Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Developing Countries’ Marketing Communication Role in School Culture

Written By

Anıl Kemal Kaya and Umut Ayman

Submitted: 05 May 2017 Reviewed: 25 September 2017 Published: 20 December 2017

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71254

From the Edited Volume

Open and Equal Access for Learning in School Management

Edited by Fahriye Altınay

Chapter metrics overview

1,250 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics


Marketing communication has a vital role for organization?s internal and external representation in the marketing environment. Also, it creates a planned communication process for each organization attempt to become successful in the marketplace. Communication gives chances to organizations explaining, creating, and communicating information; it has a role to exchange the communicative messages mutually in terms of verbal and visual representation. In developing islands, service sectors are more developed and controlled by some Ministries. Education sector is controlled by Ministry of Education. Thus, school management must apply specific curriculum. According to Hofstede?s cultural dimensions theory, quality versus quantity of life dimension focuses on whether society concentrates on quality or quantity of the life. Thus, private schools analyzed under profit-oriented institutions. This chapter is going to explore the role of marketing communication in private school culture. Firstly, it analyses current situation of private schools, marketing communication applications in the process of building their school cultures by using quantitative method, and then develop an ideal model of marketing communication for institutions that reflects their school cultures. This chapter is going to be valuable for school managers and be a guideline for them while they are trying to apply the marketing communication tactics.


  • marketing communication
  • school culture
  • private schools
  • developing countries
  • Northern Cyprus

1. Introduction

This chapter is about how schools apply their marketing communication elements while reflecting their school culture by using new media tools in developing countries. As changing technology, the uses of mediums for society also changed. People start to use new media channels while they are trying to reach any information rather than using traditional media. Hence, just using traditional media channels is not enough for institutions if they want to gain a competitive advantage. Consequently, using new media channels gives chance for interactive communication between institutions and their stakeholders. Thus, to make it clearer, marketing communication clearly is defined and the importance in this century is discussed. Also, marketing communication in education sector, the role of marketing communication in school culture, and school structure in Northern Cyprus are also examined in the first part in this chapter. Then second part, is about methodology part. In this section, data collection procedure, data collection, and coding in research were explained. Afterwards, in last section, there is an analysis about Northern Cyprus private schools Web sites and Facebook page analysis taken as a case study.

1.1. Marketing communication

In marketing communication, there are two terminologies such as marketing and communication. Under marketing concept, firstly companies must define their customer needs, wants, and their expectation, then according to those data, they must plan how they are going to fulfill their customer needs by designing their products or services. Therefore, companies must design their products or services; then according to market price (common price) decide on their price; they must transmit these products or services; and lastly develop their promotional activities. As product line increases day by day, companies must continue to develop or modify their existing products not to lose their competitive advantage. Thus, these developments increase the importance of marketing in every sector. In traditional marketing, just focusing on 3p (product, price, and place) was enough for companies; however, in this century, it is not enough and therefore under promotion activities, companies care on more communication with their customers. Therefore, communicating with the customer is essential for owning market share. On the other hand, marketing communication is a two-way communication that has two parties as company itself and customers who carry companies benefit, try to persuade, influence, and motive their attitudes and behavior to create positive effects and lead them to buy the company’s products or services.

Marketing communication is a management process that the company creates and communicates messages to reach various target audiences that cause to create a mutual value with the company and its target market [1]. Marketing communication is an essential element for the companies to create favorable information flow to the target market with the use of promotional tools. Therefore, it is a long-term communication. Gaining competitive advantage in this market needs an application of accurate marketing communication strategies.

Communication is on the center in marketing because of some changes such as consumer gain power in market. Highly competitive market effects of global economy are changing consumption pattern of consumers and changing consumer expectation and their perception attitudes. These changes reduce the effect of traditional campaigns effect on consumers. Therefore, to prepare accurate campaigns, companies should send all valuable information about their product, price, and place by using marketing communication mix elements. All marketing communication elements such as advertising, public relations, direct marketing, sales force, and sales promotion activities have different roles in the campaigns. Hence, companies should know what and when they will use these marketing communication mix elements during campaign period.

Marketing communication evolves to create a planned communication process for each organization attempt to become successful in the market place. Marketing communication as an integral part of marketing management can also be another name for promotional elements. Marketing communication as vital marketing tools consists of promotional variables, which can be used in persuasively communicating favorable information about organizational products to its target audience. Marketing communication evolves to create a planned communication process for each organization’s attempt to become successful in the market place. Keller focused on to 10 different subject categories that are easily adaptable to marketing communications in education industry [2].

