Open access peer-reviewed chapter

The Potential Role of Nutraceuticals in Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

Written By

Sevda Inan

Submitted: September 10th, 2018Reviewed: December 23rd, 2018Published: February 1st, 2019

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.83797

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Abstract

Nutraceuticals are defined as a food or food ingredients that prevent and treat diseases. They contain dietary supplements like proteins, vitamins and minerals, compound derived from natural sources. They have functions about delaying, preventing and treating chronic inflammatory diseases due to the presence of the phytochemicals. They have anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting of the activation of NF-κB, blocking the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1, downregulation of the overexpression of cell adhesion molecules and inhibiting phospholipase A2, COX-2, lipoxygenease, iNOS, myeloperoxidase and inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating enzyme activity and increasing ability to scavenge ROS. They have antioxidative role that can reduce the level of ROS and free radicals. They have effects on the process of lipid oxidation that inhibit or slow the formation of free alky radicals and cut off the free radical chain reactions.

Keywords

  • nutraceuticals
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • protective functions
  • disease

1. Introduction

In recent years, the consumption of natural products or functional foods are increased and enlarged segment of food industry. At the same time, Nutraceuticals are increased using as an alternative for pharmaceutical industry especially variety of diseases and cancers in humans and animals.

Firstly, nutraceutical is a term used by Stefane De Felice Nutraceuticals is defined as a food, bioactive products or food ingredients that prevent and treat diseases [1, 2, 3, 4]. They are not drugs but they have pharmacologically active substance [2]. They contain dietary supplements like proteins, vitamins and minerals, compounds derived from natural sources. They provide health and medical benefits that delay, prevent and treat chronic inflammatory diseases due to the presence of the phytochemicals [1, 2, 3, 4].

They have anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting of the activation of NF-κB, blocking the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1, downregulation of the overexpression of cell adhesion molecules and inhibiting phospholipase A2, COX-2, 5-LOX, iNOS, myeloperoxidase and inhibiting ROS generating enzyme activity and increasing ability to scavenge ROS. They have antioxidative role that can reduce the level of ROS and free radicals. They have effects on the process of lipid oxidation that inhibit or slow the formation of free alky radicals and cut off the free radical chain reactions. They have intracellular signaling pathway modular effects [2, 3, 4].

The foods including antioxidative nutraceuticals are fruits (grape, citrus, blueberries, strawberries, blackberries and crowberries), vegetables (tomato, beans, broccoli, beet, mushroom, corn, white cabbage, kale, cauliflower, spinach, garlic, onion, cacao beans and soybean), spices (rosemary, oregano and thyme), herbs (sage) and beverages (tea, wine) [4, 5, 6].

People’s interest about nutraceuticals is increasing day by day due to various diseases. According to the global market data, China will be first nutraceutical market as lifestyle. The nutraceutical sector is affected by the stringent regulations and approval process of European Union. Due to the country, there are different names of laws on nutraceuticals. Nutraceuticals are using different definitions and terms including dietary supplement in USA, Natural Health Product in Canada, complementary medicines in Australia, food supplements in European Union and foods for special dietary in India [7].

With the increasing technology in the food, health and pharmaceutical sectors, the orientation to functional foods is increasing and the competition is accelerating. The sales of global market for nutraceuticals are expected to be US$250 billion by 2018 [8].

When nutraceuticals are evaluated by consumers, the consumption of food has undergone changes in the past three decades. The easing of access to media and internet, increasing in scientific studies and obesity related diseases are increased to sale nutraceutical products by consumers. Between 2018 and 2025 years, the growth rate of this sector is assumed to exceed 9.7%. The countries including Brazil, China, India, South Korea, Poland and Mexico are increasing to use functional foods. The global market of nutraceuticals is assumed to be $578.23 billion by 2025 at CAGR of 8.8% [9].

Inflammation is a protective response against the initial cause of cell injury. Inflammation is classified as acute and chronic. Acute inflammation is first response mechanism against infections, trauma, physical and chemical agents, which are induced wound healing. If this mechanism occurs persistent, it takes chronic phase [3, 10]. The process of inflammation contain vascular and cellular changes including of swollen, redness, local heating and loss of function. The permeability of capillaries is increased, exudate including the fluid and other elements leak into the body cavities. The inflammatory cells, leucocytes and other phagocytic cells migrate through the affected region. The lytic enzymes release from lysosomes of cells. During the inflammation, chemical mediators are synthesized proinflammatory cytokines (histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin, leukotrienes and prostaglandins), selectins, integrins and immunoglobulins are stimulated for releasing [1]. Arachidonic acid metabolites including prostaglandins and leukotrienes are stimulated by the increasing expression of phospholipase A2. ROS are released from the inflammatory cells including neutrophils and macrophages. NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase are seen increasing due to the ROS. The inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules and enzymes are regulated by the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB [3, 11].

