Nutritional value of
Medicinal plant Opuntia elatior Mill., family Cactaceae, was studied for its nutritional value and health benefited properties from fruit. The fruit of the plants was extracted in sequential manner using methanol, hexane and distilled water. Out of these, maximum extract yield present in the methanolic extract was 36.84%. Nutritional value present in the 100 g of methanolic extracts of fruit was 1.02, 0.60, 63.26, and 0.11 mg of carbohydrates, protein, vitamin C and fat, respectively. Methanolic extract exhibits the highest antioxidant activity that is 54.10% and the lowest antioxidant activity is exhibited by the hexanoic extract at 45.66% and the distilled water at 50.40% of antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammation activity, the ability of protein denaturation in different fruit extracts of the maximum percentage of inhibition of 37.49% was observed from methanol extract followed by distilled water at 34.15% and then hexane at 30.38%. Phytochemical constituents present in the methanolic extract are alkaloids and phytosterols compound. High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of methanolic extract showed the presence of three bands. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of methanolic extracts 19 characterization of bioactive compound. The methanolic extracts of fruits containing high content of protein, vitamin-C and carbohydrates provide good nutritional potential value and antioxidant activity and antiinflammation activity that may be possibly contribute to the treatment of arthritic disease.
- Opuntia elatior
- nutritive elements
- antioxidant activity
- anti-inflammation activity
- phytochemical constituents
- bioactive compounds
Traditionally useful medicinally important plants and health benefits foods related material last few years have more focused by common human population. The prevention of disease and medical professionals very great demand for improving overall life. In this line, all types of wild fruits and vegetables have been recognized as valuable sources of nutraceuticals. The large number of natural product presents the chemically useful active compound and their multifunctional properties present. Opunitia
Human body requires the proper nutrition for growth, maintenance of body, reproduction, and health of organism is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances . It includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. Essential nutrient includes protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals and electrolytes. Human body normally requires 85% of energy for daily use from fat and carbohydrates and 15% from protein. In humans, nutrition is mainly achieved by the process of taking foods into our mouths, chewing, swallowing and digesting it. Nutrition is an essential component for marinating the immune system, proper growth and development of cell, tissue and organ of human body. Eating a nutritional diet contributes to prevent the future disease, improves the quality of life and provides long lasting life. Your nutritional status is the state of your health determined by what you eat. Some of the minerals necessary for health are as follows: (1) Calcium: Calcium is a very important mineral in the diet. The major function of calcium is to build and help maintain strong bones. It is involved in blood clotting. (2) Iron: Iron in food exists as haem and nonhaem iron. In red meat, the haem iron is found, and 20–30% of this is relatively well absorbed. In cereals, pulses, certain vegetables and eggs, nonhaem iron is mostly found and is generally less well absorbed. (3) Zinc: It is essential for synthesizing protein, DNA and RNA in human body. Only 0.003% of zinc is present in the human body. It is required for growth in all stages of life. (4) Sodium: Sodium helps to maintain fluid volume outside of the cells and helps cells to function normally. (5) Potassium: Potassium maintains fluid volume inside and outside of cells and prevents the excess rise of blood pressure with increased sodium intake.
1.2. Essential nutrient requirements
In human body, essential element is not synthesized in the adequate amount and body cannot synthesize on its own and must be provided by the nutritional diet. The chemical components present in the food are classified into six major groups like protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and water. Utilization of nutrients as an essential component requires water. In our body, nutrients are required for the various functions like respiration, digestion, growth and development. The amounts of the essential nutrients required differ by age and the state of the body .
1.3. Use of fruits as nutritional and medicinal source
Fruits are considered in dietary guidance because of their high concentration of dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, phytochemicals, and especially antioxidants. Various reviews have been associated with the low intake of fruits include chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, many cancers, respiratory problems as well as mental health. Traditionally many fruits reported have been useful in many non-communicable diseases and reduce the risk of epidemiologically. Nowadays, people are more interested in the prevention of health-related diseases which is that vital role of antioxidants. This fruit of bright color act as scavengers clean up free radicals before they cause any health effects.
In this fruit, more amount of the fibers are present and are helpful in reducing intestinal passage rates resulting in a more amount of nutrient absorption and hence prevent the constipation. It increases the concentration of short chain fatty acids because of fermented in colon that having maintained gut health and anti-carcinogenic properties. Recent report shows that fruits containing high number of anthocyanins, flavanols, and procyanidins, such as berries, grapes, and pomegranate are effective at decreasing cardiovascular risks while citrus fruit and apples had a moderate effect on blood pressure and blood lipid level .
