Open access

The Effects of Different Combinations and Varying Concentrations of Growth Regulators on the Regeneration of Selected Turkish Cultivars of Melon

Written By

Dilek Tekdal and Selim Cetiner

Submitted: 03 April 2012 Published: 24 April 2013

DOI: 10.5772/55455

From the Edited Volume

Current Progress in Biological Research

Edited by Marina Silva-Opps

Chapter metrics overview

2,594 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

1. Introduction

Cucurbits are an economically important family of plants. The majority of the vegetable production in Turkey, for example, derives from the species beloning to the family Cucurbitaceae. Despite the importance of cucurbits among vegetable crops worldwide, the development of genomic tools in these species has been rather limited. Although melon production has been improved by conventional plant breeding methods, output is still insufficient. One useful technique in overcoming such problems in melon is functional genomics’ studies, and the other one is abiotic stress resistance and improved fruit quality has been gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The availability of an optimized plant regeneration system is crucial for genetic transformation techniques as well as obtaining an entire plant. Although Hasanbey and Cinikiz in Turkey, for example, are important commercial melon cultivars used in the breeding programs and molecular biology of fruit ripening and genetic mapping of melons, there is no study to date on the regeneration of these cultivars. The objectives of the present study are thus to develop and optimize an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for Cucumis melo L. and investigate the effects of different genotypes and growth regulators on the in vitro regeneration of melon. In this paper, we discuss the following topics: general information on the family Cucurbitaceae, the importance of melon production both in Turkey and in the world; lastly, the efficiency of in vitro culture techniques on melon propagation are presented with data relevant to our laboratory research. We assume that statement of the research findings presented here lead to for further studies on in vitro propagation of melon.

1.1. The family cucurbitaceae

The family Cucurbitaceae consists of cucumbers and melon as two major commercial vegetable crops and two minor crops, the West Indian Gherkin and the Kiwano, respectively. They are cultivated, economically useful crops [1]. According to the infrageneric classification, the genus Cucumis is divided into two subgenera based on the different base chromosome numbers of Cucumis; Cucumis subgen. Cucumis and. Cucumis subgen. Melo. Whereas Cucumis subgen Cucumis has x=7 chromosome numbers, Cucumis subgen. Melo has x=12 [2]. Cucumis melo is the type of the genus Melo. As a cucurbit crop, melon (Cucumis melo) has 552 synonyms and can be divided into three types: cantaloupe melons, musk melons and winter melons [1, 3]. Melon is a valuable human food source cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world [4]. The family Cucurbitaceae is hypothesized to be consisted of the species’ open-polination. Due to this open pollination within melon varieties, new melon species have emerged; hence in vitro propagation enables in vitro conservation of different melon genotypes carrying a variety of desired traits [5].

1.2. The importance of melon production in the world

Melon (Cucumis melo L. 2n=2x=24) is a diploid species with various phenotypic characters due to its adaptation under diverse agroecological conditions from the Mediterranean to Eastern Asia (Figure1).

Melons are grown in both temperate and tropical regions. Due to various morphological variations in its fruit characteristics such as size, colour, shape, taste and texture, melons are hence described an extensive diverse group. In addition, Cucumis melo L. can be divided into three groups or types: Cantaloupensis (Cantaloup or Musk melon) group, Inodorous group (Winter melon or Casaba) and Reticulatus (Ananas) group. Genotypes of these three groups can be crossbred [5, 6].

Although Africa is the origin of the melon, the diversification center for this fruit encompasses all Asian countries from Turkey to Japan. China, Turkey, Iran, and USA produce 57% of the melon annual production in the world [3-6].

Figure 1.

General view of flower and fruit of melon (adapted from [7])

Melon fruits are the valuable food sources with robust vitamin and mineral composition (Table 1) as well as economic values [8].

Composition Inodorous Melon Groups
Overall Compositions
Water (g) 91.85
Minerals (mg) 218.41
Proteins (g) 1.11
Total Lipid (Fat) (g) 0.10
Carbohydrate (g) 6.58
Fibre, total dietary (g) 0.9
Sugars, total (g) 5.69
Vitamin K (µg) 2.5
Vitamin C (mg) 21.8
Thiamin (mg) 0.015
Riboflavin (mg) 0.031
Niacin (mg) 0.232
Folate (mcg) 8
Vitamn B6 (mg) 0.163
Vitamin E (mg) 0.05

Table 1.

