Table olive consumption. Data are expressed as 1000 tonnes. Source: International Olive Council (November 2011). * provisional; **previsional.
Table olives are greatly consumed mainly by Mediterranean Sea area populations. The italian cuisine, for example, offers many dishes, aperitifs and appetizer in which olives are an essential ingredient: fish and meat cooked with olives, table olive-based condiments for
The most important production zones of table olives are located in the Mediterranean area and their consumption is expanding, due to the increasing popularity of the Mediterranean diet (Table 1). In Italy, during the last three years, the average consumption of table olives was approximately 124.000 tonnes/year with a
The Italian table olive-growing boasts millenary traditions and its history is an integral part of Italian culture, since its first inhabitants, in prehistoric epoch, used the alimentary resources offered by the primitive Mediterranean “Macchia” and began to domesticate the wild olive tree. Among the over 500 varieties of
|oliva nebba, oliva nera passuluni||Nocellara del Belice|
|olive alla calce, olive in salamoia, olive nella giara, olive nere infornate, olive schiacciate, olive sotto sale||Carolea|
Tonda di Strongoli
|olive nere secche, oliva da forno di Ferrandina||Majatica|
|oliva da mensa (mele di bitetto, ualie dolc), olive cazzate o schiacciate, olive celline di Nardò in concia tradizionale - olive in concia (ciline alla capàsa – volie alla capàsa), olive in salamoia, olive verdi, Peranzana da mensa di Torremaggiore||Termite di Bitetto|
Bella di Cerignola
Cellina di Nardò
|olive pisciottane schiacciate sott’olio, oliva caiazzara, oliva vernacciola di Melizzano||Pisciottana|
|olive da mensa bianche e nere (olive calce e cenere, olive di Gaeta, oliva bianca di Itri, olive al fumo, olive sott’olio, olive spaccate e condite, olive in salamoia, olive essiccate) , pestato di olive di Gaeta||Itrana|
|olive Intosso (olive n’dosse, olive in salamoia)||Intosso|
|olive al naturale (live curvate, olie all’acqua e sale)||Sperone di gallo|
|olive nere marinate (olive nere strinate), salsa di olive||Raggiola|
Piantone di Falerone
|olive in salamoia||Leccino|
|olive a scabecciu, olive verdi in salamoia||Tonda di Cagliari|
2. Preparations and styles
The numerous Italian olive cultivars with remarkable aptitude for processing as table olives have allowed the development of specific and diversified process technologies. The Italian table olive production is mainly concentrated in the Southern and Central regions of Italy (Figure 1).
The main Italian table olive preparations are the following:
2.1. Treated olives
The “treated olives”, according to "Trade Standard Applying to Table Olives" (IOC, 2004) are “green olives, olives turning color or black olives that have undergone alkaline treatment, then packed in brine in which they undergo complete or partial fermentation, and preserved or not by the addition of acidifying agents”.
2.1.1. Treated green olives in brine by Sevillan-style
This method is also known as Sevillan or Spanish-style and it is one of the most common and oldest methods for Italian green table olives (Tavanti, 1819). To obtain the “treated green olives in brine”, the fruits are debittered with NaOH aqueous solution ranging from 2.0% to 3.5%, mainly depending on the variety and ripeness of the olives. The alkaline treatment performs the function of hydrolyzing the compound principally responsible for the bitter taste (oleuropein). The lye solution completely covers the fruits and the olives remain in this solution until the lye has penetrated between 2/3 and 3/4 of the distance between the skin and the pit. To verify a correct lye treatment, olives are cut with a particularly sharp blade such as razor blade or scalpel near the pit, checking the surface after air exposition. After alkaline treatment, the olives are washed with potable water. The sequence of washings is the following:
the first one is a strong washing with potable water made using a shower lasting 15-20 minutes in order to eliminate the lye attached to the fruit surface; the olives washed are then left in the final washing water
after 2-3 hours a second faster and simpler washing takes place using a filling-emptying procedure
in the following 24-48 hours 3-4 other washings are carried out, using always a filling-emptying procedure.
