Mean and standard deviation (SD) of measured elements (mg/4000 mg).
Unsweetened natural cocoa powder is a pulverized high-grade powder of compressed solid blocks which remains after extraction and removal of the cocoa butter. The authors determined the elementary composition of UNCP, investigated its effect on nitric oxide levels, toxicity, and its protective effect on the heart, kidney, and liver during simultaneous administration with high dose (HD) artemether/lumefantrine (A/L). Macro- and microelements in UNCP were analyzed with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Adult male guinea pigs were administered various doses of UNCP alone and also simultaneously with A/L. Phytochemical analysis of UNCP showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and 38 macro- and microelements. Histopathological analysis showed no toxic effect on the heart, liver, kidney, lungs, testis, and spleen. Administration of various doses of UNCP increased white blood cell counts and lymphocyte count (p > 0.05) compared with the controls. Additionally, UNCP and A/L combination caused an increase in nitric oxide levels when compared with the control group and restores some hematological disorders induced by the 3-day HD A/L administration. Even though UNCP appears to be relatively safe, care should be taken due to the high content of copper element to avoid the possibility of intestinal lining erosion.
- unsweetened cocoa powder
- Theobroma cacao
- dark chocolate
Nutraceuticals, a word coined by DeFelice , can be described as any nontoxic food extract scientifically proven to have health benefits for the treatment and prevention of certain diseases.
Natural products have been a good source of drug leads from time immemorial for as long as history has been recorded. The most common among these natural products are plants, which have been exploited for their medicinal purposes [2, 3, 4]. Interestingly, many consider plant products to be devoid of adverse effects; thus, the demand for herbal remedies has been on the increase in industrialized countries as it has been with developing countries . Currently, extensive research is being carried out on natural products including plants from the rain forests, among other places for their potential medicinal value as well as potential toxic effect .
One such plant that has generated a lot of interest is
1.1 Composition of unsweetened cocoa powder
The chemical composition of cocoa powder is well documented. Cocoa contains water-soluble polyphenols (also called flavanols), which include catechins, epicatechin, procyanidins, anthocyanins, and leukoanthocyanins . The antioxidant properties of cocoa are partly ascribed to its structural characteristics, and this is the basis of its role as a free-radical scavenger . Quantitative analysis of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP) has shown that flavanol contents do not change during different manufacturing processes [11, 12]. Several polyphenols such as 14 N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids, N-[4′-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tryptophan, and N-[4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxy- (E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine have also been found to be present in cocoa powder [13, 14, 15].
1.1.1 Phytochemical analysis
A study conducted to ascertain the phytochemical components of unsweetened cocoa powder in Ghana used various pharmacopoeias tests to confirm the presence of the various components. To test for saponins, about 0.5 g of the UNCP was added to water in a test tube and shaken to observe foam formation. To test for the presence of tannins, about 0.5 g of UNCP was dissolved in 80% of aqueous methanol (10 mL). Freshly prepared iron III chloride solution was added and observed for a color change. The presence of alkaloids was confirmed by performing the Dragendorff’s, Mayer’s, and Wagner’s reagent tests as previously described .
To identify flavonoids in the UNCP, about 0.1 g of the sample was added to 80% ethanol and filtered. Subsequently, magnesium turnings were added to the filtrate, followed by concentrated HCl. A color change was observed within 10 min. A test for cardiac glycosides was conducted by dissolving about 0.5 g of UNCP in chloroform (2 mL) in a test tube, after which concentrated sulfuric acid was carefully added down the side of the test tube to form a lower layer. This result obtained confirmed work by Oracz et al. , Andres-Lacueva et al. , and Stark et al.  that the flavanol contents of cocoa does not change during different manufacturing processes.
1.1.2 Micro- and macro-elemental composition
Besides the phytochemical components, micro- and macro elements have been shown to be present in most plant products. The most toxic of these are the heavy metals. These have the potential to interfere with the availability of secondary metabolites . For the safety of consumers, the World Health Organization states maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in raw plant materials for only cadmium (0.3 mg kg−1), arsenic (1 mg kg−1), and lead (10 mg kg−1).