Nutritional compositions of the media used for micropropagation of Hasanbey and Cinikiz melons (value per 100 g of edible portion) *From USDA Nutrient Database, July 2012 [12]

Melons provide several nutrients involving protein (0,6-1,2%/100 g) vitamin E,, vitamin C, and Vitamin K for human metabolic reactions in daily dietary [9, 10]. Melon fruits are used in production of deserts, such as jam, ice cream, yogurt as well as soup (from the juice), pickling and cosmetics [11].

A characteristic skin color and aroma for melons are the primary traits sought by melon breeders. In addition, the development and ripening of melon fruits are very complicated due to the many biochemical and physiological changes comprising cell wall degradation, alteration in pigment biosynthesis, aromatic compounds, and increasing of sugar content. Therefore, performing the ex-situ regeneration of melon is very important for the research focused on improving the agronomic traits of melon in vitro conditions.

1.3. The importance of melon production in turkey

Turkey is an important country for cultivation of the economically important plant family Cucurbitaceae [13, 14]. Although the nation is not a primary center of melon diversification, it is the second largest producer after China in the world [15]. 38% of vegetable production in Turkey are Cucurbitaceae species which are watermelon, melon, cucumber, squash, and pumpkin. Of the 26,7 million tons of melon produced worldwide, 1,749 million tons of production, emerges from Turkey [16, 17] Central Anatolia is the main melon production region in Turkey. Ankara, Balikesir, Diyarbakir, Konya and Manisa are the provinces of highest melon production in Turkey [18]. The main production states are shown in Figure 2 [5,18].

In Turkey, the most popular cultivars are Yuva, Kirkagac, Kislik Sari Kuscular, Hidir, Cumra, Cinikiz and Hasanbey and melons are cultivated on landraces of less than 5 ha in size. Due to climatic conditions, melon harvesting in Turkey can change based on cultivation regions, but generally it is done from June to September [18].

Figure 2.

Melon production regions in Turkey

1.4. The importance of in vitro propagation of melon varieties

In vitro propagation provides a great number of clonal plants in a short time. This techique is based on the theory that a new plantlet can be derived from the use of any plant parts (leaf, shoot, root, etc.) on a suitable initial medium [19, 20]. The nutritional composition of a culture medium for optimal growth of a plant tissue is based on plant genotype [20]. Thus, the method established to manipulate plant tissues and cells is not only essential for in vitro propagation of valuable plants but also required to regenerate transgenic plants [1, 19]. Due to the fact that most commercial melon varieties have been subjected to viral pathogens, defects in fruit quality and absent yield have resulted in major economic losses [8]. For in vitro conservation of melon, in vitro propagation among melon varieties, has been implemented to obtain clonally propagated genotypes of melon [21]. In addition, due to the small-sized genome, high polymorphism, and short generation time of the melon, genetic transformation could be possible in the melon [22, 23]. There are several reports of the genetic tranformation of melon with a variety of marker genes, as well as genes for viral resistance, abiotic stress resistance, and fruit quality attributes [13, 24-34] Also some reports suggest that transformation in melon is strictly limited by genotype [26, 28]. This event makes this crop a good target for transformation protocols [35]. It has been shown that genetic transformatin on melon via Agrobacterium tumefaciens is limited to a few varieties. Since the difficulty of that melon regeneration is well known [36, 37, 38] the findings of our study on melon regeneration thus hope to constitute a source for further studies on profitable melon breeding.

1.5. Two important turkish melon cultivars: Hasanbey and Cinikiz

The local melon genotypes are the primary production resources of melon production in Turkey [14]. Hasanbey (Figure 3) and Cinikiz melon (Figure 4) varieties are the domestic farmgate inodorous melon crops. 85% of melon production in Turkey consists of Inodorous (Hasanbey, Cinikiz, Kirkagac, Kuscular, Hirsiz Calmaz and Yuva) and 15% occurs in Cantaloupensis (Macdimon, Galia, Polidor and Falez) and Reticulatus (Ananas, Topatan, Barada). Moreover, In Turkey Flexuosus melon cultivars and Dudaim type of melons are grown in small quantities [8]. Cantalupensis type melons are commonly cultivated in the Mediterranean region of Turkey, whereas the Inodorous melons are grown mainly in the Central Anatolia, Aegean and Southeastern Anatolia regions of Turkey. Inodorous group has the largest number of cultivars in Turkey [39].