Fruits have also been suggested to prevent osteoporosis in adults mainly due to their rich source of calcium and other vitamins present in them, which are vital for bone health. The high fiber content of fruit may play a major role in the reduction of acid load of the diet and in enhancing bone formation through calcium absorption. Interestingly, phytochemicals in fruits have been found to act as antiobesity agents because they also play a role in suppressing growth of adipose tissue. Fruits have been suggested to prevent obesity since they add up to dietary variety.
Opuntia elatior Mill.Fruit
Kingdom: plantae; Division: Magnoliophyta (Angiosperms); Class: Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons); Subclass: Archichlamydeae; Order: Caryophyllales (cactales); Family: Cactaceae; Subfamily: Opuntiodeae; Tribe: Opuntieae; Genus:
1.5. Medicinal properties
Cactus have been used in treating several diseases, such as rheumatic disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma and gastric mucosa diseases traditionally use as medicine in many countries over the world. This plant contains bioactive molecules that are well known for their health-related properties present in the cactus fruits and cladodes that is the reason for the more focus of many studies. It has been shown that there is a positive correlation between a nutritional rich in prickly pear cactus and a reduced risk of diseases associated with such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases .
The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make fruits and cladodes of
This fruit is used commonly by tribal people of the Kachchh region of Gujarat, India. This fruit has high medicinal properties. But information about this fruit regarding the chemical constitutes, nutritional value of fruit and medicinal properties, primary and secondary metabolites unknown is lacking. Thus, this fruit was analyzed for its nutritional value and medicinal properties.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Collection of raw material
2.2. Drying and grinding the plant material
The fruits were collected and sliced into small pieces and distributed evenly for homogeneous drying. They were kept to dry at ambient temperature with adequate ventilation. Dry condition is required to prevent microbial contamination and subsequent degradation of metabolites. These fruits were kept away from direct sunlight to minimize chemical reaction which is caused by ultraviolet rays. After drying the fruits, they were grounded into a fine powder and passed through 60 mm mesh, this is then stored in an air tight container, in a dry and cool place. Grinding the fruits into a fine powder, for the extraction procedure, helps increase the surface area thus making it more homogeneous, and therefore making it easy for the solvent to penetrate the cells.
2.3. Preparation of fruit extract
2.3.1. Soxhlet extraction method
An extract is prepared using the soxhlet extraction method. In this method, “thimble” made up of cellulose or cloth placed put up the material to be extracted is placed in a central compartment, lower compartment connected with a siphon device and side-arm both. The solvent is placed in the lower compartment, and a reflux condenser is attached above the central sample compartment. It is made sure that all the components of the setup are assembled together with appropriate contents to complete the apparatus . For the extraction procedure, three different solvents were used, one after another, they were methanol, hexane and distilled water, respectively. Each extraction procedure took around 6 h. For each extraction, 230 ml of the solvent was placed in the lower compartment. A sample of 25 g of the fruit powder was placed in a porous thimble and kept in the middle compartment. For the procedure, the solvent in the lower container is heated to its boiling temperature (different solvents have different boiling temperature to maintain), and reflux condenser vapor passes through the side arm up. The thimble containing the material to be extracted using the vapor liquefies and drips. Here, central compartment extract gradually collects from warm water percolates through the material and the wall of the thimble. The entire liquid in the central compartment flows through the side tube and back into the lower solvent container of the height of the extract reaches to the top of the siphon. The extract removed in a petri dish and left aside to evaporate. After evaporation of solvent, the leftover extract was filled in the eppendorf tube. This process is then repeated with the other solvents.
2.4. Analysis of nutritional value
2.4.1. Sample preparation and nutritive analysis
Stock solution is prepared by dissolving 30 mg of methanolic, hexanoic and distilled water extract in to 30 ml of methanol, hexane and distilled water respectively to give the concentration of 1 mg/1 ml .
2.4.2. Estimation of moisture
(1) Ten grams of fruit sample were taken in a Petri dish and kept in a hot air oven at 90–100°C for 5–6 h. (2) Weight of the fruit was measured after it was completely dry. (3) Loss in weight was regarded as a measure of moisture content.
2.4.3. Estimation of fat content
(1) A mixture of 50 ml of methanol and diethyl ether were taken in 1:1 concentration. (2) From 30 ml of stock solution, 1 ml of test sample was added in the mixture and few drops of phenolphthalein as an indicator. (3) The solution was titrated with 0.1 N NaOH. (4) The change in color was observed from light yellow to a brownish coffee color.
2.4.4. Estimation of crude protein
The biuret test is a chemical test used to detect the presence of peptide bonds. In the presence of peptides (–CO-NH- groups), a copper (II) ion forms violate coordination complexes in an alkaline solution. Copper (II) reduces to copper (I). The intensity of the color complex is measured by colorimetrically at 520 nm.