After water-washings to eliminate the residual lye, olives are covered with a sodium chloride solution (brine) and left to develop a spontaneous lactic fermentation. Initial brine concentrations are 8-10% NaCl but rapidly drop to 5% due to the high content of interchangeable water in the olives. A spontaneous fermentation starts as soon as the olives are placed in brine. After alkaline treatment, the pH of olive flesh reaches the value of 11.0-13.0 down to the value of 8.0-9.0 after the repeated washings. In this broth culture, a complex and variable microbiota grows. Reducing sugars and glucosides, the basic sources of carbon needed in the development of lactobacilli and other microrganisms, pass from olive flesh to the brine, where they are used by heterofermentative or homofermentative microrganisms to produce lactic acid. In the first phase of fermentation, when Gram-negative bacteria prevail, the pH ranges from 8.0-9.0 to about 6.0. This low pH promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria that are aciduric with optimal growth between pH 5.5 and 5.8. At the end of lactic fermentation, the pH reaches values <4.0 and acidity increases, ensuring thus the preservation of the product. The lactic fermentation ends with the exhaustion of available carbohydrates (glucose from glucosides and reducing sugars). Several researches have been carried out to evaluate the technological functionality of selected lactic acid bacteria or enterococci in Spanish-style green olive processing.
2.1.2. Sweet green olives by Castelvetrano-style
This is a production method used in Sicilia, almost exclusively in the Castelvetrano district using the
The sodium chloride in contact with the liquid is slowly dissolved and is distributed by gravity in the whole volume of the container. The salt traditionally used in this type of procedure is sea salt coming from the saltworks of Trapani. It is particularly rich in trace elements such as K, Mg, Ca, Fe and I, unlike the rock salt composed almost exclusively of NaCl. In this environment, the olives are softened quickly highlighting a deep green color. When the barrel is opened, the lye/salt brine is drained and the olives are washed to remove excess lye. A mild washing step, carried out before marketing, does not totally eliminate the lye, whose “soapy” taste is appreciated by the consumers of these olives. Under ambient storage conditions the Castelvetrano olives have a shelf-life of only a few months, especially under hot conditions. Deteriorated olives lose colour and develop off-odours. As this olive style is a seasonal product, long-term storage is not required. Future research, however, may refine the process and include steps for long-term storage under refrigeration, with the temperature maintained between 4 °C and 7 °C, or in packing solutions.
2.1.3. Green olives by lime-and-ash treatment
In some Italian regions (Puglia, Campania, Lazio and Calabria), olives are prepared with an ancient and traditional method that includes a debittering phase obtained using a lime-ash mixture, preparing these treated green olives by mixing CaO (lime) with olive wood ash and adding water to a paste, leaving submerged the green olives for some hours at room temperature. The ratio of lime and ash is different (1:4, 1:8, 1:10, etc) and depends on the cultivar and shape of the fruit. The action of lime-ash is similar to that of NaOH. After alkaline treatment, the olives are washed with potable water. The sequence of washings is similar to the sequence previously described for the treated green olives by Sevillan-style. It is possible to eat these olives right after the debittering treatment or after brining. In this case, after the washing step, olives were placed in an initial brine solution of NaCl (8% w/v), where a spontaneous fermentation takes place. NaCl concentration is carefully monitored during this phase. The brine concentration decreases quickly as a consequence of the osmotic phenomena between the brine and the fruits from 8% to about 5% in 48-72 h. For this reason after 4-5 days from brining, grinded salt is added to the brine to restore the initial concentration. After 1-2 months of fermentation olives are ready to eat.
2.2. Natural olives
The “natural olives”, according to the "Trade Standard Applying to Table Olives" (IOC, 2004) are “green olives, olives turning color or black olives placed directly in brine in which they undergo complete or partial fermentation, preserved or not by the addition of acidifying agents”. The most important industrial preparation for natural black olives takes the name “Greek-style” because it is traditionally practiced in Greece utilizing
2.2.1. Natural turning colour olives
Italy has a long tradition in producing “natural turning colour olives”. In this process the olives are directly brined in 8-10% of sodium chloride. The brine stimulates the microbial activity for fermentation and reduces the bitterness of the oleuropein. Fermentation of these olives takes a long time because diffusion of soluble components through the epidermis, in fruits not treated with alkali, is slow. A diverse microbiota grows in these brines, although yeasts are the microorganisms always present throughout the process.
