The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue in Mexico and lately virus Chikungunya, although Aedes albopictus is widely distributed; its role in both diseases’ transmission has not been confirmed. The control of mosquitoes in Mexico includes source reduction consisting in the elimination of containers that are favorable sites for oviposition and development of the aquatic stage. The use of insecticides is to control larvae and adulticides as outdoor ultra-low volume applications and indoor residual spray and more recently impregnated materials. The health department regulates the use of insecticides, and such regulations are revised and adapted over time. Since 1999, the vector control regulations gave preference to the use of pyrethroids, a permethrin-based formulation to control adult forms. This insecticide was used as the only adulticide in Mexico for more than 10 years. The consequences of this actions have evolved in a widespread and strong resistance to other insecticides, mainly pyrethroids. We include in this revision evidence of resistance reported in Ae. aegypti in Mexico.
- Aedes aegypti
Urban environments have favored the presence and abundance of
2. Study area
Mexico is in the southern part of North America, between 14° 32 and 32° 43 North and 86° 42 and 118° 27 West. The country is divided administratively into 31 states and one federal district (Mexico City). Mexico has a land area of 1,964,375 km². It is surrounded by the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea to the east, the United States of America to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the south and west, and Belize and Guatemala to the southeast. The main features of the physiography of Mexico are Northern and Southern Plateau. Two mountain chains, the Sierra Madre Oriental on the east and The Sierra Madre Occidental on the west, leave plains along the shores of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. The Sierra Madre Oriental obstructs the circulation of air from the Gulf of Mexico toward Northern and Central Mexico. This characteristic on physiography allows a variety of climates, and the altitude performs a dominant effect on temperature. The prevalent climate conditions are dry to arid in the country. The North territory (47.7%) presents arid and semiarid conditions (23.5%), subhumid with 7 months of long dry season prevailing in Central Mexico, 16.3% presents dry tropical mainly the shores, 12.4% of the territory located in Southern Mexico presents humid tropical climate, and in both mountain chains small areas with humid temperate climate are found .
3. The situation of dengue and Chikungunya fever in Mexico
A recent study estimated that up to 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections, including close to 100 million cases of dengue disease manifestations, occur annually across the world .
The autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya in the Region of the Americas was first detected on December 2013. By July 2014, an imported case was reported in Mexico, two more imported cases appeared on September 5. By the end of 2014, a total of 131 autochthonous confirmed cases were reported as well as a total of 13 imported cases; and ~7,500 confirmed cases by October 2, 2015 .
4. Vector control in Mexico
Since 1950, operational vector control programs in Mexico have used a series of insecticides to control
On June 1, 2011, a new policy was published in NOM-032-SSA2-2010  that established the characteristics of the insecticides to be used for vector control in Mexico. The selection of the insecticides should be based on vector resistance, effectiveness, and safety related to exposure. The list of insecticides has since been updated each year . A new policy published on April 16, 2015 (NOM-032-SSA2-2014) , maintained the same requirements practically as the regulation published in 2011.
5. Insecticide resistance in
Ae. aegypti — A threat to its control
The extensive use of DDT to control
Pyrethroid resistance is clearly increasing despite the initial optimism over their rapid action and novelty . Evidence of resistance to permethrin insecticide used in Mexico for more than 10 years in
The presence of a kdr mutation V1016I in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene is also associated with resistance to pyrethroids. This mutation was originally found in a permethrin resistant strain from Isla Mujeres, off the coast of Cancun [46,47]. High frequencies of this resistance allele were subsequently found in collections of
Flores et al.  reported an extensive monitoring of the frequency of kdr Ile1,016 in
A second mutation F1534C on the IIIS6 domain of the same gene was also detected in
The practice of utilizing a single insecticide until the appearance of resistance has become a standard practice that quickly reduces the number of insecticides available for vector control. Rotations, mosaics, and mixtures have instead been proposed as strategies for insecticide resistance management [52–54]. Mathematical models have been applied for estimating how these tools could be used in an optimal manner . However, these models have been rarely tested under field conditions, especially for insect vectors, due to the difficulties in determining changes in frequencies of resistance genes in large samples of insects from resistant populations .
In Mexico, there was a large-scale field trial with
With that goal in mind , the resistance to eight pyrethroids in collections of
Saavedra-Rodriguez et al.  examined changes in gene expression before, during and after five generations of permethrin laboratory selection in five strains of
The selection pressure by the prolonged use of pyrethroids in Mexico had resulted in resistance to all of this kind of chemicals recommended for vector control in Mexico. All studies have shown the prevalence of cross-resistance caused by metabolic mechanisms and/or point mutations. Saavedra et al.  demonstrated that even in the absence of barriers to gene flow, local insecticide pressure, rather than the migration of mosquitoes with kdr-conferring mutations, is the primary determinant of the local kdr profile for
The selection pressure exerted by insecticides for more than six decades on the populations of
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