To establish the elemental components of marketed UNCP, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method was used. Briefly, samples of the powder were well dried and pelleted using Licowax C micropowder PM-Hoechstwax as binder. Simultaneous measurements of the elemental components were measured with a SPECTRO X-Lab 2000 spectrometer (Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana) as previously described . The results revealed a total of 38 elements, of which 12 were macro, and are listed in Table 1.
1.2 Toxicity of unsweetened cocoa powder
Rarely are toxicological studies conducted on nutraceuticals. This could be because such products are generally termed “natural” and perceived to be devoid of any adverse effects. Interestingly, cardiotoxic and teratogenic potentials have been reported for cocoa [21, 22]. Against this background, a study was conducted to elucidate the safety of cocoa powder in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The experimental procedure for this study was approved by the departmental ethical and protocol review committee and the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee also approved the protocol for the study. The study was conducted in accordance with international ethical guidelines.
The design of the experiment was such that the rats were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. There were 20 rats in all, 10 in each group. All rats had access to water and food except for a 12-hour fasting period before the administration of the unsweetened natural cocoa powder. The experimental group of rats received UNCP at a dose of 2000 mg/kg, while the control group received an equal volume of distilled water only. After the study period, effects of UNCP on selected organs, as well as on biochemical indices of blood, are described below.
1.2.1 The effect of UNCP on the body and relative weight of organs
The effect of UNCP on the body and relative weight of organs was determined as described previously . Selected organs, the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestines, and testis, were excised. The organs were then placed in ice-cold saline to wash off blood. They were trimmed of fat, connective tissues, blot dried, and then weighed on a balance. The organ-to-body weight index, OBI, was determined as the ratio of organ weight and the body weight of the animal before sacrifice × 100. Body weight of rats was also taken dosing, a week after dosing on day 7 and before sacrificing them on day 14 (Tables 2 and 3).
1.2.2 Histopathology examination
The histopathology examination was performed as previously reported by Asiedu-Gyekye et al.  The lungs, heart, liver, spleen, small intestinal organs, and testis were placed in a 10% buffered formaldehyde solution for 24 h. Tissue samples from the organs were paraffin embedded and sectioned at 5 𝜇m thickness. The sectioned tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and evaluated under a light microscope (Olympus BX 51TF) for histological changes.
1.2.3 The effect of UNCP on hematological parameters
The effect of UNCP on hematological parameters was studied as described previously by Asiedu-Gyekye et al. . Blood (2 mL) from euthanized SD rats was drawn out by cardiac puncture. This was then transferred into ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) test tubes. An automated hematology analyzer was used for the evaluation. Peripheral blood smear was used to examine the nature of blood cells.
1.2.4 The effect of UNCP on serum biochemistry
The effect of UNCP on serum biochemistry was studied as described previously by Asiedu-Gyekye et al. . Blood (1 mL) of sacrificed rats was collected via cardiac puncture. The blood sample was allowed to stand for a while, this was then centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 15 minutes using a Wiperfuge centrifuge. The serum was then collected for the measurement of the biochemical parameters (Table 4).
Herbal medicines are thought to have no side effects or the potential to cause harm due to their natural origins and are often considered as healthy food supplements and not drugs. Additionally, most herbs used for medicinal purposes lack specific instructions concerning dose, frequency, and route of administration. Evaluating UNCP as nutraceutical, the assumption was that the average African weighs 60.70 kg.
Lead and arsenic limits permissible by the WHO are 0.00016 and 0.0010 mg/kg, respectively . Heavy metals determined in UNCP were Pb—0.0036 mg and As—0.002 mg corresponding to 0.0002 and 0.0001 mg/kg, respectively, which are far below WHO guidelines. There was a high content of copper (0.2984 mg per 4 g UNCP) observed which should be of concern especially when high doses of UNCP are consumed. This is due to the fact that copper has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of Wilson’s syndrome and liver damage [16, 24], while the high content of chromium could have beneficial effect in the management of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders [18, 25, 26]. Thus, the relationship between these elements, nutrition, and medicine observed is indicative of the fact that micro- and macro-elements of herbal products does influence certain body processes and hence should not be envisaged always as contaminants.