2.2.2. Natural green and black olives by Itrana-style
2.2.3. Cracked/crushed olives
This type of processing is typical of the Calabria, Puglia and Campania regions. In Puglia (Salento) the olives of
2.2.4. “Scabecciu” olives
The Scabecciu olives are a traditional preparation typical of Sardegna region. The ripe olives of
2.3. Oven-dried black olives by Ferrandina-style
In Basilicata region, olives are prepared with an ancient and traditional method, Ferrandina method, which name derives from the small city Ferrandina, near Matera, where olive trees of
This trade preparation is in accordance with the "Trade Standard Applying to Table Olives" (IOC, 2004) as “dehydrated and/or shrivelled black olives”, black olives that have undergone or not mild alkaline treatment, preserved in brine or partially dehydrated in dry salt and/or by heating or by any other technological process. Today, olives from cv. Majatica are almost entirely destined to the production of oil. The production of oven-dried black olives by Ferrandina-style is in drastic decline and manufacturers are few. The product is prevalently exported in the USA and not all olives sold in the Italian market as oven-dried olives originate from cv.
Textural changes occurring in oven-dried olive -tissues during each processing step were visualized by scanning electron microscope, texture analyzer, analysis of cell wall polysaccharides, pectins and biophenols (Borzillo et al., 2000; Marsilio et al., 2000; Cardoso et al., 2009; Piga et al., 2005). Recently, some authors (Lanza et al., 2012) evaluated chemical and nutrient characteristics of Ferrandina oven-dried table olives with the aim to enhance the value of this end product from a nutritional point of view.
2.4. Dry-salted black olives
Salt-dried olives are prepared by packing naturally black-ripe olives in alternating layers with dry coarse salt (equivalent to 10–20% w/w of the weight of olives) and spices (oregano, orange peel, bay leaves, fennel, garlic, etc) in slatted containers that allow drainage of the vegetable water drawn out by the salt. The resulting olives, or ‘date olives’, are shrivelled in appearance and have a salty bitter-sweet taste (Panagou, 2006). Salt is also taken up by the olive, which acts as a preservative. Processing time is around four to six weeks and the olives are best eaten within three months of processing. Addition of olive oil enhances the flavour of the olive; however, oxidation of the oil can give the olives a rancid taste. In all Italian regions the most common cultivar that is prepared by salt-drying is
2.4.1. “Strinate” olives
In Marche region (areas near Ascoli Piceno and Macerata) black olives from
2.4.2. “Passuluna” olives
In Sicilia region (Palermo), the
2.5. Stuffed olives by Ascolana-style
The stuffed olives by Ascolana-style are prepared from treated green olives in brine from
3. Nutritional and nutraceutical characterization
Table olives are a complete food from a nutritional point of view (Cannata, 1939). It is a drupe consisting primarily of water, fat, carbohydrates, protein, fiber, pectin, biophenols, vitamins, organic acids and mineral elements. The quality of this product is linked to the combined effect of various factors, such as the suitability of raw materials, the processing technologies, the nutritional composition and, in no small measure, the sensory properties.
Olive fruit is a drupe, constituted by three distinct anatomical zones: epicarp (skin), mesocarp (pulp) and endocarp (stone) containing the seed. All three influence the quality of the end product (Garrido Fernández et al., 1997; Montaño et al., 2010). The epicarp and mesocarp constitute the edible part of the olive fruit that is around 70-85 %. Information on the nutritional composition is related to 100g of edible portion (e.p.) (Table 2).
The energy value of 100 g of e.p. of Italian olives is around 200-250 kilocalories with some exceptions (455 kcal for
The protein content is low (1.0-2.2 g; Table 3), but nutritional quality is high for the presence of essential amino acids for adults, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and lysine (Young, 1994), and for childrens, arginine, histidine and tyrosine (Imura & Okada, 1998). Aspartic and glutamic acids are the most representative amino acids, however in some preparations threonine, valine, leucine and arginine contents are >100mg (Table 4). These results are confirmed by other authors for other cultivars and treatments (Lanza et al., 2010; Lazovic et al., 1999; López et al., 2007; López-López et al., 2010b; Montaño et al., 2005).
The carbohydrate content in the olive fruit is, by itself, lower than any other edible fruit (Marsilio et al., 2001). However, table olives have even lower proportions of these compounds since during the fermentation process or brine storage the microorganisms present in brines consume sugars. Then table olives can be considered as practically free of sugar products. Therefore, the calculation of total carbohydrates as difference, as must be made for nutritional labeling in the US, may lead to an overestimation of the amounts of these compounds in table olives, resulting in an error for consumers. However, unfermented products such as Ferrandina olives, appreciable quantities (4.4g) of simple sugars are present (Table 3).
