is recommended to major nutrition-related chronic diseases. For effective strategy in health claims, the functional food acts as one of the part of it, to maximize health and minimize the disease risk. The successful cyclic promo of functional food is depicted in Figure 5. From the novel idea in theory form have to cross many barriers like evidence, reviews, marketing, and publications results in the final destination the prototype, is product development.

Figure 5.

Functional food creation to success – a cyclic health promo. Source:



The authors wish to show their gratitude to the chancellor of Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India for providing all the support to achieve the present research process.


Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.



No external funding received for the research.


  1. 1. Siro I, Kapolna E, Kapolna B, Lugasi A. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance — A review. Appetite. 2008;51:456-467
  2. 2. Corbo MR, Bevilacqua A, Petruzzi L, Casanova FP, Sinigaglia M. Functional beverages: The emerging side of functional foods commercial trends, research, and health implications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2014;13:1192-1206
  3. 3. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005. pp. 1-1331
  4. 4. Skerrett PJ, Willett WC. Essentials of healthy eating: A guide. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2010;55(6):492-501
  5. 5. WHO. Global report on diabetes. Vol. 58. World Health Organization; 2016
  6. 6. Manjula K, Suneetha C. Designer foods-their role in preventing lifestyle disorders. International Journal of Science and Nature. 2011;2(4):878-882
  7. 7. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2006. pp. 2-5
  8. 8. IDF Diabetes Atlas. In: Karuranga S, Malanda B, Pouya Saeedi PS, editors. International Diabetes Federation. 9th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2019
  9. 9. Sinclair A, Saeedi P, Kaundal A, Karuranga S, Malanda B, Williams R. Diabetes and global ageing among 65 – 99-year-old adults: Findings from the international diabetes federation diabetes atlas, 9 th edition. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2020;162:108078
  10. 10. Lindström J, Virtanen SM. Functional foods and prevention of diabetes. Functional Foods: Concept to Product: Second Edition. Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2011. 261-276 p.
  11. 11. Ezuruike UF, Prieto JM. The use of plants in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria: Pharmacological and toxicological considerations. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;155(2):857-924
  12. 12. Ramalingum N, Mahomoodally MF. The therapeutic potential of medicinal foods. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. 2014;2014. Article ID: 354264
  13. 13. Fehresti Sani M, Montasser Kouhsari S, Moradabadi L. Effects of three medicinal plants extracts in experimental diabetes: Antioxidant enzymes activities and plasma lipids profiles in comparison with metformin. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012;11(3):897-903
  14. 14. Tiwari AK, Madhusudana RJ. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: Present status and future prospects. Current Science. 2002;83(1):30-38
  15. 15. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. London New York: Chapman and Hall; 1973. pp. 1-278
  16. 16. Monjiote DP, Leo EEM, Campos MRS. Functional and biological potential of bioactive compounds in foods for the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Functional Food - Improve Health through Adequate Food. London: IntechOpen; 2017. pp. 143-163
  17. 17. American Dietetic Association. Position of the American dietetic association: Functional foods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2009;109(4):735-746
  18. 18. Spence JT. Challenges related to the composition of functional foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2006;19:2005-2007
  19. 19. Mirmiran P, Bahadoran Z, Azizi F. Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review. World Journal of Diabetes. 2014;5(3):267-281
  20. 20. Cencic A, Chingwaru W. The role of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health. Nutrients. 2010;2:611-625
  21. 21. Filipcev B, Simurina O, Bodroza-Solarov M. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;51(11):3163-3171
  22. 22. Kumar PKP, Manohar RS, Indiramma AR, Krishna AGG. Stability of oryzanol fortified biscuits on storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;51(10):2552-2559
