c-fms and breast cancer
In the development and progression of breast cancers, both the
Tumor-associated macrophages bearing CSF-1 promote progression of breast cancer (Pollard 2004). In mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts, targeting mouse (host)
We have reported that glucocorticoids (GC) up-regulate
1.2. Regulation of
1.3. Stability of
c-fms transcripts in breast cancer cells
1.4. Post-transcriptional regulation of
c-fms expression by 3’UTR
mRNA 3’UTR contains
In metazoans, the 69 nt sequence within the 3'-UTR of
1.5. microRNAs for
c-fms mRNA regulation
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide single-stranded RNAs, that in general down-regulate translation and enhance mRNA degradation (Huntzinger and Izaurralde, 2011; Braun
Bioinformatics analysis predicted eight miRNAs (miR-339-5p, miR-449, miR-34, miR-610, miR-22, miR-134, miR-155, and miR-217) targeting six regions in
1.6. RNA-binding proteins for
c-fms mRNA metabolism and translation
The first evidence supporting post-transcriptional regulation of
Chambers et al. (1993) reported the existence of mRNA regulatory proteins involved in
Furthermore, in breast carcinoma cells (BT20 and SKBR3), Dex-treatment at later time points increased
In human breast-cancer tissues, HuR is expressed mostly in nucleus (>90%), but expression in cytoplasm is also found. High nuclear expression of HuR is a poor prognostic factor both in breast and ovarian cancer (Woo et al, 2009; Yi et al, 2009).
Furthermore, immunoblot analysis showed that vigilin expression was lower in metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231BO cells than in non-tumorigenic epithelial breast MCF10A cells (Figure 5B). This indicates that a possible suppressive role of vigilin in invasive characters of breast cancer cells.
1.7. Effects of HuR and vigilin on invasiveness of breast cancer cells
1.8. Post-translational modification: dimerization and tyrosine-phosphorylation of CSF-1R activation of PIP3/Akt signal transduction pathway
Activation of CSF-1R, product of the
In breast cancer cells, multiple components are known to activate phosphorylation of CSF-1R. Endogenous cytokine CSF-1, functioning as an autocrine signal, can bind to the extracellular domain of CSF-1R and activate the cytoplasmic kinase domain leading to autophosphorylation of tyrosine-residues in CSF-1R. There is evidence to suggest that endogenous CSF-1 can also bind CSF-1R without interaction on the membrane surface. Exogenous CSF-1, from other sources such as macrophages, osteoclasts, or fibroblasts, can function in a paracrine manner to activate CSF-1R on the membrane surface. Consequently, phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in CSF-1R activates cell proliferation and invasive potential (Yu et al, 2012; Sapi et al, 1996). Our study indicates glucocorticoids (dexamethasone) and starvation also activate CSF-1R auto-phosphorylation (Figure 8).
CSF-1R is localized both in the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nuclear envelope (Zwaenepoel et al, 2012). CSF-1R in the nuclear envelope becomes phosphorylated in response to CSF-1. Phosphorylated CSF-1R in the nuclear envelope triggers the phosphorylation of Akt and p27 inside the nucleus.
Our results have demonstrated presence of vigilin in free mRNP fractions in human BT20 breast cancer cells. While vigilin association with free mRNPs may prevent ‘closed-loop’ formation and consequently inhibit
In the design of clinical therapeutics, suppression of pathogenic gene expression requires high specificity to prevent off-target toxicity. In order to achieve this, detailed regulatory mechanisms of target gene expression should be elucidated. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms and specific proteins through which vigilin effects translational down-regulation of proto-oncogene
Based on information available from the last 20 years of research and our recent data, it is now possible to elucidate vigilin’s role in translational down-regulation of
4.1. Cell culture
A human breast carcinoma cell line BT20 was maintained in MEM (Sigma) supplemented with 0.1 mM non-essential amino acids, 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 1.5 g/L sodium bicarbonate, and 10% fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen) in 5% CO2 at 37°C. A human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was cultured in DMEM (Sigma) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. For studies using glucocorticoids, cells were grown in starvation medium with 100 nM Dex (Sigma-Aldrich) for 72 h and collected for immunoblot analysis. A human ovarian cancer cell line Hey was grown in DMEM/F12 (Sigma) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum.
4.2. Total RNA isolation for semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis
Cells were grown in 6-well plate for 2-3 days before harvesting. Total RNA was extracted with 500 ul Trizol (Invitrogen) per well. After Trizol extraction, 150 ul of supernatant was carefully removed to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Supernatant was re-extracted by equal volume of chloroform and 100 ul of supernatant was carefully removed and ethanol precipitated for cDNA synthesis.