ROS generate intracellularly as natural by endogenous and exogenous sources. Endogenous ROS including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide (NO) have functions in cell signaling and homeostasis [12]. ROS has functions in regulation of cell survival. At the moderate levels of ROS signaling support cell proliferation and survival. At the upper levels of ROS cause cell death [12, 13]. There is a relationship between ROS production and oxidative stress that play a role on redox signaling from the organelle to the cytosol to nucleus [12, 14].

ROS are present in different cancer types and age related diseases as neurodegeneration, inflammation, diabetes, vision and sensory loss [12]. ROS and reactive nitrogen species damage significant biological molecules which are lipids, DNA, essential cellular proteins. Oxidative stress is imbalance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant defense mechanism [15, 16].

Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems which are superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid soluble vitamin E, carotenes and water soluble vitamin C arrange between ROS and antioxidants [4, 17, 18].

Oxidative stress starts the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), proteins, DNA and sterols. The oxidative stress reduce in the body with consumption of fruits and vegetables including high amounts of anti-oxidative nutraceuticals and for this reason, incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases decrease [4, 6]. According to the recent studies, there is a relationship between ROS and atherosclerosis, vasospasm, cancers, trauma, stroke, asthma, hyperoxia, arthritis, heart attack, age pigments, dermatitis, cataractogenesis, retinal damage, hepatitis, liver injury and periodontitis [4, 19, 20].

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2. Nutraceuticals

2.1 Vitamin E

Vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol, alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol) is quite effective antioxidant and beneficial aspects for rheumatoid arthritis [4, 21, 22]. Also, vitamin E has anti-inflammatory effects in animal recent studies [4, 23]. Tocopherols and tocotrienols have nonpolar structures and consist in the lipid phase. Tocopherols are member of biological membranes and. Tocopherols have antioxidants property that defend polyunsaturated fatty acids into the membrane and LDL [4, 24]. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Vitamin E and its derivatives are summarized in Table 1.

Vitamin E and derivativesAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(Review literature study), (randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled human study, 400 mg for 3 months), (The transgenic KRN/NOD mice, 0.268 mg for 6 weeks)Effects on rheumatoid arthritis against the inflammation and oxidative stressLee et al. [4], Aryaeian et al. [21], Bandt et al. [22]
(Review literature study), (30 and 500 ppm for 30 days in old mice)Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity in macrophagesLee et al. [4], Beharka et al. [23]
(Review literature study in elderly cardiovascular patients)Decreases risk of cardiovascular disease, anti-cancer activity and decreases incidence of Alzheimer’s diseaseMeydani [24]
(Review literature study)Changes the level cholesterol and blocks oxidation of LDL.Lee et al. [4]
(Review literature study)Alterations of cell membrane integrity, cell division and cell signaling pathways. Stimulates indirectly prostaglandin and cytokines, directly stimulates T cell function. Reduces incidence of infectious diseases including respiratory infections and asthmaLewis et al. [25]
(Different doses, review literature study)Prevents and treats a multitude of age related diseases. Ameliorates of lipid profile and modulates suppression of the senescence- associated secretory phenotypeMalavolta et al. [26]
(The randomized clinical trials, ranging doses 33-800 IU)Effects lonely cardiovascular diseases by reducing myocardial infarctionLoffredo et al. [27]
(The clinical review literature study)Preventive and therapeutic functions in cardiovascular diseases.Jain et al. [28]
(The consumption of different doses, review of literature study in human)Prevents various types of cancer, heart disease and chronic ailmentsShahidi [29]
(The ranging doses between 500 IU/kg for 4 weeks in rats, 600 mg/kg in rats, 45 and 60 mg/kg in rats)Anti-oxidant roles by decreasing the distribution of free radicals and modulating plasmatic lipoproteins in traumatic brain injury related dementiaDobrovolny et al. [30]

Table 1.

