Questionnaire of highly qualified athletes involved in five-a-side blind football.
This article presents the results of studies on the motivation of highly qualified athletes involved in Paralympics sport football five-a-side, which was held at the international friendly tournament in Silvi Marina (Italy) in June 2018. The main factors determining the importance of results in achieving the results are physical and mental stresses corresponding to critical values. The study of sports motivation of qualified Paralympics football players of the national team of the Russian Federation began with the definition of a list of motives for playing football five-a-side (sports of the blind). Analysis and generalization of literary sources made it possible to form an extended circle of motivation, and interviewing and questioning current athletes and coaches, allowed to determine the list of motives of highly qualified athletes, included in the questionnaire for study. The study involved active athletes of the youth and main staff of the Russian national team. Football players represented three regions: Moscow, Moscow Region, and the Republic of Mari El. In total, 13 respondents took part in the survey. The data obtained were statistically processed using the method of average values (calculations were performed using the standard Microsoft Excel for Windows software package).
- Paralympics sport
- five-a-side blind football
- national sport team of Russia
- highly qualified athletes
- sports training management
The development of adaptive sports in Russia at the territorial level is not evenly. Often several cities, regions or republics cultivate only a single species; therefore, athletes from two or three regions form the country’s national sport team.
The problems of developing Paralympic futsal (blind sports) remain without due attention, and only a few regions are actively involved in resolving them. One of these problems is the methodological content of the sports training programs for the sports reserve for five-a-side blind football. The program should include best practices in training the national team of the country, be applied in nature. The normative and methodological documentation for this Paralympics discipline is not informative or completely absent today, which means that there are no guidelines for the development of sports training programs both in the country as a whole and in the regions separately. The current methodological and used material is formal and borrowed from other sports, often intended for healthy athletes.
The study draws the attention of trainers and specialists about the need to apply a scientific and methodological approach to managing the training process not only in the preparation of high-class players of the national team, but also in the sports reserve at earlier stages of preparation.
2. Motives of training and sport routine highly qualified athletes of five-a-side blind football national sport team of Russia
In recent decades, the sport of the blind in the world is developing at a rapid pace. In the Russian Federation, according to the All-Russian Register of Sports, the sport of the blind includes 203 sports disciplines in 9 sports included in the program of the Paralympic Games (cycling tandem, goal ball, judo, athletics, swimming, futsal, skiing, ski racing, biathlon) .
The number of sporting events, both international and national, is increasing annually, and the number of participants is growing. With close cooperation between the federations, state, and public organizations of the disabled, significant work is underway to develop various sports for the visually impaired. Experienced coaches train disabled athletes (hereinafter referred to as athletes) for the national teams of Russia and the Russian Paralympic team. Together with the Russian Ministry of Sports, national and international competitions of various levels are organized and held. Particular attention is paid to working with children from sponsored boarding schools who undergo rehabilitation in clubs and sections .
Moreover, according to the President of the Blind Sports Federation Abramova Lidia Pavlovna, there is a tendency in Russia to uneven development sports disciplines of the sport of the blind at the regional level. Five-a-side blind football did not pass this trend, despite the fact that, along with athletics, swimming and ski racing, it is the most popular sport among blind and visually impaired people [3, 4].
So, in Moscow, Moscow Region, Nizhny Novgorod Region, the Republic of Dagestan, the Republic of Mari El and the Republic of Tatarstan, the Khabarovsk Territory, much attention is paid to the development of 5 × 5 (B1) indoor football (blind sports) (hereinafter referred to as five-a-side blind football), then in other regions this is not observed. Today, problems associated with the training of qualified coaching personnel, the lack of a special methodology for training athletes and insufficient provision of scientific and methodological literature for the preparation of a sports reserve continue to remain unresolved [5, 6].
In this regard, for a more effective development of five-a-side blind football, it is necessary to resolve problems associated with the insufficient development of a scientifically based system for training coaches and athletes in this sport. It also requires refinement and improvement of the methodological content of the content of sports training programs, which should be based on many years of experience in training highly qualified Paralympic futsal players, players of the national team of the Russian Federation, demonstrating high results at international competitions in recent years. The sport of the highest achievements is associated with high social significance, a public assessment of successes and failures, publicity, interaction with the media. In stressful situations of competitive activity, under equal training conditions, when physical and mental stress reaches a critical value, the level of motivation and personal characteristics are crucial in achieving the result .