Table olives are a good source of dietary fibre, which in addition, has a high digestibility rate (Jimenez et al., 2000; López-López et al., 2007). In European Union countries (Reg. CE 1924/2006 and Reg. UE 116/2010) it is possible to write on the label the claim “source of fibre” if the product contains at least 3g of fiber/100g of e.p. If the product contains at least 6g of fiber/ 100 g of e.p. (as it can be the case for some varieties) the claim "with high content of fiber" could be used. Most preparations have a content of fibre ≥ 3g/100g of e.p., so they can be considered as a source of fibre (Table 3).
It is worth highlighting on table olives mineral content. Discrete calcium content was found in some samples (168.1 mg for Majatica, 92.7 mg for
Table olives are also rich in natural antioxidants such as vitamins. They provide small amounts of B group vitamins as well as liposoluble vitamins such as pro-vitamin A and vitamin E, considered to have great antioxidant effects. The vitamin C content is low (<1 mg/kg of e.p.). Many green olive commercial presentations add, as antioxidant, ascorbic acid, which becomes a part of their final ingredients and increases the vitamin C content of the product. This compound may be progressively lost during shelf life, but depending on the time elapsed from packing, such table olives may eventually represent an interesting source of vitamin C.
All table olives analyzed (except
Organic acids (oxalic, succinic, malic, citric and lactic) are present in rather low percentage, such as to give the olive pulp a total acidity between 4-10g/kg (expressed as citric acid) and a pH between 3.8 and 5.0. The content of oxalic and malic acids decreases in the course of maturation and the content of citric acid increases, while succinic acid seems to remain constant. In addition, the ratio of citric and malic acids decreases in the course of maturation to reach, at the moment of maximum oil accumulation (inolition), values close to 1 (Garrido Fernández et al., 1997).
Crude fat content was determined by extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, according to the procedures described previously for olives (Lanza et al., 2010a). The olive product with the lowest fat content was that of
To analyze the fat composition, the olive fruits were pitted and triturated with a grinder. The olive paste was warmed up in a water bath at 28±2 °C for 30 min and the oil was extracted by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 30 min. The resulting surnatant oil, preleased with a Pasteur pipette, was filtered in the presence of Na-sulphate anhydrous and stored at 4 °C in aluminum foil wrapped falcon tubes until analyses. This procedure simulates the extraction of olive oil in olive mill (crushing, mixing and centrifugation) and was used to prevent changes in the oil quality as much as possible (Lanza et al., 2012).
Table 5 shows the detailed fatty acid composition (relative percentage within the lipid fraction) of oil extracted from for different table olives. Oleic acid is the predominant one (63.4-80.7 %), palmitic acid was the second most abundant fatty acid (9.8-19.6 %), followed by linoleic acid (4.7-13.6 %) and stearic acid (1.6-3.0 %), a pattern common to most reported data (Lanza et al., 2010a; Sousa et al., 2011; Sakouhi et al., 2008; Borzillo et al., 2000; López et al., 2006; López-López et al., 2010a; Ünal & Nergiz, 2003; Issaoui et al., 2011). Recent research showed that intestinal mucosal cells utilize dietary oleic acid as a substrate to produce the lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) that plays an important role in the regulation of animal food intake and body weight in human physiological and pathophysiological conditions (Schwartz et al., 2008).
