Characteristics of laccases from
In this chapter, the activity and isoenzymes number of laccases of Pleurotus ostreatus grown in solid-state and liquid fermentations are reported. An atypical behavior of this fungus with relation on enzyme production was observed, since the major laccase activity levels were observed in liquid fermentation, whereas the solid-state fermentation has been recognized as better system for enzyme production.
- Pleurotus ostreatus
- solid-state fermentation
- submerged fermentation
- ligninolytic enzymes
Laccases are enzymes oxygen oxidoreductases produced by plants, insects, bacteria, and fungi. The most studied laccases are fungal origin, mainly of white rot fungi using different culture systems, mainly in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and liquid fermentation (SmF). In general, it has been suggested that the solid-state fermentation is better for the production of metabolites and enzymes compared with SmF ; however, in recent studies has been observed that the basidiomycete
Pleurotus ostreatus: phases of growth and composition
The growth of all parts of a fungus occurs at the hyphal tips. The mycelial structure grows by synthesizing new wall at the hyphal apex, as they increase in length, additional sites for wall synthesis are formed in the subapical region, originating lateral branches that synthetize wall again confined to the hyphal tip . The formation of a new branch requires the production of a new apex from the existing mature hyphal cell. It has been reported that some enzymes such as proteinases could create weakened zones in the cell wall, which could be pushed out by cytoplasmic flow to initiate branching. So in the mycelial growth, in addition to activation of the cell wall synthesis, enzymes such as chitin synthetase and proteinases, which might weaken the lateral cell walls, are also important. During growth of vegetative hyphae, a large amount of nutrient absorbed from the substrate is stored. Polysaccharide may be stored in the form of glucans in secondary wall layers and/or as glycogen granules in the cytoplasm in the cell. The cells in a hypha are separated by a cross-wall called septum. Septa placement has been reported to depend on the position of nuclear division. The septum is formed by chitin deposition on a preformed ring of actin microfilament. Dolipore septa divide hyphae into compartments or cells where movement of cytoplasmic material between them is carefully regulated. It gives rigidity to the hyphae and it can help avoid further injury if damage occurs at the hyphal tip . In a developed colony, the hyphae tip growth or peripheral growth zone forms continuity between hyphae because of the presence of dolipore septa. The growing tips have a constant forward advance, so the mycelium that is left behind seems no longer involved in the growth. At the beginning of the fructification, the characteristic invasive growth of the vegetative mycelium in the substrate is modified. The fruit body initial is formed by increase in mycelial mass, with the formation of additional hyphal branching between the hyphae. The fruit body formation begins with the aggregation of hyphae to form a “knot” that will develop into a primordium and then a mature fruit body with differentiated stem and cap. It has been reported that the most important quantitative change in the cell wall during fruiting is the almost total loss of water-soluble glucan, instead, chitin has been reported important in fruit body development, which is essential for elongation of the stem hyphal walls. The precursor of chitin is N-acetylglucosamine and it is incorporated in the elongation of the hyphae of fruit bodies during expansion. Glycogen is accumulated in the base of fruit bodies at very earlier stages of growth and then disappears from the base as it is accumulated in the cap. In fruit body development, carbohydrates from the culture medium are temporarily store in R-glucan (alkali insoluble glucan) in the wall of mycelia and fruit body primordium hyphae, which is utilized for pileus development in the growing fruit bodies.
2.2. Ligninolytic enzymes of
From an ecophysiological point of view, white-rot basidiomycetes are microorganisms able to degrade lignin efficiently. However, the degree of lignin degradation with respect to other wood components depends on the environmental conditions as well as the fungal species involved.
Additional peroxidases, such as dye decolorizing peroxidases have also been detected in
Laccases are blue copper oxidases that catalyze the one-electron oxidation of
Laccases (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 18.104.22.168) are enzymes classified as multicopper oxidases. These glycoproteins have the redox ability of copper ions to catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of aromatic substrates where water is obtained as by-product from the reduction of molecular oxygen [42, 43]. Laccases were first time reported in the Japanese lacquer tree (
|Optimum pH of|
activity using different
Laccases have a high capacity and nonspecific oxidation which allow their use in many biotechnology applications, such as detoxification of wastewater produced in pulp bleaching process  and from industrial plants , treatment of elimination of phenolic compounds in beer and processed fruit juices , in effluent discoloration and modification of textile fibers , as biosensors , as drug testing (to distinguish morphine from codeine) . Another important application is in environmental remediation; laccases have shown ability of degrading hazardous compounds that have carcinogenic and/or mutagenic effects, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), pentachlorophenols (PCP), toluene, benzene, xylene (BTEX), ethylbenzene, and trinitrotoluene (TNT) .
2.4. Production of laccases of
Pleurotusin solid-state and submerged fermentation
SSF has been defined as the bioprocess carried out in the absence or near absence of free water by the use a solid matrix with high water adsorption; the solid matrix could be biodegradable or inert, but in both cases must possess enough moisture to support growth and metabolism of the microorganism. Biodegradable solid matrix acts as support and source of nutrients and in the inert matrix, it is only the support and the culture liquid medium must be added [73, 74]. SSF has been a very efficient process for the production of enzymes by filamentous fungi [75, 76], possibly, they reproduce the natural living conditions .
SSF is the best culture system to study the morphological and metabolic differences between aerial hyphae and those that penetrate in the solid matrix . It has been reported that SSF is better system than SmF for production of fungal enzymes, because it provides higher volumetric productivities, is less sensible to catabolite repression and yields enzymes with a higher stability at temperature and/or pH . The fermentation could be carried out in less time and the productions of undesirable proteases that degrade enzymes of interest are minimized [78, 79]. Several studies in this field have determined the physiological differences during the growth of microbial cells in the two types of processes. The use of an adequate support for performing SSF is essential, since the success of the fermentation depends on it . Castanera et al.  reported that laccase gene transcription is upregulated in an induced SmF but downregulated in the SSF, when were determined the laccases expression profiles in different fungal strains under SmF and SSF using wheat straw extract as inducer.
In a study was found that
Different strains of
Different concentrations of apple pomace were evaluated on laccase production by
Recently, optimization of the laccases production of
On the other hand, the growth and activity of laccases from of five different strains of
The activity and isoenzymes number of laccase from
A gene called lacP83 that encode a laccase isoenzyme of
Recently, the effect of pH on the expression of five genes of laccases (lacc1, lacc4, lacc6, lacc9 and lacc10) and isoenzymes profiles produced by
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