2.4.5. Estimation of carbohydrate by Anthrone method
Carbohydrates are first hydrolyzed into simple sugars using hydrochloric acid to form furfural. This compound condenses with anthrone to form a green colored complex which can be measured by using colorimetrically at 620 nm.
2.4.6. Determination of vitamin-C
A mg = Std. vitamin C taken; V1 ml = Vol. of dye taken to titrate the sample; V2 ml = Vol. of dye taken to titrate std. vitamin C; B = Total vol. of std. solution taken which is to be titrated against 0.05% dye; 250 = Total vol. of std. solution made after dilution.
2.5. Antioxidant activity by DPPH method
This method is simple and sensitive. The assay is based on the theory of hydrogen donor is an antioxidant. It measures compounds that are total radicle scavengers. DPPH accept hydrogen from an antioxidant. The antioxidant effect is proportional to disappearance of DPPH in the test sample. These methods involve measurement of decrease in absorbance of DPPH at its absorption maxima of 516 nm, which is proportional to concentration of free radicle scavenger added to DPPH reagent solution .
2.5.1. Preparation of standard solution, test sample and DPPH solution
Standard solution is prepared by dissolving 10 mg of ascorbic acid in 10 ml of methanol to give the concentration of 1 mg/1 ml. Stock solution is prepared by dissolving 5 mg of methanolic, hexanoic and distilled water extract in to 5 ml of methanol, hexane and distilled water respectively to give the concentration of 1 mg/1 ml. 0.1 mM DPPH is prepared by dissolving 11 mg of DPPH in 8.46 ml of distilled water. It is protected from light by covering the tubes by aluminum foil.
2.6. Anti-inflammatory activity by antidenaturation activity
The anti-inflammatory activity of
2.6.1. Preparation of test sample and standard solution
Stock solution is prepared by dissolving 5 mg of methanolic, hexanoic and distilled water extract in to 5 ml of methanol, hexane and distilled water respectively to give the concentration of 1 mg/ 1 ml. From this stock solution 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 μl of each solution was taken and added in to 900, 800, 700, 600, 500 μl of their respective solvents, to make 1 ml of working standard solution. 5 mg of Diclofen tablet was dissolved in 5 ml of methanol water to make 1 mg/ 1 ml of concentration. From this stock solution 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 μl of solution was taken and added in to 900, 800, 700, 600, 500 μl of methanol respectively to make 1 ml of working standard.
2.7. Qualitative phytochemical analysis
The qualitative phytochemical analysis of test for alkaloids, test for flavonoids, test for phytosterols, test for saponin, test for phenol and test for tannin perform by standard method reported by Parekh and Chanda (2008) .
2.8. Thin Layer chromatography
The separate chemical mixtures using the thin layer chromatography (TLC). TLC is performed on a sheet of aluminum foil, thin layer coated with of adsorbent material use the silica gel. This thin layer of adsorbent is known as the stationary phase. The solvent mixture (mobile phase) is drawn up the plate via capillary action and after the sample has been applied on the plate. Separation is achieved based on the different ascends the TLC plate at different rates .
2.9. HPTLC analysis
HPTLC analysis based on the principles of adsorption the separation of compound. The mobile phase solvent flows based upon the principle of capillary action. The chemical components separation according to their affinities toward the absorbent. The stationary phase travels slower because component with more affinity. Travels faster the chemical molecule component with lesser chemical charge toward the stationary phase. Thus, the component separated on a chromatographic plate. A 10 mg of methanolic extract was dissolved in 1 ml of methanol. This test solution was used for HPTC analysis. HPTLC aluminum sheet pre-coated with silica gel was used as the adsorbent. The chromatographic development chamber was saturated with mobile phase to place the plates. The plates were run and derivatized. The derivatized plates were heated, bands were observed and scanned at 254 nm and photographs were taken for record.
2.10. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy
The GC-MS method separates different chemical compound and correct identifies the component of chemical constitute. It is one of the most accurate tools for analyzing environmental samples. The GC works on the principle that a mixture will separate in to individual substances when heated. Mass spectroscopy identifies the compound by the mass of the analyte compounds is stored on a computer. A 1 ml of test sample of methanolic extract of
3. Result and discussion
Medicinal plants due to therapeutic values have long been used to address human diseases. From as early as 800 Before Common Era, plants and herbs were used for their medicinal properties. In ancient Indochina culture, herbal remedies were part of the day to day usage. India has a long history of safe and continuous usage of plant originated drugs. Officially recognize systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, unani, homeopathy and so on. Constantly use herbal drugs to cure illnesses. Today, these ancient practices of Southern Asia are widely growing and highly valued field of the medical industry.
This fruit is widely used in America, Mexico and many other counties. This fruit is part of their daily diet as it is highly nutritious but, not many people are aware about this fruit in India. It grows best in hot and dry regions and therefore can be easily cultivated in the north-western regions of India. Thus, this fruit was used to analyze its nutritional and medicinal properties.