Figure 3.

Hasanbey melon fruits(adapted from [40])

Figure 4.

Cinikiz melon fruits (adapted from [41])

Hasanbey melon is commonly grown in Western Anatolia in Turkey. This variety is round and dark green with a long shelf life. The Hasanbey melon cultivar is harvested from August to September due to its late ripening period [4]. Cinikiz melons are grown in the Central Anatolia in Turkey. This melon group has the highest ascorbic acid, sweetness and sugar content. The immature fruits of the Cinikiz melon have a light green skin color with dark green spots; mature fruits, a yellow colored skin [16, 18].

Individual plants of the Hasanbey or Cinikiz melon genotypes under in vitro conditions develop organs of similar size due to the elimination of environmental conditions and are, genetically controlled. Because of the interspecific and intergeneric incompatibility barriers in melons, some conventional methods such as hybridization and line fixing for improvement of melon cultivars are quite limitied as well as expensive [42, 43]. We assume that the outcomes from the present study may provide good sources for futher transformation studies on the genotypes of Hasanbey and Cinikiz melon groups [10, 44].

In the light of these facts, we hypothesize that an efficient regeneration method of economically important Turkish Cultivars, Cinikiz and Hasanbey, allows comparison of two different melon cultivars in regard to regeneration ability under an identical artificial medium. In the present study, two Turkish melon varieties were tested for in vitro regeneration ability cultured on Murashige ans Skoog (MS) media containing different combinations and varying concentrations of growth regulators.


2. Meterials and methods

2.1. Materials

2.1.1. Seed sources

Mature seeds of Cucumis melo L. cv. Hasanbey and Cinikiz were used as explants sources. The seeds of Hasanbey and Cinikiz melon varieties were obtained from Laboratory for Plant Biotechnology in Horticulture Department, Agriculture Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

2.1.2. Media and culture conditions

The achievement of in vitro tissue culture hinges on the composition of the medium, growth regulators, plant genotypes, explant sources, growth and culture conditions. Culture media used in this study are based on MS salts [20].

After surface sterilization, for the initiation of seed cultures, 10 seeds were placed into 100x15mm petri dishes containing basal MS basal medium with MS vitamins, 3% (w/v) sucrose and 0.75% (w/v) agar for three days. The pH level of the medium was adjusted to 5.7 prior to adding gelling agents. The media were sterilized by autoclaving at 121°C for 20 minutes.

Cultures were incubated in a growth room at 25±2°C at dark for three days. In vitro grown cotyledon pieces of mature seeds were transferred into regeneration medium containing different concentrations of IAA (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 mg L-1), Kin (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 mg L-1) and NAA (0.0, 0.5 mg L-1) for organogenesis. Cotyledon explants were incubated at 25±2°C under 16 h photoperiod provided by cool white fluorescent lamps.

2.2. Methods

2.2.1. Surface sterilization of seeds

Melon seed coats were removed and the seeds were dipped into 70% ethanol for ten minutes and kept in 20% sodium hypochlorite with 2 drops of Tween-20 per 100 ml solution with occasional shaking for 10 minutes. The seeds were then rinsed three consecutive times with sterile distilled water and blotted dry in a laminar flow cabinet. After straining the water, the seeds were placed directly on the culture medium under sterile conditions.

2.2.2. Seed germination

For seed germination, 10 seeds in each of the 100x15mm petri dishes containing the culture medium containing MS salts [20], MS vitamins and 3% (w/v) sucrose, gelling agent were placed.

Cultures were maintained on a hormone free MS medium for five days in a growth chamber at 25±1°C in darkness.

2.2.3. Plant regeneration treatments

In vitro plant regeneration is based on the balance of cytokinin and auxin and the quality of the explant sources during plant development. To evaluate the efficiency of various growth regulators, cotyledon explants were excised from in vitro grown seedlings after seed germination and then placed with the abaxial side onto the surface of a solified regeneration medium variants, consisting of MS basal medium supplemented with growth regulators, auxins (NAA and IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) in different combinations (see Table 2 for concentrations of growth regulators).

The explants obtained from the part proximal to the apex of the seedling were taken to induction medium. All media were sealed with parafilm and maintained in a growth room at 25±2°C under dark conditions. Every combination of growth regulators was used in the medium for each melon genotype. The experiment was set as a total of 22 treatments for both of the melon genotypes; each treatment was carried out in triplicates containing ten explants in each culture medium.