Body weight changes between the control group and the experimental group were observed on day 1, day 7, and day 14. However, with respect to dosing, they were found not to be statistically significant (𝑝 > 0.05). Body weight of the SD rats decreased by 8.3 and 22.2% (𝑝 < 0.05) in the 2nd week after dosing for the control and test groups, respectively. Although the decrease in body weight with the control animals and the test animals is consistent with the corresponding decrease in their food and water intake, that for the test animals might partly be due to the ability of UNCP to react with nutrients in the body including stored fat, carbohydrate, and protein.
A reduction of 10.90% (𝑝 > 0.05) in the organ weight was observed in the test group as compared to the control group. These variations in the relative organ weight of the control and experimental groups of SD rats were not significantly different.
High-density lipoproteins (HLD) increased slightly with a 𝑝 value <0.05, a decrease in the level of triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of the UNCP group (𝑝 > 0.05) was observed. In comparison with that of the control, the cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. This is consistent with the speculation that UNCP possess lipid lowering abilities.
Hematological results (Table 5) revealed a decrease (28.44%, 𝑝 > 0.05) in the level of platelet in the UNCP group in comparison with the controls. Polyphenols in cocoa have been found to reduce platelet count. Neutrophil and lymphocyte polymorph of white blood cells showed a slight decrease of 8.02 and 18.73%, respectively (𝑝 > 0.05).
Histopathology evaluation of the organs studied; liver, kidney, heart, lungs, spleen, and the testis of the animals that received UNCP showed no toxic effect as compared to that of the control group. UNCP solution therefore is not likely to have toxic effects on the kidney when administered in a single oral high dose of 2000 mg/kg. Notable changes were observed on the small intestines in the form of erosions of the mucosal lining of the villi (Figure 1). These effects were, however, not observed in the control animals those that received equivalent volumes of the vehicle (distilled water). This could be due to the high concentration of proanthocyanidins contained in the 2000 mg/kg dose of UNCP (approximately 2.5 g in man). Proanthocyanidins have been found to instigate the destruction of the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
In conclusion, the aqueous solution of unsweetened natural cocoa powder administered at the single oral high dose of 2000 mg/kg appears to be relatively safe in male SD rats. Caution should however be taken when using UNCP especially in high quantities or amounts since it is capable of causing considerable damage to the mucosal lining of the small intestines.
1.2.6 Reproductive toxicity
Since UNCP is widely consumed by individuals in their reproductive period of life, it is worth investigating the generative toxicity, genotoxic, and aspects of the reproductive toxicity potential of UNCP in both male and female white wistar rats. As a preliminary study, the genotoxic potential of UNCP was assessed using the DNA comet method. DNA breaks in the rectal epithelium, liver, bone marrow, and kidney of the mice were quantified and compared with the negative control (2% starch). Pre-implantation loss, viable fetuses, corpora lutea and post-implantation loss, and implantation sites/number of implants were assessed. Results show that UNCP does not exhibit any reproductive toxicity potential.
1.3 Organoprotective effect of unsweetened cocoa powder against high-dose artemether-lumefantrin-induced effects
Artemisinin and its derivatives, derived from
Ghana is the second producer of cocoa in the world. It is therefore not surprising that many consume cocoa beverage at one time or the other during the day. It is also one of the endemic regions for malaria. Thus, a high possibility of consuming a cocoa product while being treated for malaria using any of the ACTs is recommended by WHO. Artemether/lumefantrine (A/L) is one of the combination therapies used more frequently for treating malaria in Ghana.
It is interesting to note that anecdotal reports of the ability of cocoa to prevent malaria exist. Following these reports, regular intake of cocoa powder as a beverage has been shown to be associated with reduction in the incidence of episodic malaria and its use as diet-mediated malaria prophylaxis . The antiplasmodial activity of different fractions especially the nonpolar solvent fractions have also been confirmed. Thus, simultaneous consumption of cocoa beverage during antimalarial treatment with A/L is expected to have dual benefits such as rapid clearance of the malaria parasites.
