Delignification conditions utilized for
This chapter gives a brief overview of the cellulose extraction from Opuntia (Cactaceae) fibers. The suitability of this food waste for pulp and paper production was investigated by the determination of the chemical composition and testing two procedures of delignification: chemical and semichemical pulping processes. Chemical pulping procedure was carried out by using soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ) mixture, and semichemical pulping process was performed by softening the raw material using soda-hydrogen peroxide (soda-HP) mixture; this operation was followed by mechanical grinding. The obtained fibrous suspensions were characterized by measuring their dimension parameters (fiber length, fiber width, and fine elements), polymerization degree, and their retention water capacity. The effect of pulping process on yield and fiber characteristics in each pulp was studied. The surface morphologies of the produced papers were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and results show the good distribution and individuality of fibers. The structural and mechanical properties of the prepared paper were presented and discussed. Mechanical strength results show the good tenacity of papers made from soda-HP pulping process.
- Opuntia ficus-indica
- food waste
- lignocellulosic fibers
- deliberate fibers
- fibrous suspension
Otherwise, cellulosic fibers from
The paper manufacturing process has several stages: raw material preparation, pulp manufacturing, pulp washing, chemical recovery, bleaching, stock preparation, and papermaking . To realize the second stage, various pulping procedures have been utilized for the production of cellulosic fibers from non-wood raw material. These pulping methods might be classified mainly as chemical pulping, semichemical pulping, and mechanical pulping processes. In fact, chemical pulps are characterized by the highest production rate and represent almost pure celluloses; they are produced by combining heat and chemical treatment (kraft pulp) of wood chips with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide . The soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ) process is similar to the kraft pulping procedure, which utilizes soda and anthraquinone catalysts. Soda-AQ can reduce the processing time and increases the pulp yield by protecting the carbohydrate compounds. Furthermore, semichemical pulping uses a combination of chemical and mechanical (i.e., grinding) processing to extract pulp fibers . The raw material firstly is partially softened with chemicals, and mechanical methods complete the pulping process. One of the mild oxidant agents for chemical delignification is hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is characterized by its highest efficiency in bleaching and delignification when the reaction is conducted in alkaline medium with a stabilizing agent (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)), etc. [22, 23]. Hydrogen peroxide readily decomposes to generate more active radicals which play a prominent role in dissolving lignin, hence releasing the fibers for papermaking . The temperature and time of pulping in chemical and semichemical pulps depend on the type, composition, and source of lignocellulosic fibers. Indeed, in terms of yield, chemical pulping yields are between 45 and 55% but offer higher strength properties, and the fibers are more easily breached; and semichemical pulps, which apply to the category of chemical pulps, are obtained mainly from hardwoods with yields of between 65 and 85% (average ca. 75%) . Moreover, pulp bleaching is often performed to produce special sorts of paper (such print and writing ones), while unbleached pulp can be used in various packing applications (including paperboards, food packaging, and large containment bags) . In order to search for new sources of natural non-woody cellulosic fibers,
Chemical procedure using soda-anthraquinone mixture (soda-AQ).
Semichemical procedure using a soft operation of delignification in soda-hydrogen peroxide (soda-HP) mixture followed by mechanical operation of fiber deliberation.
2.1 Raw material preparation and chemical analyses
Manufacturing of pulp starts with raw material preparation . The
2.2 Pulping processing and testing
For paper manufacturing, two main step processes are followed in which the
Semichemical pulping using soda-hydrogen peroxide (soda-HP).
Chemical pulping using soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ).
Multistep of pulping processes was followed to produce pulps from
The delignification of
|AQ concentration (o.d) (%)||—||0.1|
|Sodium silicate (o.d) (%)||1.25||—|
|Liquor-to-raw material ratio||1:10||1:10|
|Temperature ramping rate (°C/min)||—||2.4|
Conventional soda-AQ pulping process was carried out in a rotating batch digesters with electrical heating equipped with thermocouples to monitor possible changes in temperature, and the processing time was automatically selected by the system [28, 29, 31, 32]. The soda-AQ pulping was performed by exploring different reaction conditions and parameters described in detail in Table 1. After processing, the obtained unbleached soda-AQ pulp was first separated from the black liquor, then carefully washed several times with distilled water, and stored for further use. Soda-AQ pulp will be exploited and characterized without bleaching operation.