Concentrations of growth regulators (mg L-1) in the culture media used for propagation
NAA IAA Kinetin
0 0 0
0 2,5 0
0 2,5 2,5
0 2,5 5,0
0 5,0 0
0 5,0 2,5
0 5,0 5,0
0,5 0 0
0,5 0 2,5
0,5 0 5,0
0,5 5,0 5,0

Table 2.

MS media supplemented with different growth regulators for plant regeneration

The regeneration ability of each genotype was then scored weekly for a period of 6 weeks. The data on seed germination and plant regeneration were collected and regenerated plants less than 1 mm in length were not taken into consideration.


3. Results and discussion

3.1. Seed germination

The germination ability of the melon seeds can be affected by both internal and external factors. Since seed size is considered important for better germination [45-47], seeds in similar size were selected for both genotypes. Germination ratio of the Cinikiz melon seeds was found higher (85%) than that of the Hasanbey seeds (78%) under the same culture conditions.

3.2. In vitro plant regeneration

In the study presented here, cotyledons from in vitro grown seedlings were explant sources. In all experiments, basic MS medium containing MS salts, MS vitamins and sucrose (30 g L-1) was used.

Different concentrations and combinations of IAA (0,0, 2,5, 5,0 mg L-1), Kin (0,0, 2,5, 5,0 mg L-1) and NAA (0.0, 0.5 mg L-1) were investigated to optimize regeneration of two comercially important Turkish melon varieties: Hasanbey and Cinikiz.

There were significant differences between two melon varieties based on the growth regulator concentrations. According to our findings, comparison of the genotypes showed that the Cinikiz melon cultivar has better regeneration abilitythan did the Hasanbey melon. In addition, the maximum shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin was determined the best regeneration medium for both cultivars. Moreover, NAA was foun to be the best growth regulator in the induction of callus of both melon variaties. NAA alone induced direct callus formation, while Kin exhibited synergism with IAA for induction bud formation for both two varieties.

To date propagation of Cucumis melo has been reported by different research groups [34, 36, 48, 49, 50, 51]. The main differences between the present study and the earlier ones are the growth regulators used and melon cultivars selected. We used Hasanbey and Cinikiz melon cultivars as explants; while the others used ‘Amarillo oro’ [48, 51], ‘Accent’, ‘Galia’, ‘Presto’, and ‘Viva’ [36], ‘Revigal’ and ‘Kirkagac’ [34, 50], ‘Topmark’ [49, 50]. After three weeks on a MS medium free from plant growth regulator, approximately 80% of cotyledon explants gave rise to friable callus (Figure 5). Calli were found from the cut surface of cotyledon explants within 5 days. In a previous study, however, direct shoot formation was obtained from cotyledon explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1,0 mg L-1 BA [36].

In our study, the media containing 0,5 mg L-1 NAA showed that supplying NAA in the medium increased the callus formation, although the IAA and Kin concentration (5 mg L-1) was the identical to that of previous study[36]. The addition of NAA alone in our experiment stimulated formation of the callus. The best callus formation ratios were observed from the media containing 0,5 mg L-1 NAA, 5 mg L-1 IAA and 5 mg L-1 Kin for Cinikiz and Hasanbey melon cultivars 100% and 87%, respectively. The medium containing 0,5 mg L-1 NAA, 5 mg L-1 IAA and 5 mg L-1 Kin stimulated callus growth for Hasanbey melon cultivar. On the contrary, the frequency of callus formation for Cinikiz melon genotype due to NAA concentration was significant. In all medium containing 0,5 mg L-1 NAA, high callus formation (100%) from Cinikiz melons’ cotyledons was obtained (Table 3).

The calli were white to yellowish; their surface showed structures such as shoot formation and the calli were rarely regenerative. Our result agrees with the reported callus formation from the plants regenerated in vitro [50].

Figure 5.

A) Callus formation from cotyledon explants on the MS hormone free medium, (B) Callus formation from ‘Cinikiz’ cotyledon explants and (C) ‘Hasanbey’ cotyledon explants on the MS medium supplemented with 0,5 mg L-1 NAA, 5 mg L-1 IAA and 5 mg L-1 Kin.

In an earlier study on regeneration of melon, shoot buds were obtained at high rates in cotyledon explants [48] and well-developed shoots were observed from calli growing MS media containing 1,5 mg L-1 IAA and 6,0 mg L-1 Kin.