The effects of Vitamin E and its derivatives, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

2.2 Carotenoids

They are classified as xanthophylls and carotenes. The carotenes have hydrocarbon and xanthophylls have oxygen [2, 4]. Carotenoids including alpha- carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin have antioxidant effects [1, 4]. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of carotenoids are summarized in Table 2.

CarotenoidsAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(The literature review study)Functions on cell growth, embryonic development, vision property and immune system. Modulates activity of intracellular communication by interaction with nuclear receptors like pregnant X- receptor or retinoic acid receptorLushchak [2], Ruhl [31]
(The literature review study), (The prospective study of older women between 55-69 ages)Protective roles against rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, cataracts, age-related muscular degeneration and multiple sclerosisAl-Okbi [1], Lee et al. [4], Cerhan et al. [32]
(The ranging numbers and amounts of cases and exposure, the epidemiological review study), (The prospective cohort study between 1986 and 1992, in cases of 812 prostate cancer ), (The review study related with the consumption of foods including different amounts of carotenoids)Decreases the expansion of cervical, colon, prostate, rectal, stomach and other different of cancer typesGiovannucci [33], Giovannucci et al. [34], Giovannucci [35]
(The literature review study)Blocks the formation of oxidized products of LDL cholesterol in coronary heart diseaseWeisburger [36]
(25 and 50 mg/kg of body sweight in mice for 3 days)Antimutagenic effectPolivkova et al. [37]
(Daily oral dose 10 mg/kg body weight and intraperitoneally 25 mg/kg body weight in female Wistar rats)Neuroprotective activitySandhir et al. [38]
(Lycopene complex including 6% lycopene, 1.5% tocopherols, 1% phytoene and phytofluene, 0.2% beta-carotene for 10 days in rats at 6 mg/kg body weight)Nephroprotective activitySahin et al. [39]
(The prospective randomized study in 159 primigravidas at the gestational time with the consumption of 2 mg oral lycopene daily for 77 women, placebo daily for 82 women)Prevents preclampsiaBanerjee et al. [40]
(375 men and 576 women with hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture in elderly ages at different amounts of consumption of carotenoid and lycopene)Decreases risk of hip fractureSahni et al. [41]
(The literature review study)Anti-obesity functions by modulating insulin resistance and reducing blood glucose levels by regulation of cytokine expression from white adipose tissueGammone [42]
(In vitro research of 25 male Holstein calves in ages of 6–10 weeks and 3 Angus Heifers in ages of 8–30 weeks with doses of etinoic acid (1 μM) or β-carotene (8.3 μg/mL)Promotes leukocyte apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and improves efferocytosis in macrophagesDuquette et al. [43]
(The review article study including animal and human in vitro researches)Modulates intracellular signaling cascades, gene expression, and protein translation and blocks the translocation of nuclear factor κB to the nucleus. Inhibits Interleukin-8, prostaglandin E2 and oxidative strees damage by activating phase II and glutathione-S-transferases.Kaulmann [44]
(The review article study)Inhibits UV-induced cutaneous inflammation, pathologic keratinization, pigmentation and wrinklingImokawa [45]
(The intake of AIN-93G or AIN-93G + 10% Tangerine or red tomato powder for 35 weeks in mice)Protects against the UVB-induced keratinocyte carcinoma.Cooperstone et al. [46]
(The different amount of carotenoid content in commercial tomato hybrid Zebrino)Cytoprotective functions by mitigating ROS production and protects against the glutatione depletion and lipid proxidationDel-Giudice et al. [47]
(The randomized double-blinded clinical trial study in 51 patients with beta- carotene fortified symbiotic food including 0.05 g beta carotene)Decreases levels of insulin, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, plasma nitric oxide and glutathioneAsemi et al. [48]
(The doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg xanthophylls in hens and chicks)Decreases inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in chick tissues including liver, duodenum and jejenumGao et al. [49]
(The review article study)Modulates macrophage polarization and stops the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and provides liver homeostasisNi et al. [50]
(The review article study)Neuroprotective functions against the Alzherimer’s disease that prevents progression this disease and modulates of Aβ peptide production and accumulation, oxidative stress and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediatorMohammadzade h Honarvar [51]
(59 young participants with the supplementation of 13 and 27 mg/day macular carotenoids)Reduces stress, cortisol and symptoms of emotional and physical health.Stringham et al. [52]
(The carotenoid derivatives and crystalline lycopene from tomato extract)Prevents cancer and protects bone health by inhibiting of the nuclear factor kappa B activity.Linnewiel-Hermoni et al. [53]
(The different amounts of intake carotenoid in this review article study)Reduces variety types of cancer including oral cavity and laryngeal regions.Leoncini et al. [54]

Table 2.