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the major group (66.8-82.1 %), saturated fatty acids (SFA) represented less than 22.4 % and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) range 4.9-14.2 %. The trans fatty acids had a very limited occurrence (less than 0.02%). The intake of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 ω3), precursor for the synthesis of long chain 3 fatty acids, is appreciable but the ratio ω6:ω3 is still too far towards 6 and depends on the cultivar (6.7-23.5; Table 5). Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of ω6 to ω3 essential fatty acids of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15-16.7. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids compared with the diet on which human beings evolved and their genetic patterns were established (Simopoulos, 2008). The ratio of oleic to palmitic acid in dietary fats has a regulatory influence on certain thrombogenic and fibrinolytic markers during the postprandial state in healthy subjects (Pacheco et al., 2006). It has a recommended ratio of at least 5. Also the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio is used to assess the nutritional quality of the lipid fraction in foods. Consumption of saturated fatty acids has been associated with coronary heart disease (Serrano
As regard to sterol, fatty and triterpenic alcohol composition, there are some studies relating to the changes during processing (López-López et al., 2008, 2009). The main phytosterols and phytostanols found in Ferrandina table olives (Table 7) are β-sitosterol (59.1-89.6 %) and Δ5-avenasterol (1.5-34.3%), followed by campesterol (1.8-4.2%), Δ5,24-stigmastadienol (0.4-1.2%) and chlerosterol (1.0-1.5 %). The low content of β-sitosterol and high content of Δ5-avenasterol in
Finally, table olives could be utilized as a vehicle for incorporating probiotic bacteria and transporting bacterial cells into the human gastrointestinal tract. Food industries are now focusing on new foods which are part of a normal diet and can contribute to a regular assumption of probiotics (functional foods). The incorporation of health-promoting bacteria into table olives would add functional features to their current nutritional properties.
The consumption of table olives, in combination with the consumption of olive oil, which are basic components of the Mediterranean diet, provide a large amount of natural compounds of nutraceutical value (polyphenols, phytosterols and fatty acids) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties.
3.1. The nutritional label
A separate discussion is made about nutritional labelling which, while optional until 13 December 2016, could add value to our product. What information do we expect to find on a nutrition label of a jar of olives? Currently the provision of a nutrition label is regulated by the Regulation (EU) 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs as regards recommended daily allowances, energy conversion factors and definitions. The information written on the label should be referred to 100 g of product: in the case of whole olives reference should be made to 100 g of drained product (therefore considering the stone even if not edible) or 100 g of edible portion (in this case only the pulp of olives). For pitted olives and olive paste this problem does not arise. The nutritional information may also be referred to as a portion or "serving size", based on the amount of food consumed by a person. For table olives, a serving size could be formed by about 10 medium-sized olives and expressed in grams (taking into account the weight of the stone). It is also useful to relate the content of each nutrient with a daily reference value for a diet of 2000 kcal of an average weight adult performing limited physical activity. Percentages above 20% are considered significant, below 5% modest.
4. The IOC Method for the sensory analysis of table olives
Since 21 November 2008 the procedure for the classification of table olives based on parameters of quality has become official:
4.1. The panel
The sensory evaluation of table olives is done by a group of 8-10 expert tasters selected on the basis of aptitude and led by a panel leader. This group constitutes the taste panel. The tasters are chosen by means of a selection process implemented in accordance with an international standard according to his/her sensitivity and discriminatory power with regard to the organoleptic characteristics of table olives, who becomes skilled after suitable training and whose performance is objectively evaluated on the basis of rules established beforehand by the leader of the panel to which the taster belongs. The panel leader is the person whose chief duties are to lead panel activities, including taster recruitment, selection, training, skill building and monitoring. He/she designs and leads the sensory tests and analyses and interprets the data and may be assisted by one or more panel technicians.
4.2. Main facilities and equipment of test room
Tasting booth, referred to standard COI/T.20/Doc. No 6/Rev. 1 Guide for the installation of a test room or to ISO 8589:2007 General guidance for the design of test rooms;
Glasses, according to standard COI/T.20/Doc. No 5
Plastic or metal cocktail sticks, two-pronged forks, spoons or tongs;
Profile sheet on hard or soft copy. The line for each attribute must measure exactly 10 cm.
4.3. Sample presentation and tasting session
The sample of table olives for analysis shall be presented in standard tasting glasses (Figure 4). The glass shall contain as many olives as the bottom of the glass can hold when the olives are placed side by side in a single layer. When brined table olives are undergoing analysis, sufficient covering liquid shall be poured over the olives to cover them fully. When the olives are above the 91/100 size-grade, the volume of sample contained in the glass shall in no case be more than half the height of the glass (i.e. 30 mm). In the case of table olives belonging to a size-grade below 91/100, the sample for testing in the glass shall comprise no less than three olives. When brined table olives are undergoing analysis, the quantity of covering liquid in the glass shall come up to at least three-quarters of the height of the olives. The glass shall be covered with the attendant watch-glass.