Regular intake of unsweetened natural cocoa powder as a beverage has immense health benefits including both cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, reduces platelet aggregation, and improves lipid profile [25, 35].
Determination of the major elemental composition and toxicity of unsweetened cocoa powder was conducted. Another set of projects were aimed at assessing whether UNCP will worsen or is able to prevent some common cardiovascular and renal side effects associated with the use of A/L, its effect on nitric oxide levels and to assess its hepatoprotective potential against A/L-induced liver toxicity during their simultaneous ingestion in male guinea pigs, and finally to investigate the effect of UNCP on the hematological parameters and NO levels during high-dose (HD) A/L administration.
The methods used in the assessment of the parameters listed above are as described previously by Asiedu-Gyekye et al.  as follows: 30 adult male guinea pigs weighing between 300 and 350 g were purchased from the Animal Experimentation Department of the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon. The guinea pigs were acclimatized to laboratory environment (20–23°C) with a 12 h light-darkness cycle for 7 days prior to experimentation. The guinea pigs had access to standard laboratory diet and water
The dosage regimen was as follows:
Group 1: Control (distilled water only)/vehicle control (CTRL).
Group 2: 75 mg/kg A/L(last 3 days)/negative control(COARTEM).
Group 3: Cocoa 300 mg/kg (14 days) + 75 mg/kg A/L (last 3 days) (300).
Group 4: Cocoa 900 mg/kg (14 days) + 75 mg/kg A/L (last 3 days) (900).
Group 5: Cocoa 1500 mg/kg (14 days) + 75 mg/kg A/L (last 3 days) (1500).
The guinea pigs were, thus, observed daily for a total period of 14 days.
Human equivalent dose (HED) (mg/kg) = Animal dose (mg/kg) × (Human km/Human km).
The value of km factors (i.e., body weight, kg/surface area, m2) for adult and guinea pigs to be 37 and 8, respectively, and an average weight of Ghanaian to be 70.0 kg.
After day 14, the guinea pigs were euthanized with 50 mg/kg chloroform by exsanguination, and 2 ml of blood was sampled by cardiac puncture and transferred into EDTA-2 k test tubes for immediate analysis.
1.3.1 Potential of unsweetened natural cocoa powder to attenuate high-dose artemether-lumefantrine-induced hepatotoxicity in nonmalarious guinea pigs
184.108.40.206 Biochemical assays
Blood samples were collected from the descending aorta and aliquoted into EDTA-2K tubes and plain tubes, respectively, at the end of the dosing period. This was done after euthanization of the animals under ether anesthesia. The EDTA blood was immediately analyzed for hematological parameters using the SYSMEX Hematology Autoanalyzer (Kobe, Japan), while sera prepared from blood in plain tubes were used for biochemical examinations including clinical chemistry measurements such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) or aspartate transaminase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). These were measured as liver function tests (LFT), which gives an indication of the state of the liver.
Nitric oxide levels were also measured using the Griess Reagent System. The total nitric oxide kit by R&D Systems was used in this study, and the assay reported previously by Bryan and Grisham  was employed for this purpose. In this assay, nitrate is converted to nitrite by nitrate reductase after which colorimetric detection of nitrite as an azo dye is carried out. The Griess reaction involves a two-step diazotization reaction, acidified NO2− to produce a nitrosating agent, which then reacts with sulfanilic acid to produce the diazonium ion. The diazonium then couples to
Elevation of serum and plasma enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST) has been shown to be reliable markers of acute hepatocellular damage. This occurs due to hepatocyte membrane distortion leading to membrane leakage of the hepatocyte cytosolic contents. AST is abundant in the cardiac muscles, skeletal muscles, kidneys than in the liver; thus, ALT is the most reliable marker.
This study revealed that A/L increased ALT, AST, GGT, and bilirubin levels but witnessed a reduction in albumin and total protein levels indicating the presence of hepatotoxicity (Figures 2–4). The increases in AST and ALT were found to be dose dependent.