The effects of Carotenoids, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

2.3 Phenolic compounds, polyphenols

The polyphenols are phenolic compounds that are defined as a benzene ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring. They are including plants, vegetables, fruit, vines, tea, coffee and microalgae [2]. The phenolic compounds are classified as simple phenols, benzoquinoes, phenoic acids, acetophenones, phenylacetic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropens, coumarins, chromones, anthraquinones and flavonoids [4]. According to the recent articles, polyphenols have antioxidant [2, 4], anti-inflammatory [2, 55], anticancer [2, 56], antibacterial [2, 57], antiatherogenic [2, 58], antiangiogenic [2, 59], antimutagenic and free radical scavenging properties [4].

Flavonoids, which are water-soluble [3], are popular group of polyphenols and classified as flavones, flavonols, catechin or flavanols, anthocyanins and isoflavones. Flavonoids consist as free aglycones or with sugars connected the chemical structures to generate glycosides. Flavonoids have anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting the enzymes responsible for production of phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase [2, 3, 63]. The beneficial effects to health of phenolic compounds are listed below in Table 3.

PolyphenolsAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(The review article study)Anti-inflammatory effectsLushchak et al. [2], Biesalski [55]
(The review article study)Anti-cancer functionsLushchak et al. [2], Fresco et al. [56]
(The review article study) (the commercial apple skin powder including 995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g)Anti-bacterial functionsLushchak et al. [2], Du et al. [57]
(The interval of different age, dietary source of polyphenols and contents in this review article study)Anti-atherogenic functionsLushchak et al. [2], Rimbach et al. [58]
(The review article study)Anti-angiogenic functions. Contributes formation of ROS by inhibiting enzymes or chelating trace elementsLushchak et al. [2], Corradini et al. [59]
(The review article study)Anti-mutagenic and free radical scavenging propertiesLee et al. [4]
(The serial review article study)Modulates of intracellular communications in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Akt- protein kinase B, tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C signaling cascadeLushchak et al. [2], Williams et al. [60]
(The rat kidney study with the different phenolic contents and amounts in foods)Inhibits the angiotensin converting enzyme in cardiovascular systemLushchak et al. [2], Actis-Goretta et al. [61]
(The review article study), (The 17 hypercholesterolemic male patients with the consumption of 40-90 g/day macadamia nuts for 4 weeks)Decreases influence of inflammation, alters the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain type of cancerAl-Okbi [1], Lee et al. [4], Garg et al. [62]
(The review article study)Anti-inflammatory functionsChatterjee et al. [63]
(The review article study with different phenolic compounds activities and amounts)Neuroprotective and anticonvulsive effects on brain tissue against the oxidative stress by binding to the benzodiazepine site on GABAA receptorDiniz et al. [64]
(The randomized, controlled, double blind cross over human study, Olive oil including 80 mg phenolic compounds/kg, Olive oil including 500 mg phenolic compounds for 3 weeks)Improves the proportions of IgA coated bacteria and plasma levels of C-reactive proteinMartin-Pelaez et al. [65]
(The review article study)Regulates toll like receptor, inhibits cyclooxygenase, phospholipase A2 and anti-oxidant enzymes including xanthine oxidaseYahfoufi et al. [66]

Table 3.

The effects of phenolic compounds, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

2.3.1 Flavones

They are including apigenin, chrysin, baicalein, scutellarein and wogonin [2]. The anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of flavones are summarized in Table 4.

FlavonesAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(The review article study), (250 μM quercetin (specific activity, 52.9 mCi/mM) for 10 min by injecting of Xenopus laevisoocytes)Beneficial effects including as GLUT inhibitors in diabetesLee et al. [4], Kwon et al. [67]
(The review article study)Cyclooxygenase inhibitory ability in cancerLee et al. [4], Kinghorn et al. [68]
(The treatment with 2.5–20 μM apigenin in cell culture including human prostate cancer PC-3 and 22Rv1)Anti-tumoral activity that inhibits of the p-IKKα, NF-ĸB/p65, cell proliferation, invasion of prostat cancer cellsShukla et al. [69]
(The study including phosphorylating five flavones and showing pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibitory functions by IC50)Acts as pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibitorLee et al. [4], Peng et al. [70]
(The review article study)Reduces neurodegenerationLee et al. [4], Gasiorowski et al. [71]
(The review article study), (Apigenin which is isolated from Cordia dichotoma bark, is received 5 mg/kg, p.o. in Male Swiss mice)Treats colitis and reduces inflammatory enzymesLee et al. [4], Ganjare et al. [72]
(The review article studies)Decreases the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in macrophages cellsChatterjee et al. [63], Wu and Schauss [73]
(The review article study)Anti-arthritic functionsLaev et al. [74]
(The review article study in vitro and in vivo)Anti-inflammatory functions for neurodegenerative diseaseNabavi et al. [75]
(The review article study about anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-tumoral activity, anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective functions of dietary flavonoids)Inhibits thromboxane synthesis in animal model and decreases iNOS and COX-2 expressionXiao et al. [76]
(50 mg/kg of body weight doses of apigenin was injected intraperitoneally in Male C57BL/6J mice)Immunomodulatory effects that reduces NF-κB activity in the lungs and inhibits leukocyte infiltrationCardenas et al. [77]
(1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μM concentrations of flavonoids were added Murine C2C12 cell culture medium)Protective effects on lipopolysaccharide related muscle atrophyShiota et al. [78]

Table 4.

The effects of flavones, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

2.3.2 Flavonols

They are protective functions from UV radiation [2]. They are including kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, galangin and morin [2]. They have beneficial effects on different conditions and diseases related oxidative stress and inflammation. These effects are summarized in Table 5.

FlavonolsAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(At flavonoid concentrations of 10–70 μmol/L were applied in HL-60, U937 and Jurkat cells)Inhibits intracellular accumulation of ascorbic acidPark et al. [79]
(The ranging content amounts of oolong tea leaves including 54 polyphenols were evaluated on the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro)Inhibitory functions on pancreatic lipase with diabetes mellitusNakai et al. [80]
(At the concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 250 μM of quercetin for 24–72 hours were added cell culture medium including mouse embryo 3T3-L1 cells)Anti-oxidant activity on cell apoptosisHsu et al. [81]
(The oral treatment doses at 2.8  g/kg in male Wistar rats, aged 8–10 weeks)Anti-oxidant and renoprotective effects in streptozotocin-diabetic ratsLiu et al. [82]
(The extracts of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) leaves and fruits and Morus alba Linn. root barks (Moraceae) were given 50 and 150 mg/kg in adult female Swiss albino rats)Hepatoptotective effects on tetrachloride-related oxidative stress and injury in rat liver tissueSingab et al. [83]
(At the dose of 5 μM kaempferol was added cell culture medium including rat osteoblast-like UMR106 cells)Regulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription and new bone formationYang et al. [84]
(At the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg kaempferol were given orally in animal model study)Regulates cyclooxygenase, inhibits production of nitric oxideMahat et al. [85]
(The review article study), (The double-blind study was given orally 4 x 500 mg quercetin in non-smoking, un-treated sarcoidosis individuals)Decreases of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis, colonic damage and allergic airway conditionsChatterjee et al. [63], Boots et al. [86]
(The mice were fed Western diet including 0.05% quercetin for 18 weeks)Modulates on accumulation and activation of immune cells and increases expression of mitochondrial gene in adipose tissue.Kobori et al. [87]
(At the doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg quercetin were given intraperitoneally to the male Sprague Dawley rats)Neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects in subarachnoid hemorrhage, inhibits brain damage and edema.Dong et al. [88]
(At the doses of 0 and 210 μM quercetin or taraxasterol were added cell culture medium including human umbilical vein endothelial cells)Anti-atherosclerotic and cardioprotective effects against the oxidative stress and inflammationYang et al. [89]

Table 5.

The effects of flavones, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

2.3.3 Flavanones

They have important effects that regulate on the inflammatory process and oxidative stress. These beneficial effects are summarized in Table 6.

FlavanonesAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(The review article study)Inhibitory effects on carcinogenesisKinghorn et al. [68]
(At the concentrations of 5 and 25 μM of chalcones and flavanones were given in the vitro study)Regulate LDL oxidation in atherosclerosisMiranda et al. [90]
(The review article study)Have functions in anti-malarial chemotherapyKumar et al. [91]
(The review article study)Anti-inflammatory effectsKontogiorgis et al. [92]
(The review article study)Anti-angiogenic effectsMojzis et al. [93]
(At the treatment daily doses of 100 mg/kg naringenin were applied to the female BALB/c mice)Decrease lung metastases in a breast cancer modelQin et al. [94]
(At the dose of 50 mg/kg naringenin was applied to the adult male albino rats)Anti-oxidative stress related hepatic damage in ratsPrabu et al. [95]
(At the concentration of 0.25 mmol of naringin derivatives was applied by agar dilution technique and direct contact assaying)Anti-bacterial roles in pathogenic strainsCeliz et al. [96]
(At the doses of 50 mg/kg of quercetin and naringenin were applied to mice intraperitoneally)Protect DNA in alloxan-induced diabetic miceOrsolic et al. [97]
(At the doses of 30–200 μmol/L were treated into the cell culture including macrophage cell line RAW 274.6 and BV2 microglia)Inhibit synthesis of nitric oxide and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in macrophages and microgliaChao et al. [98]

Table 6.

The effects of flavanones, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

2.3.4 Catechin or flavanols

They are found in variety of fruits (apples, apricots, blackberries and grapes), red wine, black tea and cocoa [2]. For example; the long-term consumption of tea inhibits low grade inflammation [73]. The chronic consumption of dark chocolate reduces serum C-reactive protein concentrations in blood circulation [63, 73]. The other effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress are summarized in Table 7.

CatechinAnti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effectsReferences
(The review article including clinical and experimantal studies)Cardioprotective effects by inhibiting the NF-κB initiated production of cytokines and adhesion moleculeBhardwaj et al. [99]
(The review article study) (at the mixture of cathechin, caffeic acid and resveratrol doses of 40 and 160 mg/kg body weight/day were given to the apoE KO mice for 8 weeks)Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic functionsWu and Schauss [73], Norata et al. [100]
(The dentifrice including 1.0% green tea catechin was applied to the male Wistar rats)Reduces gingival oxidative stress and periodontal inflammationMaruyama et al. [101]
(After the massive hepatectomy, green tea extract catechins were applied to the male Wistar rats)Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on liver dysfunction with massive hepatectomySaito et al. [102]
(The review article of clinical studies)Prevents vascular problems related diabetes mellitusHowes and Simmonds [103]
(At the double-blind randomized study was applied daily 200 mg flavanols for 28 male smokers)Anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing expression of inflammatory genes in leukocytes and increases vascular healthWeseler et al. [104]
(At the randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study was applied capsules including 1 g total catechin for 19 healthy men)Cardioprotective effects by decreasing oxidation of low density lipoprotein and incidence of atherosclerosisSuzuki-Sugihara et al. [105]
(The consumption of high flavanols chocolate for 4 weeks was applied to the overweight men between 45 and 70 ages)Effects on endothelium related vasodilation. Increases leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular functionEsser et al. [106]

Table 7.

The effects of catechin or flavanols, relevant to anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity.

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3. Conclusion

Nutraceuticals are alternative or functional foods or ingredients that prevent or treatment of inflammatory and oxidative stress induced diseases. Nutraceuticals are cheaper and easier availability than prescription drugs. For this reason, consumer’s demand has increased in recent years.

The effecting on pathogenesis and activity of diseases are also essential scientific subject for animal and human health. When the effects of nutraceuticals on oxidative stress and inflammatory related disease are discovered, usages of nutraceuticals in Pharmacology and scientific studies are seen huge growth. The relation between beneficial effects of nutraceuticals and diseases are required to research long-term multidisciplinary studies.

People are searching minimally processed food and want to benefit nutritional values and live healthy. For this reason nutraceutical market is growing day by day.

The aging, fast rising population, changing lifestyle and lifestyle induced diseases, healthcare research, increasing cases of cancer, economic and public problems are directed people to benefit better choices.

As a conclusion, nutraceuticals are important for nutrition of human and animal. The consumption of nutraceuticals is necessary to reduce effects of the oxidative stress and inflammation related diseases.

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Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest for this chapter.

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Submitted: September 10th, 2018Reviewed: December 23rd, 2018Published: February 1st, 2019