The samples of table olives intended for tasting shall be kept in the glasses at ambient temperature, between 20 and 25 °C, under white light (daylight). To avoid tasting fatigue and the appearance of bias or contrast effects, each tasting session should entail the sensory analysis of not more than three samples. Between each session the tasters should rinse out their mouth fully and take a break of at least fifteen minutes. No more than three tasting sessions should be conducted in any given day. It should be kept in mind that the morning, before lunch, is the period when olfactory-gustatory sharpness is optimal (between 10 a.m. and 12 noon).
4.4. Tasting session and use of the profile sheet by tasters
The tasters shall pick up the glass, keeping it covered with the watch-glass, and shall bend it gently to help the sample aromas to be released and blended. After doing so, they shall remove the watch-glass and smell the sample, taking slow deep breaths to evaluate the direct olfactory sensations cited in the profile sheet. Smelling shall not last more than 20 seconds. If no conclusion has been reached during this time, the tasters shall take a short rest before trying again. The tasters shall then assess the other sensations cited in the profile sheet. To do so, they shall place one of the olives contained in the glass in their mouth; they shall chew the olive after removing the stone, making sure to spread the chewed olive throughout the whole of the mouth cavity. They shall concentrate on the order of appearance of the salty, bitter and acid stimuli, the retronasal olfactory sensations and the kinaesthetic sensations of hardness, crunchiness and fibrousness and shall assess the intensity of each of these sensations by making the corresponding mark on the intensity scale of the tasting sheet. Next they shall spit out the chewed olives, rinse out their mouth with water and recommence the assessment of the sensations produced by each of the olives contained in the glass. They shall enter the intensity with which they perceive each of the attributes in the scales of the profile sheet provided. Tasters may refrain from placing the olives in their mouth when they observe an extremely intense negative attribute. They shall record this exceptional circumstance in the profile sheet. They must, however, mark the intensity of the odorous attribute on the corresponding scale. They shall enter in the profile sheet the intensity of each of the sensations perceived when smelling and chewing the olives.
4.5. Attributes to be perceived
4.5.1. Negative attributes
Unpleasant sensations are caused by the production of substances responsible for off-odours, which are not present in the fresh fruit or formed during well-performed processing treatments. The term “
4.5.2. Descriptive gustatory attributes
The gustatory sensations involve distinct areas of tongue: the region affected by the perception of salty taste is the lateral-anterior, the region affected by the perception of acid taste is the posterior and the region affected by the perception of bitter taste is the basis of tongue. The
4.5.3. Kinaesthetic sensations (texture)
With the term “kinaesthetic sensations” (from the greek
4.6. Elaboration of sensory data
The panel leaders shall collect the profile sheets completed by each of the tasters and shall review the intensities recorded for each of the descriptors. If they find any anomaly, they shall invite the taster concerned to revise the profile sheet and, if necessary, to repeat the test. The panel leaders shall determine the intensities of the attributes listed in the profile sheet by using a ruler to measure the segment running from the origin of the scale to the mark made by the taster. When this mark lies between two notches on the ruler, they shall assign the value lying closest to one of the notches. The segment shall be expressed to one decimal place. The scale shall measure 10 cm long and the intensity shall range from 1 to 11. The panel leaders shall apply the method for calculating the median and the confidence intervals according to the method contained in Annex 1 (COI/OT/MO/n°1/Rev.2 Annex 1
4.7. Classification according to the defect predominantly perceived (DPP)
For classification purposes, the panel leader shall solely take into account the median of the defect predominantly perceived (DPP) i.e. perceived with the greatest intensity, that satisfies the requirements specified in the preceding paragraph. According to the intensity of DPP, the samples shall be classified in four categories:
The organoleptic analysis of table olives deriving by the same variety (Itrana) but processed at a different stage of ripening (“Oliva bianca di Itri” and “Oliva nera di Gaeta”) shows a different sensory profile with regard to kinaesthetic properties (hardness, fibrousness and crunchiness) and bitter sensation (Figure 6 a and b) (Lanza et al., 2010b). The organoleptic analysis of table olives deriving by the same variety (Itrana) and processing (“Oliva Bianca di Itri”) show a different sensory profile between undefected and defected samples. Defected samples show a decrease in kinaesthetic properties (hardness, fibrousness and crunchiness) and an increase in acid sensation (Figure 7 a and b). The median value of DPP is less or equal to 3 and the olives remain of “Extra or Fancy” category.
Financial support for this study was provided by Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry through the project GERMOLI “Salvaguardia e valorizzazione del GERMoplasma OLIvicolo delle collezioni del CRA-OLI“.