A highly qualified athlete enters into complex interactions and relationships with the chosen sport, which in turn presents special specific requirements for physical qualities, behavioral habits, personal characteristics, and his sports motivation. Therefore, it is so important for a high-class athlete, along with full compliance with the requirements of the sport, exceptional sports motivation, which will allow him to realize his potential, achieve high sports results, and become one of the best athletes in his country.
In parallel with this study, we carried out work on the study of the main motives for playing five-a-side blind football of qualified Italian football players .
Prerequisites for the work were the thesis based on scientific and methodological literature and coaching experience, according to which not all athletes who are gifted by nature achieve significant success. Therefore, the determination of the motivation features of highly qualified athletes can help the trainer not only in planning sports training with the optimal amount of training and competition load, but also in creating pedagogical conditions for implementing this training program.
Among the active domestic Russian researchers of motives, motives of sports activities in individual sports, issues of motivation in adaptive sports, A. A. Antonov, E. G. Babushkin, G. D. Babushkin, G. D. Gorbunov, G. B. Gorskaya, E. P. Ilyin, N. D. Ivanova, T. E. Kazakova, A. V. Korneva, M. A. Korneva, E. B. Kuzmin, A. S. Makhov, L. R. Makina, A. N. Nikolaev, E. A. Osokina, E. Yu. Pelikh, R. A. Piloyan, P. A. Rudik, O. M. Rumyantseva, O. G. Rysakova, A. V. Shaboltas, O. N. Stepanova, Zhabakov T. V., A. V. Zhalilov and E. G. Znamenskaya [2, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15].
Despite the great attention to sports motivation by scientists and experts in the field of physical culture and sports, an analysis of domestic Russian scientific literature showed that the motivation of high-class athletes has not been studied enough. Moreover, the study of the motives of sports activity of athletes in team types of adaptive sports was not carried out at all before.
2.1 Research methods and organization
The study of sports motivation of qualified Paralympic football players of the national team of the Russian Federation began with the definition of a list of motives for playing five-a-side blind football. Analysis and generalization of literary sources allowed us to form an expanded circle of motivation [2, 10, 14, 15], and interviewing and questioning existing athletes and coaches that are part of the country’s youth and main Paralympic futsal team, allowed us to determine the list of motives of highly qualified athletes, included in the questionnaire for this study (Table 1).
The research group of state-financed institution of the Republic of Mari El “Sports-adaptive school of Paralympic reserve” (Yoshkar-Ola) and the Russian state social University (Moscow) addresses to you. Could you please answer the questionnaire?
Please give us some information about yourself: your age is _________.
Place of residence (country, city) __________________________.
Below you can find a list of motives of qualified athletes to practice five-a-side blind football, evaluate the importance of each of them on a 10-point scale.
|Extremely important||Very important||Quite important||Not very important||It does not matter|
|Write down the chosen rate|
|1||Постоянно находишься в состоянии физического или эмоционального напряжения||You are always in a state of physical or emotional stress||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|2||Мотивом является достижение успеха, которое постоянно подкрепляется промежуточными достижениями: гол, победа, медаль||Your motive is achievement of success which is constantly supported by intermediate achievements: a goal, a victory, a medal||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|3||Развивает характер, психические и физические качества||Develops character, mental and physical qualities||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|4||Совершенствование личностных качеств таких, как выдержка, воля, взаимопомощь, терпение||Improvement of personal qualities such as endurance, will, mutual assistance, patience||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|5||Нравится сам процесс спортивной подготовки и её составляющие компоненты: тренировки, сборы, товарищеские игры, контрольные соревнования и т.д||You like the process of sports training and its components: training, training camps, friendly games, control competitions, etc.||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|6||Одобрение и поддержка со стороны значимых для меня людей: родственников, друзей, других близких людей||Approval and support from important people for me: relatives, friends, other close people||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|7||Способ удовлетворения потребности в новых ощущениях, и стремление доказать, что способен на большее||A way to meet the need for new sensations, and the desire to prove that you are capable to do more||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|8||Возможность проявить себя, свои способности, умения, личностные качества||The opportunity to express yourself, your abilities, skills, personal qualities||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|9||Возможность выплеснуть эмоции, снять нервное и психическое напряжение||The ability to throw out emotions, relieve nervous and mental tension||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|10||Требования данного вида спорта понятны и близки моим внутренним убеждениям и ценностям||The requirements of this sport are clear and close to my inner beliefs and values||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|11||Занимаюсь уже давно, привык, ничего другого не умею||I’m engaged in this activity for a long time. I got used to, and cannot do anything else||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|12||Способствует организованности, в том числе и в повседневной жизни||Contributes to the organization, including everyday life||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|13||Высокий престиж побед в крупных соревнованиях||High prestige of