  23. 23. Raymundo A, Fradinho P, Nunes MC. Effect of Psyllium fibre content on the textural and rheological characteristics of biscuit and biscuit dough. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 2014;3(2):96-105
  24. 24. Mousa R, Mousa A. Formulation of reduced calorie and trans-free fat biscuits using palm oil and sucralose: Study of their hypoglycemic activity on albino rats. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2015;3(6):131-140
  25. 25. Karadbhajne SV, Kumbhare V, Bombaywala MA. Application of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Hadjor) in Nutraceutical food (bakery) products. International Journal of ChemTech Research. 2014;6(4):2263-2270
  26. 26. Elaveniya E, Jayamuthunagai J. Functional, physicochemical and anti-oxidant properties of dehydrated banana blossom powder and its incorporation in biscuits. International Journal of ChemTech Research. 2014;6(9):4446-4454
  27. 27. Devika I, Banu AT. Development of value added biscuit for people living with human immuno deficiency virus. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2016;7(2):390-394
  28. 28. Nyam K, Leao S, Tan C, Long K. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;51(12):3830-3837
  29. 29. Poornima V, Jeyam M. Assessing the nutraceutical significance of the medicinal herb ammannia baccifera l. by proximate, mineral analysis and phytochemical screening. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2016;2(5):65-71
  30. 30. Patil DD, Lal EA, Nandkule VD. Development and quality evaluation of garden cress seed biscuits. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. 2015;3(3):770-774
  31. 31. Surnis MSA, Patil PS, Jadhav RH. Extraction, isolation and quantification of bioactive compound (Fisetin) and its product formulation. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology. 2016;5(08):56-58
  32. 32. Sparvoli F, Laureati M, Pilu R, Pagliarini E, Toschi I, Giuberti G, et al. Exploitation of common bean flours with low antinutrient content for making nutritionally enhanced biscuits. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2016;7(6):928
  33. 33. Stamataki NS, Nikolidaki EK, Yanni AE, Stoupaki M, Konstantopoulos P, Tsigkas A, et al. Evaluation of a High Nutritional Quality Snack Based on Oat Flakes and Inulin: Effects on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin and Ghrelin Responses of Healthy Subjects. Food & Function. 2016;7(7):3295-3303
  34. 34. Erukainure OL, Ebuehi OAT, Adeboyejo FO, Okafor EN, Muhammad A, Elemo GN. Fiber-enriched biscuit enhances insulin secretion, modulates beta-cell function, improves insulin sensitivity, and attenuates hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats. PharmaNutrition. 2013;1(2):58-64
  35. 35. Ng SH, Wan Rosli WI. Effect of cinnamon powder addition on nutritional composition, physical properties and sensory acceptability of butter biscuits. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition. 2014;20(2):245-253
  36. 36. Yadav DN, Thakur N, Sunooj KV. Effect of de-oiled peanut meal flour (DPMF) on the textural, organoleptic and physico chemical properties of bread. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2012;20(3):471-476
  37. 37. Reddy V, Urooj A, Kumar A. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their application in biscuits. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(1-2):317-321
  38. 38. Ho L-H, Abdul Latif NW. Binti. Nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory evaluation of cookies prepared from wheat flour and pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) peel flour blends. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2016;2(1):1-10
  39. 39. Handa C, Goomer S, Siddhu A. Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of fructoligosaccharide enriched cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2012;49(2):192-199
  40. 40. Peighambardoust S, Aghamirzaei M. Physicochemical , nutritional, shelf life and sensory properties of Iranian Sangak bread fortified with grape seed powder. Journal of Food Processing & Technology. 2014;5(10):1-5
  41. 41. Raikos V, McDonagh A, Ranawana V, Duthie G. Processed beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)as a natural antioxidant in mayonnaise: Effects on physical stability, texture and sensory attributes. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2016;5(4):191-198