According to previous study, [48] Kin was essential for shoot formation. Cucumis melo L. cv. In our study, Cinikiz gave better shoot production than Hasanbey cultivar. The explants produce fragile and large callus; within 15 days direct shoot organogenesis had occured. The frequencies of bud formation were increased by the combination of 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin compared to 2,5 mg L-1 Kin and 0,5 mg L-1 NAA. On the other hand, the bud formation of the Hasanbey melon genotype was higher than the Cinikiz melon genotype on the medium including solely 2,5 mg L-1 IAA. When the concentration of IAA were increased, the frequency of bud formation for Hasanbey melon variety decreaed. A high frequency of induction of bud for Cinikiz melon genotype occured on the medium supplemented with same concentration of IAA and Kin, but when the concentrations of IAA and NAA were increased with the same level, bud formation for Hasanbey melon was not observed. It was found that IAA and Kin combination at the same concentration (2,5 mg L-1) increased the regeneration ratio. We were able to induce bud formation by culture of the explants on MS medium with 0,5 mg L-1 NAA for both melon cultivars. This result is similar to those of early studies on melon regeneration [49, 50] where it was known that the medium containing NAA stimulated callus growth.

Of the growth regulators tested, NAA was the most effective at inducing callus creation from the cotyledons of both two melon genotypes presented here (Table 3).

The media used in the study presented containing IAA alone or in combination with Kin never trigger callus creation. This result is similar to previous studies [43, 48, 49].

Development in regeneration from the melon Hasanbey cotyledon explants on the medium added 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin was found to be slower than with melon Cinikiz.

After 4 weeks in the culture, there was little further development on the explants of Hasanbey melon cultivar compared to that of Cinikiz.

Treatments (mg L-1 ) Variables
Callus creation (%) Bud formation(%) Shoot regeneration ratio (%)
Melon genotypes Melon genotypes Melon genotypes
Hasanbey Cinikiz Hasanbey Cinikiz Hasanbey Cinikiz
0 0 0 0 0 10 12 0 0
2,5 0 0 0 0 62 50 0 0
2,5 0 2,5 0 0 50 78 50 75
2,5 0 5,0 0 0 37 62 25 12
5,0 0 0 0 0 50 75 0 5
5,0 0 2,5 0 0 50 50 0 0
5,0 0 5,0 0 0 0 62 0 0
0 0,5 0 50 100 25 25 20 15
0 0,5 2,5 50 100 0 12 0 2
0 0,5 5,0 75 100 0 50 12 25
5,0 0,5 5,0 87 100 25 12 0 0

Table 3.

Effect of IAA, NAA and Kin concentration on callus creation, bud formation and shoot regeneration percentages of Hasanbey and Cinikiz melon varieties’ cotyledons on the medium containing different concentrations of IAA (0,0, 2,5, 5,0 mg L-1), Kin (0,0, 2,5, 5,0 mg L-1) and NAA (0,0, 0,5 mg L-1)

The best results for shoot regeneration were obtained from MS medium supplemented with 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin for Cinikiz and Hasanbey melon genotypes 75% and 50%, respectively. The results of the regeneration tests are summarized in Table 3.

The regeneration efficiency of Hasanbey and Cinikiz melon using cotyledon explants was evaluated in terms of regenerated plants. Cotyledon organogenesis was induced during incubation and bud formations located along the cut basal edge of the explant were visible on 8 day-old cultures of both of the two melon varieties. On the other hand, the first shoots formed 12 day-old explants of Cinikiz melon. According our results, the Cinikiz melon cultivar gave better results than did the Hasanbey cultivar (Figure 6).

Furthermore, the most important difference was observed in the number of bud induced between the two melons. In the Cinikiz melon young tuberances often clustered in the point of regeneration and shoot meristems developed into leaves(Figure 6-A). In the Hasanbey melon, the first regenerated shoots were observed in 15 day-old cotyledon explants and regenerated shoots were originated from the epidermal layer of the explants (Figure 6-B). These results as those of the previous studies show the clear cut effect of the genotype on regeneration.

Figure 6.

A, B) Shoot formation of Cinikiz melon cultivar on the MS medium added with 5,0 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin and (C, D) shoot formation of Hasanbey melon cultivar on the MS medium added 2,5 mg L-1 IAA alone

For the Hasanbey genotype, explants which were cultured on the MS medium free from plant growth regulators, showed callus formation with different coloration and appearance after 2 weeks. Most of them were white to yellowish and friable. A mass of small cells initiated the regeneration of the shoot meristems form directly on explants in vitro. This result is similar to previous studies [43, 50].