victories in major competitions||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|14||Спорт высших достижений способ материального и финансового обеспечения себя и своей семьи||Sport of the highest achievements as a way of material and financial support for myself and my family||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|15||Возможность попасть в состав национальной сборной и представлять свою страну на международных соревнованиях||The opportunity to join the national team and represent my country at international competitions||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|16||Стремление совершенствовать свои способности, нет предела совершенства||The desire to improve my abilities, there is no limit to perfection||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|17||Чтобы после окончания карьеры игрока попробовать себя в качестве тренера||To try myself as a coach after retiring as a player||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|18||Чтобы получить специальность и стать спортивным чиновником для продвижения своего вида спорта, сделать его популярным||To get a specialty and become a sports official to promote this sport, make it popular||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|19||Потому что это красивый вид спорта||Because this kind of sport is very beautiful||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|20||Чтобы иметь больше друзей и товарищей||To have more friends||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|21||Расширить свой кругозор и мировоззрение||To broaden my horizons and outlook||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|22||Мне приятно, когда хвалит и одобряет тренер||I am pleased when the coach praises and approves me||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|23||Потому, что спортивный зал (спортивная база) близко (−а) от дома||Sports hall (sports facilities) is close to my house||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|24||Это такой вид спорта, где можно тренироваться индивидуально, независимо от других||This is a sport where you can train individually, regardless of others||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|25||Желание быть среди лучших и выдающихся спортсменов||Desire to be one of the best and outstanding athletes||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|26||Желание стать мастером спорта (мастером спорта международного класса)||Desire to become a master of sports (master of sports of international class)||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|27||Семейная традиция, родители (брат или сестра) занимались спортом||Family tradition, parents (brother or sister) are engaged in sports||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|28||Приятно испытывать чувство выполненного долга перед товарищами по команде||It’s nice to feel a sense of accomplishment in front of teammates||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|29||Приятно, когда спортсменов показывают по телевидению, когда о них говорят по радио, пишут в газетах и журналах||It’s nice when athletes are shown on television, when people talk about them on the radio, in newspapers and magazines||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|30||Нравится присутствие на соревнованиях родственников, друзей, товарищей, которые болеют за меня и восхищаются достигнутыми успехами||I like when my relatives, friends support me and admire my achievements||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|31||Чтобы бросить дурные привычки, порвать с дурной компанией, отдалиться от улицы||To quit bad habits, break with bad company, move away from the street||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|32||Чтобы быстрее восстановиться после перенесенной болезни (травмы)||To recover quickly from illness (injury)||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|33||Приятно испытывать радость побед||It’s nice to experience the joy of the victory||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|34||Считаю, что только в этом виде спорта смогу достичь значительных успехов||I believe that only in this sport I will be able to achieve significant success||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|35||Пригласил заниматься тренер||My coach invited me to join the team||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|36||Чтобы оправдать надежды, возлагаемые на меня тренером, родителями||To live up to the hopes of my coach, parents||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|37||Чтобы быть более привлекательным для противоположного пола||To be more attractive to the opposite sex||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|38||Потому что занятия спортом повышают чувство собственного достоинства||Because doing sports increases self-esteem||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|39||Желание стать чемпионом страны, Европы, мира и Паралимпийских игр||Desire to become the champion of the country, Europe, the world and Paralympic games||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
|40||Желание стать лидером, капитаном команды||Desire to become a leader, a captain of the team||10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1|
Respondents were asked to indicate the degree (point) of importance of the proposed motives on a 10-point scale (1 point-minimum, 10 points-maximum). Moreover, depending on the degree of significance of the motive, expressed in points, the answers were divided into groups: 9–10 points: “extremely important”, 7–8 points: “very important”, 5–6 points: “pretty important”, 3–4 points: “not very important”, 1–2 points: “absolutely not important”.
The questionnaire was conducted in June 2018 during the period in which the international friendly football tournament 5 × 5 (B1) (sport of the blind) was held in Silvi Marina (Italy). The study involved active athletes of the youth and main staff of the Russian national team. Football players represented three regions: Moscow, Moscow Region and the Republic of Mari El. In total, 13 respondents took part in the survey. The data obtained were statistically processed using the method of average values (calculations were performed using the standard Microsoft Excel for Windows software package).