Usually in patients with hepatotoxicity, ALT levels increase by more than three times the upper limit of normal, ALP levels also increase by more than twice the upper limit or total bilirubin more than twice when associated with increased ALP or ALT. It is important to mention that liver damage could manifest with either predominately initial alanine transferase elevation (hepatocellular) or initial alkaline phosphatase rise (cholestatic). The two are, however, not mutually exclusive.
The synthetic function of the liver can be assessed by the levels of total protein and albumins. Administration of A/L leads to a decrease in total protein and albumin levels supporting the hepatotoxic effects of A/L (Figures 5–7).
UNCP significantly increased the levels of total proteins, which further supports its hepatoprotective effect. Elevation of albumin levels after administration of UNCP was significant. For the first time, this study reports the hepatoprotective effect of UNCP against A/L-induced hepatic damage in guinea pigs.
220.127.116.11 Histopathological studies
Guinea pigs were euthanized, and their livers were swiftly excised and washed with 0.9% saline. The livers were stored in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde. The liver tissues were then cut and sectioned using a microtone into 2 𝜇m thick liver slices and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for examination. The stained tissues were observed with an Olympus microscope (BX-51) and photographed by INFINITY 4 USB Scientific Camera (Lumenera Corporation, Otawa, Canada).
The hepatoprotective effect of UNCP was further confirmed in the histological data presented above, where very insignificant abnormalities were observed in the group that received UNCP before A/L. Damaged liver tissues in animals that received A/L alone was observed, which is evidenced by disturbed (necrotic) liver parenchyma (NeLP), a highly congested and dilated central vein (CCV), and lymphocytic infiltration (LYM) in all animals (Figure 8(b)). Administration of UNCP before A/L reduced the extent of liver damage evidenced by the undisturbed liver parenchyma with an uncongested but dilated central vein (mild liver damage).
Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has hepatoprotective potential during high-dose A/L administration. The simultaneous consumption of UNCP and A/L is not likely to result in liver injury or dysfunction. However, care must however be taken during high daily consumption due to the high copper content.
1.3.2 Cardio and renal toxicity
Artemether-lumefantrine is one of the fixed-dose combination therapies recommended by the WHO for the treatment of malaria falciparum in Africa. Administration of this medication, however, generates free radicals that have the potential of causing cellular damage and other organ toxicity, characteristic being cardio-hepato- and renal toxicity.
It is speculated that simultaneous consumption of natural cocoa during antimalarial treatment with A/L is expected to rapidly clear the malaria parasites as well as ameliorate the A/L-induced toxic injury to heart and kidneys. Thus, the consumption of natural antioxidants such as found in cocoa could be beneficial in rectifying such damage in humans. The study also aimed at assessing whether UNCP will worsen or is able to prevent some common cardiovascular and renal side effects associated with the use of A/L. To establish the protective effect on the heart and kidney against (A/L) administration, various disease markers were assayed after concomitant administration of cocoa and artemether/lumefantrine (A/L).
The biochemical assays were performed as reported previously by Asiedu-Gyekye . Blood samples collected in plain gel tubes were allowed to clot. It was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min, sera removed and stored at −20°C. The sera were analyzed for biochemical parameters such as the total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), creatinine, urea, blood electrolytes, creatine kinase (CK), and aspartate transferase [35, 37]. Measurements were carried out on the Selectra Junior Autoanalyzer (Vital Scientific BV, Version 04, Netherlands).
Euthanized guinea pigs were dissected, their hearts and kidneys were removed. The tissues were kept in 10% buffered formalin. The tissues were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned at 4 μm thickness, stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The light microscope was employed for the histological studies of the study animals as well as two control groups. A total of 30 photomicrographs at a magnification of ×40 were used for each group.