As seen in Table 1, there are 10 primary tools in marketing communication that companies use to gain a competitive advantage while they are reaching their consumer (target audiences).

1. Media advertising
● Radio
● Magazines
● Newspapers
5. Trade- & consumer-oriented promotions
Trade deals and buying allowances
● Display and advertising allowances
● Trade shows
● Cooperative advertising
● Samples
● Coupons
● Premiums
● Refunds/rebates
● Contests/sweepstakes
● Promotional games
● Bonus packs
● Price-off deals
6. Event marketing and sponsorships
Sponsorship of sporting events
● Sponsorship of arts, fairs, and festivals
● Sponsorship of causes

7.Marketing-oriented public relations & publicity

8. Personal selling

9. Social media
● Twitter
● LinkedIn
● YouTube

10. Online marketing
Mobile advertising
● Placed-based applications
● Search engine marketing
2. Direct response advertising
Direct mail
● Telephone solicitation
● Online advertising
3. Place advertising
Billboards &bulletins
● Posters
● Transit ads
● Cinema ads
4. Store signage and point-of-purchase advertising
External store signs
● In-store shelf signs
● Shopping cart ads
● In-store radio and TV

Table 1.

Primary tools of marketing communications [2, 3].

  1. Media advertising: television, radio, magazines, and newspaper are known as traditional mediums that companies use to reach their target audience by caring rating and circulation rate before they calculate gross impression, frequency of exposure, and the reach point.

  2. Direct response advertising: direct mail, telephone solicitation, online advertising are mostly used tactics from the company when they want to create direct response.

  3. Place advertising: by using billboards, bulletins, poster, transit ads, cinema ads to get the attention of target audience and give them a brief information or idea about products or services.

  4. Store signage and point-of-purchase advertising: help for audience or customer to find out easily by using external store signs, in-store shelf signs, shopping cart ads, in-store radio, and TV.

  5. Trade- and consumer-oriented promotions: Categorized under two headings such as trade promotions that companies do some promotional activities for their intermediaries or their partners to support them as well; the idea is if the partner wins the market that means they will win as well. The second promotional activities are customer-oriented promotions that focus on individual customer to give them a chance to either test, buy, or use the good at least one time.

  6. Event marketing and sponsorships: can be sponsoring as a company to any sporting events, arts, fairs, festival, or causes.

  7. Marketing-oriented public relations and publicity: focusing on their product or service that attempts to get attention and interest of their customers.

  8. Personal selling: using professional personal to answer all the question mark in their consumer mind by using interactive communication.

  9. Social media: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube.

  10. Online marketing: mobile advertising, placed-based applications, search engine marketing.

1.2. Marketing communication in education sector

In this highly competitive business markets, companies should focus on effective use of marketing communication to achieve their goals and gain consumer satisfaction in various markets and education sector as well. The education sector is one of the prominent sectors around the world that success, satisfaction, quality, and long-term relationship with mutual interaction within marketing communication tools lead to successful outcomes for the schools. Specially, high school education, which is compulsory in Northern Cyprus, the students have some years to visually and verbally understand with conceptual thinking and emotionally being a socially responsible person to survive their battles and gain success in their lives.

The education sector newly focuses on the marketing communication tools within their marketing mix strategies. Firstly, research has a vital role in every industry. Also, research is vital for the institutions that help the companies to understand situation analysis and use the data in their further strategies. Further strategies must focus on segmentation, targeting, and positioning should be done for education sector as well. Segmentation consists of dividing the market into smaller groups to reach more effectively to right people in a right way at the right time with right strategies with the use of marketing communication tools. Targeting is a second essential strategy of the company to define the target group. Last one is positioning, which the companies try to find out a perceptional positioning in the consumers’ minds with the use of symbolic, functional, and experiential benefits to create top in the mindset of the consumers. For the companies as private schools, the name of school is the brand, which is a kind of tangible and intangible assets that add value to create its brand equity. Shimp pointed out that “a brand is everything that one company’s particular offering stands for in comparison to other brands in a category of competitive brands” [3]. Clow & Baack, pointed out that strong brand names have more power on people to identify the brands and include distinctive and positive perception in the consumers’ minds [4]. Thus, the brands cover more than a name that represent the school, which is everything related with the high schools in their environment because of differentiating schools among the rivals.