The effect of pulping procedure on the yield and the properties of the deliberated fibers were studied using various ad hoc methods. Pulp yield (obtained from both processes) was determined as dry obtained on the basis of oven dried raw material. To examine the main morphological parameters (fiber dimensions) of the deliberated fibers (lengths, widths, and fractions of fine elements with lengths below 200 μm), 0.3 mg of pulp was suspended in 8 L distilled water and passed through the MorFi analyzer (LB01, developed by Techpap-France and the Paper Technical Centre). This technique is based on image analysis (using CCD camera), while more than 3000 fibers were observed in 2 min by the circulation of the fiber suspensions in a flat and transparent channel. The degree of polymerization (DPv) was determined according to the procedure described by Sihtola et al. . The intrinsic viscosity of the deliberated fibers (mPas) was measured in cupriethylenediamine (CED) according to the TAPPI T 230 om-99 standard. The water retention value (WRV) and degree of fiber swelling were estimated using a previously developed procedure . The WRV was experimentally determined by the water retention measured after centrifugation at 3000 times for 15 min. The pulp drainability or Schopper-Riegler degree (°SR: ISO 5267-1) was evaluated by measuring the drainage capacity of a deliberated fibers in experimental conditions. Total ionic charges of the produced pulps (which correlated with the amount of the ionized chemical functions in the contained in the fibers) were determined by “Gran’s method” .
2.3 Papermaking and testing
The deliberated fibers for each pulp were firstly disintegrated using a standard disintegrator T 205 sp-06 (shot 3000 rpm at room temperature) and then diluted to 2 g/L for paper preparation. Ten laboratory hand sheets with diameters of 20 cm via the standard ISO 5269-2 method were processed using Franc Rapid-Köthen sheet former apparatus. The produced hand sheets of papers were conditioned for 48 h at a temperature of 23°C and relative humidity of 50% before testing (ISO 187 standard). The structural and mechanical properties of paper samples were determined according to common standards: basis weights (ISO 536), thickness (ISO 534), air permeability (TAPPI: T452), tensile strength (NF Q 03-002), bursting strength (NF Q 03-053), and tear resistance (NF Q 03-011). Afterward, the bulk value and porosity of the produced paper sheets were calculated. The degree of bleaching (ISO 2470) and yellowness degree were detected by ELREPHO 2000 (yellowness degree measured by D 65/10 C and a 457 nm wavelength). The morphological analysis of each
3. Chemical properties of raw material
Table 1 shows the chemical composition results of
4. Effect of pulping process on yield and fiber characteristics
The produced pulps from soda-HP and soda-AQ processes are shown in Figure 2. The obtained pulps from both procedures show a high difference in terms of color. The soda-HP delignification process gives a bleached pulps and soda-AQ pulping process (without bleaching operation) conducted beige-brown (or kraft) color.
The pulp yield obtained for soda-HP pulping process of
The viscosity of the obtained soluble pulps represented by the DPv for soda-AQ pulp is around 600 (Table 3); this value was higher than those obtained from soda-HP pulp which represents about 500. The DPv values obtained for
5. Evolution of pulping processes on paper properties
The morphological SEM analysis of the manufactured handmade paper sheets was performed in order to evaluate the effect of pulping processes on paper morphology (Figure 3). The fibers depicted on both sheet surfaces are long, swollen, well separated, homogeneous, and strongly linked together (fiber network). Fine elements were evenly distributed across the paper surface and mainly observed for soda-AQ paper. This is in agreement with MorFi’s results.
Structural and mechanical parameters of handmade paper sheets produced from
The burst index obtained for soda-AQ papers was 88% higher than soda-HP papers. The variation of burst index was mainly affected by fiber width and fine elements present in soda-AQ pulp ; it was dependent on pulping methods. The tear index noted for soda-HP papers was higher than those obtained for soda-AQ papers. This is due to the high fiber length which usually had a significant effect on the tearing strength of papers. The breaking length obtained for soda-HP papers was quite higher (1.9 Km) than those obtained for soda-AQ papers. The use of soda-HP pulping process affects the paper properties by increasing the fiber flexibility and strength . Thus, the morphological, structural, and mechanical characteristics of the
The study revealed that
The authors would like to express their deep gratitude to Mohamed Naceur Belgacem, Professor and Director of the Grenoble INP-Pagora and Agefpi, for his valuable advice and assistance, as well as to the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research for the financial support.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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