2.2 Results and its discussion
Questioning of Russian highly qualified Paralympic futsal players showed that four motives are not significant and are classified in the category “Absolutely not important” (1–2 points). Three motives scored an equal low average (X) value: “To get a specialty and become a sports official to promote this sport, make it popular”; “Sports hall (sports facilities) is close to my house”; “I like when my relatives, friends support me and admire my achievements”—2.538. Also included in this category is the motive “To quit bad habits, break with bad company, move away from the street” with an average of 2.923. Values of mode (Mo) in the group of motives “Absolutely not important”—1 point, medians (Me)—2–3 points; the standard error (m) from 0.40 to 0.62 indicates the unanimity of the opinion of the athletes and the regularity of falling of these motives in the category of “absolutely not important”.
The motive group “Not very important” (3–4 points) is the largest, 15 motives from the average value of 3.462 (“Approval and support from important people for me: relatives, friends, other close people”) to 4.923 (“I’m engaged in this activity for a long time. I got used to, and can’t do anything else”). The group is characterized by equal values of analytical indicators: mode from 1 to 5 points, median—2-5 points, standard deviation (σ) does not exceed the value of 3.26 points, and the error is not more than 0.9 points. The homogeneity of the motives of this group under consideration is confirmed by the indicators of excess (Ex) and asymmetry (As) close to the symmetric distribution. The motive group “Quite important” (5–6 points) consists of 10 motives from 5.154 (“To be more attractive to the opposite sex”) to 6.692 (“Desire to become a master of sports (master of sports of international class)”). The group is characterized by a symmetrical distribution, close points of the mean, mode and median. The values of the standard deviation and standard error also do not stand out from the general trend. Everything speaks of the homogeneity of the motives in question and the same opinion of the respondents regarding them.
The motives category (7–8 points) included motives with an average score of 7.154–8.769 (indicated by increasing average value): “The opportunity to express yourself, your abilities, skills, personal qualities”, “The desire to improve my abilities, there is no limit to perfection”, “It’s nice to feel a sense of accomplishment in front of teammates”, “Desire to become the champion of the country, Europe, the world and Paralympic games”, “Develops character, mental and physical qualities”, “Improvement of personal qualities such as endurance, will, mutual assistance, patience”, “The opportunity to join the national team and represent my country at international competitions”, “High prestige of victories in major competitions” and “Your motive is achievement of success which is constantly supported by intermediate achievements: a goal, a victory, a medal”. Despite a slight divergence of motives in terms of analytical indicators in each individual case, the general characteristic of their homogeneity and regularity of attribution to this group remains.
The most significant and relevant motives for the respondents-players of the Russian national team (9–10 points) were the motive “It’s nice to experience the joy of the victory” with average value of 9.0 and the motive “Sport of the highest achievements as a way of material and financial support for myself and my family”-9.462. In both cases, the median and mode correspond to the average score, the standard deviation is close to unity, and the error showed no more than 0.3 points. The exponents of the symmetric distribution of Ex and As are close to the normal distribution (Table 2).
|Rank of relevance||Questionnaire number||Motives of qualified athletes||Average score, X (points)||Standard error, m (points)||Median, Me (points)||Mode, Mo (points)||Standard deviation, σ (points)|
|1||14||Sport of the highest achievements as a way of material and financial support for myself and my family||9462||0.27||10||10||0.97|
|2||33||It’s nice to experience the joy of the victory||9000||0.30||9||10||1.08|
|3||2||Your motive is achievement of success which is constantly supported by intermediate achievements: a goal, a victory, a medal||8769||0.32||9||10||1.17|
|4||13||High prestige of victories in major competitions||8769||0.39||9||10||1.42|
|5||15||The opportunity to join the national team and represent my country at international competitions||8692||0.36||9||10||1.32|
|6||4||Improvement of personal qualities such as endurance, will, mutual assistance, patience||8385||0.31||8||8||1.12|
|7||3||Develops character, mental and physical qualities||8077||0.33||8||8||1.19|
|8||39||Desire to become the champion of the country, Europe, the world and Paralympic games||7846||0.82||10||10||2.94|
|9||28||It’s nice to feel a sense of accomplishment in front of teammates||7615||0.38||8||8||1.39|
|10||16||The desire to improve my abilities, there is no limit to perfection||7538||0.62||8||10||2.22|
|11||8||The opportunity to express yourself, your abilities, skills, personal qualities||7154||0.32||7||8||1.14|