18.104.22.168 Biochemical assays
In the medium and high UNCP dose groups, there was a decrease in the mean serum levels of low density lipoprotein by 11.6 and 10.6% (
A dose-dependent increment was observed for both VLDL and triglycerides upon administration of UNCP . The triglyceride changes were as follows: controls (1.075 ± 0.360 mmol/L), A/L-administered group (0.966 ± 0.619 mmol/L), 300 mg/kg UNCP (0.980 ± 0.391 mmol/L), 900 mg/kg UNCP (1.208 ± 0.317 mmol/L), 1500 mg/ kg UNCP (1.478 ± 0.487 mmol/L) (
Groups, which received 900 mg/kg UNCP, showed 12.9% (
The levels of coronary risk was high in animals that received 1500 mg/kg UNCP exhibited high levels of coronary risk (11.778 ± 1.167), but those on 900 mg/kg UNCP showed low levels (8.470 ± 2.624) in comparison with the NCG (9.08 ± 2.894,
Significant changes in serum levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins cholesterol, and triglycerides were not observed after administration of both A/L and UNCP. It must however be noted that lipid profile including cholesterol in general takes considerable time to show significant changes even with cholesterol lowering agents. The authors conclude that the 14-day administration of cocoa may not have been long enough to produce significant changes expected.
22.214.171.124 Creatine kinase (CK)
Asiedu-Gyekye’s group observed a significant difference in the mean levels of CK in VCG (598.0 ± 382.425 μmol/L) and NCG (1039.0 ± 749.494 μmol/L) . The groups that received 300 mg/kg UNCP, 900 mg/kg UNCP, and 1500 mg/kg UNCP had their CK as follows: 552.2 ± 399.968 μmol/L, 318.5 ± 122.516 μmol/L, and 366.8 ± 174.921 μmol/L, respectively (Figure 8). The LD, MD, and HD cocoa groups hence reduced the creatine levels by 46.9, 69.3, and 64.7%, respectively (
Creatine kinase (CK) or creatine phosphokinase is a marker of damaged tissue. Myocardial injury is often associated with an increase in CK levels. In this study, it was observed that animals that received 900 mg/kg bwt + A/L had 69.3% reduction in serum CK showing the greatest mitigating activity against coartem toxicity. CK plays a crucial role in the conversion of creatine to phosphocreatine and adenosine diphosphate; thus, it might also protect or enhance myocardial bioenergetics.
126.96.36.199 Renal function test
Asiedu-Gyekye’s group reported a reduction in urea by 53% in 1500 mg/kg when compared with the VCG (
For the creatinine levels, significantly increments was observed; a 24.08% increase in NCG compared with VCG and decrease of 21.27, 17.54, and 11.05% in groups 3, 4, and 5, respectively, when compared with group 1 (
The sodium, potassium, and chloride levels remained relatively unchanged in all study groups when compared with the control that received distilled water only .
The 1500 mg/kg group showed a significant reduction in urea levels as compared to the Coartem® only group. Creatinine levels decreased in all the groups compared with the control group. The authors attribute the observed effects to the antioxidant and nephroprotective effects of cocoa. Guinea pigs that received only the 75 mg/kg Coartem® group showed high levels of renal damage.
188.8.131.52 Histopathological examination
Aspartate transferase, one of the enzymes mentioned earlier in this chapter, is distributed mostly in the heart followed by the liver and skeletal muscles. Elevated serum aspartate transferase values are hence indicative of cellular injury and may present in myocardial disease, shock, hypoxia, among others. The group administered with of distilled water +A/L showed a significantly increased serum levels of aspartate transferase. The reverse (significant reduction) was observed in all animals administered unsweetened natural cocoa powder extract.
These observations are corroborated by histopathological examination of the myocardial tissues of the guinea pigs (figure not shown), where tissue sections from animals that received only A/L 75 mg/kg showed evidence of inflammation and degeneration of the myocardial tissue. Normal cardiac tissue structures of myocardial tissue were observed in animals administered UNCP extract except those of animals that received 900 mg/kg UNCP where there was a single case observed with suspected ongoing tissue necrosis at the initial stages. Similar observations of the cardioprotective effect have also been made by other researchers.
Photomicrographs of myocardial tissues of animals from the different experimental groups revealed patchy areas of congestion, edema, extensive nuclear, and tissue degeneration leading to loss of microstructure of myocardial tissues for animals receiving 75 mg/kg A/L . Animals that received 300 mg/kg UNCP and the control group retained the normal branching of myocardial cells characteristics .