Technological advances and marketing communication tools are showed in Table 1 that shed a light into education sector from marketing communication perspective. These can be designed by marketing communication professionals to gain success not only in education as a service but also become competitive businesses, which are aggressively competing with the competitors.

1.3. The role of marketing communication in school culture

Organizations like individuals in the society, which have some set of beliefs, values, and behaviors. Like individuals, the organizations have some characteristic differences on their culture as well. Culture is considered by the means of interactions between individuals, which is a learned process [5]. As communication plays a vital role in terms of the interaction between individuals, the diffusion of culture depends on communication. The main elements of culture are communication, emotions, thoughts that are based on the mutual flow of communication and information within the society.

Education is one of the most important sectors in Northern Cyprus. The success of schools is one of the most important issue for the schools. The schools should gain market share in the marketplace that is the growth stage of private schools in a developing country. The high schools should consider the quality, which is one of the most prominent asset for the schools. To gain success with quality as a benefit of the schools, they should consider creating their school cultures. Internal and external environments are important parts for school culture. Internal environment covers teachers, students, administrative branches, and main branch. External environment covers the stakeholders such as government offices, media, nonprofit organizations, associations, and so on who could affect negatively and positively the future surviving mechanism of the school’s wellbeing. Thus, the stakeholders’ perception of school culture plays a vital role to transfer school culture into the school image. School culture is created by the internal environment of the schools, which is a learning process of culture, that are internally and externally available to participate in the process.

School culture “is comprising the values and norms of the school or organization” [6]. According to Mitchell and Willower, he found out that “organizational culture grounded in academics and school spirit” and the students are considered as one of the most important group for organizational culture [7].

“A school’s culture–positive or negative–stems from its vision and its established values. Whether the culture is strong or weak depends on the actions, traditions, symbols, ceremonies, and rituals that are closely aligned with that vision” [8]. Also, Jerald pointed out that the importance of school culture’s vision and values [8]. These are intangible considerations to build up a school culture with the learning, sharing, obeying, and transferring the values within the organization itself. The reflection of school culture is the school culture image that is perceived by the stakeholders who are externals to the school. The issue of school culture perception in terms of private school’s image is needed to be transferred from school to stakeholders. The successful school culture image is the responsibility of marketing communication professionals. To cope with highly competitive marketplace, the private high schools should use marketing communication tools professionally. The way of marketing communication tools depends on the target market and segments, which are researched by the organizations in the society. The use of marketing communication in private high school education in Northern Cyprus may create long-term successful mechanisms and its survival in the highly competitive education sector as well.

1.4. School structure in Northern Cyprus

Throughout 2015–2016 period, there are 94 high schools in Northern Cyprus in which 19,068 number of students get education from 1775 teachers, which show that each teacher should concentrate on approximately 11 students (the ratio of student/teacher) [9].

As seen from Table 2, nine private schools give their education as an alternative to public school. The main difference between private schools and public schools are education hours. For instance, private school gives whole day education, start at 8 and finish 16.00 o’clock but public school gives half day education, start at 8 and finish 13.00 o’clock. On the other hand, the main common characteristic facilities for both type schools (public and private) depend on and are controlled by the Ministry of Education. There is a fixed syllabus for all schools that they should complete during the education period. Therefore, the private schools complete these fixed syllabuses and have a chance to give extra-curricular activities because of the time spending in the school hour [10].

Girne American College Kyrenia
Doğu Akdeniz Doğa College Famagusta
Ulus.Kıbrıs Koleji (Levent College) Nicosia
Ted College Nicosia
Necat British Academy Kyrenia
The English School of Kyrenia Kyrenia
Yakın Doğu College Nicosia
Güvence College Kyrenia
Final College Famagusta

Table 2.

Private school in Northern Cyprus.


2. Methodology

In quantitative methodology, content analysis was used to understand the nine private high schools media usage while they are reaching their stakeholders. As mentioned earlier, according to Hofstede theory, quality versus quantity of life, private schools are trying to differentiate their education by focusing on more quality oriented rather than quantity of the life. In that case, there are nine private schools depending on Ministry of Education in different regions in North Cyprus and all were analyzed.

2.1. Data collection procedure in research

In data collection, all nine private schools are separately analyzed one by one by checking their Facebook pages posts and web sites information to evaluate how and what types of information about their education services they are sharing during interactive communication with their target audience and whether if they can reflect their school culture; like their history, values, missions, and their vision in their activities, ceremonies, awards, and their slogan. Thus, in the analyses of web sites, information are analyzed and interpreted according to education system, price, place, communication elements, and school culture reflections. Also in Facebook pages, the posts are taken into consideration like follow, visit, posts, video, picture, and efficiency of the institution usage criteria as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Procedure in research.