4.3. Semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis for
Total RNA was oligo-dT18 primed by M-MuLV reverse transcriptase (New England Biolab). For PCR analysis, reverse transcriptase reaction was diluted by 10-fold and 2 ul was used for 20 ul PCR reaction. GAPDH mRNA was amplified in PCR reaction as internal loading control.
GAPDH PCR primers (forward primer = 5’-CGGGAAACTGTGGCGTGATGGC-3’, reverse primer = 5’-AGGAGACCACCTGGTGCTCAGTG-3’).
4.4. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis for miR-610 and miR-155 quantification
miRNA expression was determined by the stem-loop qRT-PCR analysis to increase the specificity of miRNA amplification (Chen et al, 2005). cDNAs for miR-610, miR-155, and tRNAGlu specific were synthesized using sequence specific stem-loop forming primers. After 10-fold dilution of reverse transcriptase reaction, 2 ul was used for 20 ul real-time PCR. tRNAGlu was used as internal loading control.
miR-610 reverse transcription primer = 5’-gtcgtatccagtgcagggtccgaggtattcgcact ggatacgactcccag-3’)
miR-610 PCR primers (forward primer = 5’- ggcgctgagctaaatgtgtgc-3’, reverse primer = 5’- gtgcagggtccgaggt-3’)
miR-155 reverse transcription primer = 5’- gtcgtatccagtgcagggtccgaggtattcgcact ggatacgacacccct-3’
miR-155 PCR primers (forward primer = 5’- ggcgcttaatgctaatcgtgatag-3’, reverse primer = 5’- gtgcagggtccgaggt-3’)
tRNAGlu reverse transcription primer = 5’- gtcgtatccagtgcagggtccgaggtattcgcact ggatacgac GGTGAAAG-3’
tRNAGlu PCR primers (forward primer = 5’- CTGGTTAGTACTTGGACGGGAGAC -3’, reverse primer = 5’- gtgcagggtccgaggt -3’)
4.5. Analysis of
c-fms mRNA Half Life
4.6. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of
The BT20 cultures at 75-80% confluence were washed with PBS and incubated in labeling medium (Met,Cys-free RPMI1640 (Sigma R-7513), 5% dialyzed FCS, 500ug/ml Glutamine) for 40 min to deplete endogenous methionine and cysteine in cell. For metabolic labeling, 5 ml labeling medium and 50 ul (500 uCi) of 35S-Methionine/35S-Cysteine per T75 flask was added and incubated for 30-40 min. After brief chase in chase medium (labeling medium with 500µg/ml Cysteine-HCl and 100µg/ml Methionine), cells were harvested and lysed in IP buffer (1% Triton x-100, 0.05% NP-40 in TBS, protease inhibitors). For immunoprecipitation of c-fms proteins, 5 ug of
4.7. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assay
Plasmids encoding a control shRNA or shRNA directed against vigilin were purchased from Origene. The shRNAs correspond to coding region nucleotides 614–642 (5'-AAGCTCG GAAGGACATTGTTGCTAGACTG-3') and 829–863 (5'-CATGAAGTCTTACTCATCTCTG CCGAGCAGGACAA-3'), respectively, of human vigilin (GenBank BC001179). An shRNA containing a non-specific 29nt GFP sequence (TR30003, Origene) was used as a transfection control (Empty). For RNAi, 5 ×106 cells were transfected with 10 μg shRNA plasmid using Fugene HD (Roche) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Transfected cells were maintained in culture medium for 3-4 days to permit knockdown before assays.
For vigilin overexpression, pTetCMV-Fo(AS)-vigilin (Cunningham et al, 2000) was transfected using Fugene HD (Roche). The BT20 cells at 75-80% confluence in 6-well plates were transfected with 5 μg of plasmids. The overexpression effects were monitored for 3-4 days by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses.
4.8. UV crosslinking and label transfer with
c-fms mRNA 3’UTR
UV cross-linking of HuR and vigilin was performed as described previously (Urlaub et al, 2000) with modifications. RNAs of
4.9. Invasion assay
The Membrane Invasion Culture System (MICS chamber) was used to quantitate, the degree of invasion of MDA-MB-231 transiently transfected vigilin or HuR overexpressing clones. Breast cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 100 nM Dex and remained under starved conditions for transfection duration prior to the invasion assays. Parent or transfected cells, 1x105 per well in a 6-well plate, were seeded onto 10-μm pore filters coated with a human defined matrix containing 50 μg/ml human laminin, 50 μg/ml human collagen IV, and 2 mg/ml gelatin in 10 mM acetic acid.
This work was supported by Department of Defense grant DAMD 17-02-1-0633 (to S.K.C), by Arizona Biomedical Research Commission grant 07-061 (to S.K.C.), and the Rodel Foundation (to S.K.C.).
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