In the last decade, the scientific literature related to the teaching of sports has endowed theoretical models based on the game, practice, and its understanding. Currently, there is a relevant theoretical framework for the design of teaching programs based on the principles of dynamic systems, ecological psychology, and the constraints of the motor learning. However, there is no a clear protocol regarding the use of the principles that govern the perspective. Likewise, research is inconclusive regarding how the bases of these previous theories should be used to provide learners with efficient ecological conditions regarding sports learning. For this reason, it is necessary to continue deepening the pedagogical strategies of games teaching in stages of sport beginning.
The perspective used from the ecological psychology and the dynamical systems theories allows the learner to be understood as a complex system composed of several subsystems. In the physical education class, for example, the child who participates in a sports game and its environment forms a group that interacts mechanically and informationally. Thus, the game behaviors are developed due to the interaction between individual constraints and intentional adaptations made to the conditioning factors of the environment, during the performance of a specific task.
The foundations of this perspective help to understand how learning occurs through practice and understanding, as a process of Technical-Tactical Alphabetization. In this regard, in the present work, the theoretical bases of the models Teaching Games for Understanding, Sport Education, and Cooperative Learning are related with the nonlinear pedagogy approach. The experiences presented here have been adapted for the teaching of tactical foundations through modified games (task constraints alteration) adapted to the needs of the participants (individual constraints), without demanding a technical mastery, making possible the practice of any subject. The modification of the sports game through pedagogical principles is a key aspect, since it emphasizes the interaction between the constraints of the subject and the constraint factors of the environment, to achieve an intended action. Thus, the present work represents a resume of four experiences in four different countries and contexts such as Malaysia or Finland.
The Teaching Games for Understanding model differs from other traditional approaches by giving more importance to the tactical learning of the game, increasing the motivational process of the learners.
Sport Education is suggested to contribute to the empowerment of athletes and helping them to develop the autonomy for decision-making, self-control, and motivation.
Cooperative Learning, for instance, is characterized for being a pedagogical model that can be used to teach several contents in different and variated contexts, contributing in addition to the teacher’s professional development. Students work together in order to complete the activities, achieving their learning goals through an innovative program.
These models are in line with the foundations of the nonlinear pedagogy perspective, which is based on the ecological psychology and dynamical systems theories.
In summary, the essence and advantages of these experiences are presented. The main findings observed serves as a guide for pedagogical planning and programming of school-age sport teaching.