2.2. Data collection and coding in research

As a data collection method, the researchers one by one categorized Facebook pages and Web sites of the private schools. Each private school’s product as education, price, place, company, events, press releases, slogan, and logo were categorized and coded data were explained in each column. The content of each column was coded by researchers that the representative words and abbreviations were used as coded data.


3. Findings and conclusion

This part has two sections. In the first part, nine private high schools Web sites and Facebook pages data uses are interpreted and a model of marketing communication for institution that reflects their school culture is designed. In the last section, there is a conclusion part of this chapter.

3.1. Findings

As mentioned earlier, nine private schools Web sites are analyzed by checking whether they give information about their education (as product), pricing, place (about their location), and the messages that they are using while they are reaching their target audience.

According to Table 3, among nine private schools, three of them perfectly give all detail information about their education system and their prices where four of them just give brief information about the courses without telling the education price that they are asking in their web sites.

College Product (education) Price Place Company history(H)
Events Press release Slogan and logo
Yakındoğu *Brief inf. about course
*No evaluation criteria
*No curriculum
No Info. Show in map and given tel. no H: Y
M: Y
V: Y
S: Y
F: N
L: E&T
No info. yes No
Slogan but use logo
English School of Kyrenia *Perfectly explained each class course
*Full curriculum
*Grading criteria
*Activities explanation
Full Info.
All type pay
Show in map and given tel. no H: Y
M: Y
V: Y
S: Y
F: Y
L: E
Yes Yes They use their logo and slogan
Necat British Academy Perfectly explained each class course
*Full curriculum
Full Info.
All type pay
Show in map and given tel. no H: Y
M: Y
V: Y
S: Y
F: Y
L: E
Yes Yes No slogan but use logo
TED Brief info about courses Full Info.
All type pay
Show in map and given tel. no H: Y
M: Y
V: Y
S: Y
F: Y
L: E&T
Yes Yes They use their logo and slogan
Girne American College Very brief info about courses No info Show in map and given tel. no H: N
M: N
V: Y
S: Y
F: Y
L: E&T
Yes Just what they prepare not published format No slogan but use logo
Doğa College Very brief info about courses Few info not updated Show in map and given tel. no H: Y
M: Y
V: Y
S: N
F: Y
L: E&T
Few info about NC camp No info about NC campus They use their logo and slogan
Levent College Almost no info No info Show in map and given tel. no H: Y
M: Y
V: Y
S: N
F: Y
L: E&T
No info. No info. They use their logo and slogan
Final college Very brief info about courses No info Show in map and given tel. no H: N
M: Y
V: N
S: Y
F: N
Yes No No slogan but use logo
Güvence No info No info No info No info No info No No

Table 3.

Private school’s web page analysis in Northern Cyprus.

Some web sites have some language option where some does not have. This contradicts because all these nine schools claiming that instead of mother language Turkish, they are highly emphasizing English language in their education system. Especially Necat British and English School of Kyrenia has no language option, all their information are only in English language; however in Northern Cyprus, mother language is Turkish and cannot be expected that everybody has English knowledge (Table 4).

College Like & follow Visit Posts Video Picture Efficiency
Yakındoğu College 1328 (L)
1322 (F)
People do not post location info when they go there Social R.
No video 117 photos Not frequently post
English School of Kyrenia 2303 (L)
2349 (F)
769 (V) Events
Press R.
Social R.P
6 videos 134 photos Posts frequently
Add their awards and mission in about part
Necat British 5617 (L)
5578 (F)
People do not post location info when they go there Events
Press R.
Social R.P
15 videos 2844 photos (all categorized) Posts frequently
Add their awards and mission in about part
TED College 1851 (L)
1845 (F)
3718 (V) Events
Celebration days (national or religion)
Exam announ.
program announcement (TV program, bus schedule)
7 videos 223 photos Posts frequently
Add their awards and mission in about part
Girne American College They have no official Facebook page, it seems an unprofessional like just having Facebook account, send people friend request instead of liking their pages. Therefore, most their posts are related with product or service announcement and are not related with school or education.
Doğa College 759 (L)
756 (F)
378 (V) Inside classroom
Within lecture hour
Teachers in activities
No video 13 photos Not frequently post
Levent College 976 (L) 11,260 (V) Just parents post some of their kid’s activities, pictures, and they are posting when they visit school.
Final College 1561 (L)
1565 (F)
217 (V) Events
Celebration days (national or religion)
3 videos 703 photos Posts frequently
Add their mission and their story in about part
Güvence They have no official page in Facebook

Table 4.