Coronary risk ratio is an important indicator of cardiovascular health. Assessment of it showed that groups on 1500 mg/kg cocoa +A/L were at a higher risk compared with the control groups . This observation corroborates the findings that although cocoa possesses many health benefits, high level intake could be deleterious, an effect believed to be caused by (−) epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
Unsweetened Natural Cocoa Powder showed renoprotective and cardioprotective potential during high-dose A/L administration . It therefore suggests that simultaneous ingestion of A/L and UNCP may be beneficial to the heart and kidney. However, regular intake of large quantities of UNCP could be deleterious to health because of the high content of copper.
1.3.3 Hematological changes and nitric oxide levels
Hematological parameters are one of the vital indices monitored during malaria treatment. Thus, in this study, the effect of UNCP on the hematological parameters and NO levels during high-dose (HD) A/L administration was investigated.
The nitrite concentration in the plasma was measured as an index of NO levels by Griess reagent system (South Africa) according to the manufacturer’s instruction.
The results obtained from this study showed that A/L administration decreased the levels of white blood cell(WBC) count, lymphocyte count, hemoglobin (HGB), Red blood cell (RBC) count, and platelet counts in the group that received Coartem® (negative control group). Normally, these reduced indices imply bone marrow depression, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus, or severe hemorrhage.
Asiedu-Gyekye’s group reported a reduction of 31.87% in the WBC count of the NCG (Coartem®) in comparison with the vehicle control group(
Prophylactic administration of UNCP with A/L at doses of 300, 900, and 1500 mg/kg body weight restored the decreased levels of the RBC count by 4.17, 5.55, and 12.55%, respectively (
Administration of UNCP at doses of 300, 900, and 1500 mg/kg body weight restored not just the WBC levels during concomitant administration with A/L but also other hematological parameters like the hemoglobin levels, red blood cell counts, platelet counts, and all other parameters measured.
Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects. Upon concomitant administration of A/L and UNCP at doses of 300, 900 and 1500 mg/kg, respectively. The NO observed by Asiedu-Gyekye’s group was dose dependent, with 300 mg/kg of UNCP exhibiting the highest increase of 149.71% in NO (
Reference to this work is: .
UNCP restored some hematological disorders induced by high-dose A/L in guinea pigs by causing a significant increase in lymphocyte and platelet (PLT) levels at a dose of 1500 mg/kg. There was also an increase in NO with different doses of UNCP administration as a sequel to A/L dosing, which suggests that the combination (A/L and UNCP) is safe and advantageous. This study indicates the health benefits of daily ingestion of UNCP to prevent deleterious effects of A/L for the management of malaria.
184.108.40.206 Anti-asthma potential
In vitro antimalarial activity of natural cocoa powder
Anecdotal reports from Ghana suggest that a daily intake of a beverage of natural unsweetened cocoa powder could protect an individual against
These studies attest to the additional future health benefits of unsweetened natural cocoa powder when consumed on daily basis especially its organoprotective role and also in attenuating high-dose artemether-lumefantrine organ effects. The antimalarial potential of cocoa is very promising especially in Africa where malaria is endemic, thus could be very beneficial in the management of uncomplicated malaria with very limited adverse effects on the major organs and reproductive system.