  42. 42. Azmi NS, Bhat R, Yeoh TK. Quality evaluation of novel cookies prepared by supplementing with fresh turmeric flower (Curcuma longa L.) extracts as a value added functional ingredient. International Food Research Journal. 2016;23(4):1514-1522
  43. 43. Petrovic J, Pajin B, Tanackov-Kocic S, Pejin J, Fistes A, Bojanic N, et al. Quality properties of cookies supplemented with fresh brewer’s spent grain. Food and Feed Research. 2017;44(1):57-63
  44. 44. Varastegani B, Zzaman W, Yang TA. Investigation on physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies substituted with papaya pulp flour. Journal of Food Quality. 2015;38(3):175-183
  45. 45. Tumbas Saponjac V, Cetkovic G, Canadanovic-Brunet J, Pajin B, Djilas S, Petrovic J, et al. Sour cherry pomace extract encapsulated in whey and soy proteins: Incorporation in cookies. Food Chemistry. 2016;207:27-33
  46. 46. Moraes EA, de Souza Dantas MI, de Castro Morais D, da Silva CO, de Castro FAF, Martino HSD, et al. Aguiar SMRRE, Maria Ines de Souza Dantra SMRR. Sensory evaluation and nutritional value of cakes prepared with whole flaxseed flour. Food Science and Technology International: SAGE Journals. 2010;30(4):974-979
  47. 47. Hassan AA, Rasmy NM, Foda MI, Bahgaat WK. Production of functional biscuits for lowering blood lipids. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences. 2012;7(1):1-20
  48. 48. Aarti H. Quality evaluation of herbal juice developed from traditional Indian medicinal plants using Citrus limetta as base. Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences. 2015;5(5):396-400
  49. 49. Rathnayake ARMHA, Navarathna SB. Utilization of Moringa olifera leaves as a functional food ingredient in bakery industry. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2015;6(2):339-344
  50. 50. Alam MA, Alam J, Hakim A, Huq AKO, Golam Moktadir SM. Development of fiber enriched herbal biscuits: A preliminary study on sensory evaluation and chemical composition. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 2014;3(4):246-250
  51. 51. Vitali D, Dragojević IV, Šebečić B. Effects of incorporation of integral raw materials and dietary fibre on the selected nutritional and functional properties of biscuits. Food Chemistry. 2009;114(4):1462-1469
  52. 52. Sharma A, Zhou W. A stability study of green tea catechins during the biscuit making process. Food Chemistry. 2011;126(2):568-573
  53. 53. Goel S, Kochar GK, Kaur T, Goel MS. Development and organoleptic evaluation of food preparations incorporated with selected antidiabetic medicinal plants. Ethno-Medicine. 2011;5(2):101-106
  54. 54. Oyeyinka AT, Oyeyinka SA. Moringa oleifera as a food fortificant: Recent trends and prospects. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2016;17(2):127-136
  55. 55. Lim JA, Lee JH. Quality and antioxidant properties of cookies supplemented with with black sesame powder. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 2015;44(7):1058-1063
  56. 56. Erukainure OL, Ebuehi OAT, Adeboyejo FO, Aliyu M, Elemo GN. Hematological and biochemical changes in diabetic rats fed with fiber-enriched cake. Journal of Acute Medicine. 2013;3(2):39-44
  57. 57. Ashoush IS, Gadallah MGE. Utilization of mango peels and seed kernels powders as sources of phytochemicals in biscuit. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences. 2011;6(1):35-42
  58. 58. El-azeem ASA, Hegazy AM, Afifi AA. Physiochemical, sensory and nutritional properties of corn-fenugreek flour composite biscuits. 2011;5(4):84-95
  59. 59. Mohajan TF. Effect of incorporation of soy flour to wheat flour on nutritional and sensory quality of biscuits fortified with mushroom. Food Science & Nutrition. 2015;3(5):363-369
  60. 60. Aggarwal D, Sabikhi L, Sathish Kumar MH. Formulation of reduced-calorie biscuits using artificial sweeteners and fat replacer with dairy-multigrain approach. NFS Journal. 2016;2:1-7
  61. 61. Galla NR, Pamidighantam PR, Karakala B, Gurusiddaiah R, Akula S. Nutritional, textural and sensory quality of biscuits supplemented with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science. 2017;7(December 2016):20-26
  62. 62. Singh P, Singh R, Jha A, Rasane P, Gautam AK. Optimization of a process for high fibre and high protein biscuit. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(3):1394-1403

Written By

Ashwini Devaraj and Gayathri Mahalingam

Submitted: 25 January 2020 Reviewed: 09 July 2020 Published: 21 August 2020