After 3 weeks on the medium, explants developed into buds and about a month on culturing, root formation was observed. As they continued to grow, they became yellow and did not develop into shoots. (Figure 7-A). In addition, some demonstrated necrosis. Shoot formation (50%) for Hasanbey melon genotype was obtained on a MS medium consisting of 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin after 2 weeks. Explants after 3 weeks of culture formed shoot structures, continued to grow, bud formation was not observed at this stage (Figure 7-B).

As a result, it was observed that the melon possessed the ability to regenerate by means of direct organogenesis from cotyledon explants. After 4 weeks in culture the explants enlarged.

Figure 7.

Hasanbey genotypes at different stages of their development. A: Control groups which developed on free plant growth MS medium, B: Explants which developed on MS medium supplemented with 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin

Control groups of Cinikiz melon cultivar developed on the MS medium free from plant growth regulators showed developing callus and roots (Figure 8-A). On the media containing 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin, the highest percentage of shoot regenerants from Cinikiz melon cultivar after 2 weeks was obtained (Figure 8-B).

In contrast by involving the control groups of Cinikiz melon cultivar on the MS medium free from plant growth regulators, shoot formation was observed. After 2 weeks, some young protuberances clustered and developed; after 4 weeks, finger-like structures were observed (Figure 8-B). After 4 weeks, no difference could be determined between protuberances that became leaves from Cinikiz samples.

Figure 8.

Cinikiz genotypes at different stages of their development. A: Control groups which developed on free plant growth MS medium, B: Explants which developed on MS medium added with 2,5 mg L-1 IAA and 2,5 mg L-1 Kin


4. Conclusion

Our in vitro propagation results from these two melon varieties, Hasanbey and Cinikiz, were selected as research material for the study presented here due to their importance for the Turkish agricultural production. Due to open pollination, melon varieties can be more or less stable against environmental factors from one generation to the next. In addition, as can be seen from the results presented here, Hasanbey and Cinikiz melon genotypes can be in vitro propagated.

On the other hand, further studies are needed to analyze other Turkish melon varieties and identify the optimum regeneration medium for each genotype. In addition, if the response of the two melon cultivars selected in this study is observed from the point of view of breeder significance, experimental fields should be conducted in future studies. Understanding the role of growth regulators in the development of selected melon cultivars has highly facilitated melon production under controlled environments. Moreover, the resulting information can be also used for research on melon developmental physiology, an intensive continuation of in vitro propagation studies is essential, as well.



The authors are grateful to Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology in Horticulture Department, Agriculture Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey for kindly provided the germplasms used in the study. We also thank Nancy Karabeyoglu for critically reading this manuscript and providing valuable comments for its improvement.