|12||26||Desire to become a master of sports (master of sports of international class)||6692||0.80||7||10||2.87|
|13||25||Desire to be one of the best and outstanding athletes||6538||0.78||7||5||2.82|
|14||22||I am pleased when the coach praises and approves me||5846||0.72||5||5||2.61|
|15||12||Contributes to the organization, including everyday life||5769||0.52||6||5||1.88|
|16||7||A way to meet the need for new sensations, and the desire to prove that you are capable to do more||5692||0.38||6||5||1.38|
|17||38||Because doing sports increases self-esteem||5692||0.73||6||6||2.63|
|18||36||To live up to the hopes of my coach, parents||5538||0.62||7||7||2.22|
|19||5||You like the process of sports training and its components: training, training camps, friendly games, control competitions, etc.||5308||0.29||5||5||1.03|
|20||1||You are always in a state of physical or emotional stress||5154||0.54||5||5||1.95|
|21||37||To be more attractive to the opposite sex||5154||0.64||5||6||2.30|
|22||11||I’m engaged in this activity for a long time. I got used to, and cannot do anything else||4923||0.55||4||4||1.98|
|23||34||I believe that only in this sport I will be able to achieve||4846||0.42||5||5||1.52|
|24||32||To recover quickly from illness (injury)||4769||0.39||5||5||1.42|
|25||35||My coach invited me to join the team||4615||0.83||4||3||2.99|
|26||40||Desire to become a leader, a captain of the team||4538||0.78||4||1||2.82|
|27||27||Family tradition, parents (brother or sister) are engaged in sports||4462||0.90||5||1||3.26|
|28||9||The ability to throw out emotions, relieve nervous and mental tension||4385||0.29||4||4||1.04|
|29||10||The requirements of this sport are clear and close to my inner beliefs and values||4154||0.61||5||5||2.19|
|30||24||This is a sport where you can train individually, regardless of others||4077||0.58||3||3||2.10|
|31||29||It’s nice when athletes are shown on television, when people talk about them on the radio, in newspapers and magazines||4077||0.43||4||3||1.55|
|32||19||Because this kind of sport is very beautiful||4000||0.38||4||4||1.35|
|33||20||To have more friends||3846||0.77||3||2||2.79|
|34||17||To try myself as a coach after retiring as a player||3615||0.65||4||1||2.33|
|35||21||To broaden my horizons and outlook||3615||0.77||2||2||2.79|
|36||6||Approval and support from important people for me: relatives, friends, other close people||3462||0.43||3||3||1.56|
|37||31||To quit bad habits, break with bad company, move away from the street||2923||0.45||3||1||1.61|
|38||18||To get a specialty and become a sports official to promote this sport, make it popular||2538||0.62||2||1||2.22|
|39||23||Sports hall (sports facilities) is close to my house||2538||0.40||3||1||1.45|
|40||30||I like when my relatives, friends support me and admire my achievements||2538||0.43||2||1||1.56|
Summarizing the results, it should be emphasized the homogeneity and the same attitude of the Russian national team players to the motives proposed in the questionnaire to engage in five-a-side blind football. The values of the totality of analytical indicators reinforce the conclusion about the regularity of ranking and classifying each motive in the corresponding category of significance.
In this regard, the relevance of developing and improving the methodology for sports training of qualified 5 × 5 (B1) football players (sports of the blind) is beyond doubt.
Summing up the research attention should be paid to homogeneity and collective opinion regarding the group of motives of each significance category. Analytical calculations confirm this thesis. The survey results suggest that highly qualified.
Paralympic blind football players, possessing significant baggage of competitive experience, mainly international, are aware of the significant requirements of the sport in question, appreciating the importance of the correct way to prepare an athlete.
In accordance with this, the sports training of highly qualified Paralympic blind football players should be determined by the scientific and methodological content and be based on the international best practices of the best teams in organizing the sports training process.
Such an approach will allow not only high-class athletes to realize their potential and achieve the highest results, but also less qualified players to improve their skills and become candidates for joining the national team of the country in the future.
I would like to thank everyone who participated and continues to participate in the study of the problems of Paralympic futsal (blind sports) in Russia. First of all, I would like to mention the doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor and part-time colleague of mine in five-a-side blind football sports team of the Russian Federation Alexander Makhov for valuable advice, guidance, experience in preparing and organizing scientific activities. My friend, chief and also colleague on the Russian national team, Pechenin Kirill, who supports me in my initiatives, provides a basis for research on the above topics.
I also express my respect for the work to the head coach of the Russian national team Alexander Nikolaevich Erastov, in which the team became the European champion in 2017, as well as to the head of the team Sputnov Valery Vasilyevich for unlimited optimism and imagination.