DeFelice SL. The nutraceutical revolution: Its impact on food industry R&D. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 1995; 6(2):59-61
Amponsah SK et al. In vitro activity of extract and fractions of natural cocoa powder on Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2012; 15(5):476-482
Addai FK. Natural cocoa as diet-mediated antimalarial prophylaxis. Medical Hypotheses. 2010; 74(5):825-830
Mishra BB, Tiwari VK. Natural products: An evolving role in future drug discovery. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2011; 46(10):4769-4807
Abere TA, Okoto PE, Agoreyo FO. Antidiarrhoea and toxicological evaluation of the leaf extract of Dissotis rotundifolia triana(Melastomataceae). BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010; 10(1):71
Kumar G et al. Hepatoprotective activity of Trianthema portulacastrumL. against paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication in albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004; 92(1):37-40
Othman A et al. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of cocoa beans. Food Chemistry. 2007; 100(4):1523-1530
Pan MH, S LC, and Ho CT. Anti-inflammatory activity of natural dietary flavonoids. Food & Function, 2010. 1(2042-650X (Electronic)): p. 15-31
Awortwe C et al. Unsweetened natural cocoa has anti-asthmatic potential. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 2014; 27(2):203-212
Stanley TH et al. Analysis of cocoa proanthocyanidins using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection: Application to studies on the effect of alkaline processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2015; 63(25):5970-5975
Oracz J, Zyzelewicz D, Nebesny E. The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans ( Theobroma cacaoL.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015; 55(9):1176-1192
Andres-Lacueva C et al. Flavanol and flavonol contents of cocoa powder products: Influence of the manufacturing process. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008; 56(9):3111-3117
Brunetto MadR et al. Determination of theobromine, theophylline and caffeine in cocoa samples by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with on-line sample cleanup in a switching-column system. Food Chemistry. 2007; 100(2):459-467
Belščak A et al. Comparative study of commercially available cocoa products in terms of their bioactive composition. Food Research International. 2009; 42(5):707-716
Robbins RJ et al. Method performance and multi-laboratory assessment of a normal phase high pressure liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection method for the quantitation of flavanols and procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate containing samples. Journal of Chromatography A. 2009; 1216(24):4831-4840
Asiedu-Gyekye IJ et al. A dietary strategy for the management of artemether-lumefantrine-induced cardiovascular and renal toxicity. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2016; 16(1):348
Stark T, Justus H, Hofmann T. Quantitative analysis of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids in roasted coffee and cocoa powder by means of a stable isotope dilution assay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006; 54(8):2859-2867
Ronen E. Micro-elements in agriculture. Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses. 2016; 164:35-44
Carvalho ML et al. Study of heavy metals and other elements in macrophyte algae using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 1997; 16(4):807-812
Asiedu-Gyekye IJ et al. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has the potential to attenuate high dose artemether-lumefantrine-induced hepatotoxicity in non-malarious guinea pigs. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Ecam. 2016; 2016:7387286-7387286
Tarka SM, Cornish HH. The toxicology of cocoa and methylxanthines: A review of the literature. CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 1982; 9(4):275-312
Tarka SM Jr et al. Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies of cocoa powder in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 1991; 29(1):7-19
Fraga CG et al. Cocoa flavanols: Effects on vascular nitric oxide and blood pressure. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 2010; 48(1):63-67
Reagan-Shaw S, Nihal M, Ahmad N. Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. The FASEB Journal. 2007; 22(3):659-661
Ford ES. Serum copper concentration and coronary heart disease among US adults. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2000; 151(12):1182-1188
Asiedu-Gyekye IJ et al. Hematological changes and nitric oxide levels accompanying high-dose artemether-lumefantrine administration in male guinea pigs: Effect of unsweetened natural cocoa powder. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 5(4):350-357
Dondorp AM et al. Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparumMalaria. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009; 361(5):455-467
Phyo AP et al. Emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria on the western border of Thailand: A longitudinal study. The Lancet. 2012; 379(9830):1960-1966
Brice BK et al. In Vitro Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparumIsolates from Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, to Artemisinin, Chloroquine, Dihydroartemisinin and Pyronaridine. (1821-6404 (Print))
Antimalarial Drug Combination Therapy. Report of a WHO Technical Consultation. 2001. p. 36
Group, W.A.R.N.W.A.D.I.S. The effect of dose on the antimalarial efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine: A systematic review and pooled analysis of individual patient data. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2015; 15(6):692-702
Owumi SE et al. Toxicity associated with repeated administration of artemether–lumefantrine in rats. Environmental Toxicology. 2015; 30(3):301-307
Osonuga IO et al. Effect of artemether on hematological parameters of healthy and uninfected adult Wistar rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012; 2(6):493-495
Ofem O, Essien NM, Akpan O. Effects of chloroquine and coartem on haematological parameters in rats. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2013; 16:39-46
Grassi D et al. Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate. The Journal of Nutrition. 2008; 138(9):1671-1676
Bryan NS, Grisham MB. Methods to detect nitric oxide and its metabolites in biological samples. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2007; 43(5):645-657
Badrie N et al. Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015; 55(5):620-659