3.1. Extract yield (%) of
Pharmaceutical industries prefer plants that yield higher extract and are rich in their potency. Therefore, the work was carried out with yield calculation. We have selected hexane, methanol and distilled water solvent for extracting the plant constituents. A 36.84% of extract was produced by methanol, 15.79% extract was produced by distilled water and 3.40% of extract was produced by hexane from 25 g of powder by using 230 ml of solvents shown in Figure 3. Maximum extract was produced by methanol and minimum extract was produced by hexane.
3.2. Nutritive value of
Opuntia elatiorfruit extract
Appropriate knowledge about the nutritive value of fruit may enhance utility of the fruit. With the aim of increasing the utility, we have selected this fruit based on the ethno-botanical information and medicinal properties. For determination of nutritive value, various parameters were studied using fruit extract.
The percentage of various nutritional parameters that are analyzed in methanolic extract, distilled water extract and hexanoic extract of fruit are summarized in Table 1. Nutritive value of methanolic extract is higher than distilled water and hexanoic extract. As compared to Feugang
|Nutrients||Methanolic extract||Hexanoic extract||Distilled water extract|
|Vitamin C (mg/100 g)||63.29||31.64||45.21|
3.3. Antioxidant activity of different extracts of
3.3.1. DPPH Method (1, 1diphenyl 2, picryl hydrazyl)
In a living organism, free radicals are constantly generated; few amongst those remain as the unregulated radicals, which can cause extensive damage to tissue and biomolecules leading to various disease conditions, especially degenerative diseases and extensive lysis. This is the most widely reported method for screening of antioxidant activity. The lipophilic radical uses the model of DPPH radical. The lipid autoxidation was initiated by chain of lipophilic radicals. The stable free radical of DPPH at room temperature and stable diamagnetic molecule accepts an electron or hydrogen radical. The DPPH reducing capacity was observed by the decrease in its absorbance at 516 nm, which is induced by antioxidants. The suggested that the samples were free radical scavengers the DPPH test positive.
The best antioxidant activity was exhibited by the methanolic extract compared to hexanoic and distilled water extract. Methanolic extract exhibit the highest antioxidant activity that is 54.10% and the lowest antioxidant activity was exhibit by the hexanoic extract at 45.66% and the distilled water at 50.40% of antioxidant activity. The data obtained for different solvent extracts using DPPH method are shown in Figure 4. DPPH radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of
3.4. Anti-inflammatory properties of
Inflammation in the body acts as a defense mechanism. When a foreign substance enters in the body, it causes infection and injury. To protect our body from this, the infected area swells. The purpose of inflammation is to localize and eliminate the foreign substances so that the body can heal itself. Inflammation prevents excess blood flow to rich the site of damage.
The anti-inflammatory activity of
As a part of the investigation on the mechanism of the anti-inflammation activity, the ability of protein denaturation in different fruit extracts with different solvents was studied. The maximum percentage of inhibition of 37.49% was observed from methanol extract followed by distilled water at 34.15% and then hexane at 30.38%. All the solvent extract inhibited the albumin denaturation. The methanol extract shows the highest inhibition and distilled water extract shows the lowest inhibition. Diclofen, a standard anti-inflammatory drug, showed the maximum inhibition of 63.33%.
Several anti-inflammatory drugs have shown dose-dependent ability to inhibit protein denaturation.
3.5. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of
Opuntia elatiorfruit extract
The phytochemical constituents present in the methanolic extract of
|Phytochemical constituent||Color observed||Methanolic extract||Distilled water extract||Hexanoic extract|
|Alkaloids||Yellow color ppt||+||—||+|
|Flavanoids||Purple to cherry red||—||—||—|
|Saponin||Presence of foam||—||—||—|
The presence of these phytochemicals in the plants extract enhances their pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials. Alkaloid is reported to carry antimicrobial activities . The presence of alkaloids in the investigated plants of the wild cucurbits indicates that they have medicinal values. Alkaloids have a powerful effect on the physiology of animals . Sterols in modern clinical studies have shown that they play an important role as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents .
3.6. Thin layer chromatography of
Opuntia elatiorfruit extract
Methanolic extract obtained from
3.7. HPTLC analysis of methanolic extract of
For the HPTLC analysis the extract of
3.8. GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of
GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of
This study shows the analysis of nutritional and medicinal properties of
The authors are thankful to SICART (Sophisticated Instrument Centre for Applied Research and Testing), DST, India for GC-MS analyses. Charutar Vidya Mandal (CVM), Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India and Director of Ashok and Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), New Vallabh Vidyanagar 388,121, Gujarat, India, thankful for providing necessary support research and laboratory facility.