Private school’s Facebook page analysis in Northern Cyprus.

When checking the schools Facebook usage, Yakındoğu College has no shared promotion or events video. They just post some events & activities pictures and some succeeded field pictures. No matter, they have 1322 followers and 1328 people liked their page, such that max liked picture was 71 people, which is about Yakındoğu championship in football; and 14 shared people and 82 people liked the post that is about their start of new education year.

On the other hand, English School of Kyrenia and Necat British school cares about video’s posts that all these videos are related with activities they perform and promotion video that express the school values, mission, and vision. For both schools, their promotion videos are viewed by 4800 people for Necat British and 9427 for English school of Kyrenia. In addition to this, when they are posting some posters and news, they get approximately 315 like (English school of Kyrenia) and 220 like (Necat British).

In Ted College Facebook page managed by school representative, the average liking rate is 20–25 people from their posts. Most liked video was about Atatürk which was viewed by 1300 people. However, they are using their Facebook page efficiently by updating their post, caring and diffusing all the information about their school such as exam announcement, activities program, bus schedule, etc.

Girne American and Levent College seems that, school representative does not manage their Facebook pages. Thus, the audience (parents) while searching some school information for their kids may not get a valid and reliable information about that schools.

Doğa College has very few pictures about their schools; therefore with limited pictures, it is difficult to understand and differentiate this school from other colleges.

Final College as a newest private school, had a school culture representation with the use of new media. They categorized their photos according to the activities and ceremonies. Therefore, according to visual representation of Final College, the target audiences have a chance to get an idea about the school culture. Since, they are posting frequently, they continue to keep communication with target audience.

As it seen Figure 2: model of marketing communication for institution that reflects their school culture model, institution history, values, mission, vision, and slogan are the main elements that create school culture and this school culture reflected in the school activities, ceremonies, and their awards. While schools applying marketing communication, all their tactics should express their school culture. Hence, target audience should get that feeling and the information while using these mediums.

Figure 2.

Model of marketing communication for institution that reflects their school culture.

3.2. Conclusion

As a conclusion, in the highly competitive business environment, the developing countries need to show more importance to have marketing communication tools to construct their school culture. If they are franchised or not, each private school should act or adapt their school culture locally to create a positive and successful school culture perception in terms of image. Decentralization of decision making mechanisms may create another asset for the schools to compete in different cultures. As being private schools in Northern Cyprus, they use a degree of marketing communication tools. For their future survivals, they should consider educational success, quality, learning, and assessments with the integrated educational tools and the use of marketing communication tools.


  1. 1. Fill C. Simply Marketing Communications. England: Pearson Education Limited; 2006. p. 1
  2. 2. Keller KL. Mastering the marketing communications mix: Micro and macro perspectives on integrated marketing communication programs. Journal of Marketing Management. 2001;17:819-847. DOI: 10.1362/026725701323366836
  3. 3. Shimp TA. Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. 6th ed. Ohio: Thomson South Western; 2003. p. 10-32
  4. 4. Clow KE, Baack D. Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2007. p. 821
  5. 5. Şahin A. Örgüt Kültürü-Yönetim İlişkisi ve Yönetsel Yetkinlik. Maliye Dergisi. 2010;159:21-35
  6. 6. MacNeil AJ, Prater DL, Busch S. The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. International Journal of Leadership in Education. 2009;12(1):73-84. DOI: 10.1080/13603120701576241
  7. 7. Mitchell JT, Willower DJ. Organizational culture in a good high school. Journal of Educational Administration. 1992;30(1). DOI: 10.1108/09578239210008781
  8. 8. Jerald CD. School Culture: “The Hidden Curriculum”. Issue Brief Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement [Internet]. 2006. Available from: [Accessed: 2017-07-8]
  9. 9. TRNC Statistical Year Book 2015 [Internet]. 2017. Available from: [Accessed: 2017-07-08]
  10. 10. TRNC. The Ministry of Education Private School Applications [Internet]. Available from: [Accessed: 2017-07-10]

Written By

Anıl Kemal Kaya and Umut Ayman

Submitted: 05 May 2017 Reviewed: 25 September 2017 Published: 20 December 2017