  1. 1. KirkbrideJ. HBiosystematic Monograph of the Genus Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae). USA: Parkway Publishers; 1993 11 July 2012).
  2. 2. Achigan-Dako EG. Phylogenetic and Genetic Variation Analysis in Cucurbit Species (Cucurbitaceae) from West Africa: Definition of Conservation Strategies. Göttingen: Cuvillier Verlag, 2008. (accessed 26 July 2012).
  3. 3. JeffryCA Review of The Cucurbitaceae. Botanical Journal of The Linnean Society. 198081233247
  4. 4. SivritepeNSivritepeH. OErisAThe Effects of NaCl Priming on Salt Tolerance in Melon Seedlings Grown Under Saline Conditions. Scientia Horticulturae. 200397229237
  5. 5. KucukAAbakKSariNCucurbit Genetic Resources Collections in Turkey. In: Diez MJ, Pico B, Nuez F. Cucurbit Genetic Resources in Europe: proceedings of the First Ad Hoc Meeting on Cucurbit Genetic Resources, 19 January 2002Adana, Turkey.
  6. 6. PèrinCHagenL. SContoV. DKatzirNDanin-polegYPortnoyVBaudracco-arnasSChadoeufJDogimontCPitratMA Reference Map of Cucumis melo Based on Two Recombinant Inbred Line Populations. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 200210410171034
  7. 7. Educational Series of Farmers-44 23 July 2012
  8. 8. EkbicEFidanHYildizMAbakKScreening of Turkish Melon Accessions for Resistance to ZYMV, WMV and CMV. Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 2010215557
  9. 9. LorenzO. AMaynardD. NKnott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, USA, 1988p.
  10. 10. LiZYaoLYangYLiATransgenic Approach to Improve Quality Traits of Melon Fruits. Scientia Horticulturae. 2006108268277
  11. 11. WienH. CThe Cucurbits: Cucumber, Melon, Squash and Pumpkin (H.C. Wien). The Physiology of Vegetable Crops. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon. 19979345386
  12. 12. [12]Agricultural Researh Service National Agricultural LibraryUSDA. National Nutrient Database For Standard Reference. 24 July 2012
  13. 13. FangG. RGrumetRAgrobacterium tumefaciens Mediated Transformation and Regeneration of Musk Melon Plants. Plant Cell Reports. 19909160164
  14. 14. SariNTanAYanmazRYetisirHBalkayaASolmazIAykasLGeneral Status of Cucurbit Genetic Resources in Turkey: proceedings of the IXth Eucarpia Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, 2124May 2008INRA, Avignon (France).
  15. 15. Food and Agriculture OrganizationFAO. Value of Agricultural Production. FAOSTAT. 26 July 2012
  16. 16. SensoySBuyukalacaSAbakKEvaluation of Genetic Diversity of Turkish Melons (Cucumis melo L.) Based on Phenotypic Characters and RAPD Markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 20075413511365
  17. 17. SolmazISariNMendiY. YKacarY. AKasapogluSGursoyISuyumKKilliOSerceSYildirimECharacterization of Some Melon Genotypes Collected from Eastern and Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Acta Horticulturae. 2010871187196
  18. 18. KolayliSKaraMTezcanFErimF. BSahinHUlusoyEAliyaziciogluRComparative Study of Chemical and Biochemical Properties of Different Melon Cultivars: Standard, Hybrid and Grafted Melons. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 20105897649769
  19. 19. BhojwaniS. SRazdanM. KPlant Tissue Culture: Theory and Practice, a Revised Edition. The Netherlands: Elsevier; 1996
  20. 20. MurashigeTSkoogFA Revised Medium for Rapid Growth and Bioassays with Tobacco Tissue Cultures. Physiologia Plantarum. 196215473497
  21. 21. AdelbergJRhodesBSkorupskaHBridgesWExplant Origin Affects The Frequency of Tetraploid Plants From Tissue Culture of Melon. HortScience. 199429689692
  22. 22. ArumanagathanKEarleE. DNuclear DNA Content of Some Important Plant Species. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter. 19919208209
  23. 23. GuisMRoustainJ. PDogimontCPitratMPechJ. CMelon Biotechnology. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 199815289311
  24. 24. DongJ. ZYangM. ZJiaS. RChuaN. HTransformation of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) and Expression from The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter in Transgenic Melon Plants. Nature Biotechnology. 19999858863
  25. 25. YoshikaKHanadaKNakazakiYMinobeTOosawaKSuccessful Transfer of The Cucumber Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Gene to Cucumis melo L. Ikushugaku Zasshi. 199242278285
  26. 26. GonsalvesCXueBYepesMFuchsMLingKNambaSCheePSlingtomJ. LGonsalvesDTransferring Cucumber Mosaic Virus-White Leaf strain Coat protein Gene into Cucumis melo L. and Evaluating Transgenic Plants for Protection Against Infections. Journal of The American Society for Horticultural Science. 19941192345355
  27. 27. VallesM. PLaseJ. MAgrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Commercial Melon, cv ‘Amarillo oro’. Plant Cell Reports. 199413145148
  28. 28. GabaVFeldmesserEAmit Gal-On H, Antigus Y. Genetic Transformation of a Recalcintrant Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Variety. Proc. Cucurbitaceae’94: Evaluation and Enhancament of Cucurbit Germplasm, 1995188190
  29. 29. AyubRGuisMBen Amor M, Gillot L, Roustan JP, Latch A, Bouzayen M, Pech JC. Expression of ACC Oxidase Antisense Gene Inhibits Ripening of Cantoloupe Melon Fruits. Nature Biotechnology. 199614862866
  30. 30. CurukSStudies on in vitro Regeneration and Genetic Transformation in Some Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Cultivars. PhD thesis. Cukurova University Adana; 1999
  31. 31. BordasMMontesinosCDabuzaMSalvadorARoigA. LSerranoRMorenoVTransfer of The Yeast Salt Tolerence Gene HAL1 Cucumis melo L. in vitro Evaluation of Salt Tolerence. Transgenic Research. 199764145
  32. 32. GuisMBen-amorMLatcheAPechJ. CRoustainJ. PA Reliable System for The Transformation of Cantaloupe Charentais Melon (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis) Leading to a Majority of Diploid Rejenerants. Scientia Horticulturae. 2000
  33. 33. GalperinMPatlisLOvadialAWolfDZelceAKenigsbuchDA Melon Genotype with Superior Competence for Regeneration and Transformation. Plant Breeding. 20021226669
  34. 34. Yalcin-mendiYIpekMSerbest-kobanerSCurukSAka-kacarYCetinerSGabaVGrumetRAgrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of ‘Kirkagac 637’ A Recalcitrant Melon (Cucumis melo) Cultivar with ZYMV Coat Protein Encoding Gene. European Journal of Horticultural Science. 200469258262
  35. 35. AbrieA. LStadenJ. VDevelopment of Regeneration Protocols for Selected Cucurbit Cultivars. Plant Gowth Regulation. 200135263267
  36. 36. DirksRBuggenumV. MIn vitro Plant Regeneration from Leaf and Cotyledon Explants of Cucumis melo L. Plant Cell Reports. 19897626627
  37. 37. RayD. GMcolleyD. WMichaelE. CHigh Frequency Somatic Embryogenesis from Quiescent Seed Cotyledons of Cucumis melo Cultivars. Journal of The American Society for Horticultural Science. 1993118425432
  38. 38. ChovelonVRestierVDogimontCAarroufJHistological Study of Shoot Organogenesis in Melon (Cucumis melo L.) After Genetic Transformation. In: Pitrat M, (eds.) Eucarpia2008: IXth Eucarpia Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, EUCARPIA20062124May 2008INRA, Avignon, France.
  39. 39. AbakKMelons from Turkey: main types and their charactheristics. Proc. 23th Geisenheim Meeting: International Training Course for Quality Inspectors for Fruit, Vegetables and Ware Potatoes. 1214February 2001Geisenheim, 61-68.
  40. 40. IofferA place to Buy, Sell and Trade. Rare Anatolian Hasanbey Melon 30 Seeds. 24 July 2012
  41. 41. Organik Production of CorluMelon. 24 July 2012
  42. 42. RhimiAFadhelN. BBoussaid. Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from In vitro Tissue Culture in Two Tunisian Cucumis melo cultivars Maazoun and Beji. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 200684239243
  43. 43. GabaVSchlarmanEElmanCSageeOWatadA. AGrayD. JIn Vitro Studies on the Anatomy and Morphology of Bud Regeneration in Melon Cotyledons. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Plant. 19993517
  44. 44. LesterGShellieK. CPostharvest Sensory and Physichemical Attributes of Honey Dew Melon Fruits. HortScience. 199227910121014
  45. 45. NersonHSeed Production and Germinability of Cucurbit Crops. Seed Science and Biotechnology. 200711110
  46. 46. VaughtonGRamseyMRelationship Between Seed Mass, Nutrients, and Seedling Growth in Banksia cuminghamii (Proteaceae). International Journal of Plant Science. 2001162599606
  47. 47. NersonHRelationship Between Plant Density and Fruit and Seed Production in Muskmelon. Journal of The American Society for Horticultural Science. 2002127855859
  48. 48. MorenoVGarcia-sogoMGranellIGarcia-sogoBRoigL. APlant Regeneration from Calli of Melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. ‘Amarillo Oro’). Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 19855139146
  49. 49. CheeP. PPlant Regeneration from Cotyledons of Cucumis melo ‘Topmark’. HortScience. 1991267908910
  50. 50. CurukSAnanthakrishnanGSingerSXiaXElmanCNestelDCetinerSGabaVRegeneration In vitro from the Hypocotil of Cucumis Species Produces Almost Exclusively Diploid Shoots, and Does Not Require Light. HortScience. 2003381105109
  51. 51. SouzaF. VGarcia-sogoBSouzaA. SSan-juanA. PMorenoVMorphogenetic Response of Cotyledon and Leaf Explants of Melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. ‘Amarillo oro’. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 2006492127

Written By

Dilek Tekdal and Selim Cetiner

Submitted: 03 April 2012 Published: 24 April 2013