Bark beetle species that cause significant amounts of tree mortality in coniferous forests of the western U.S.
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), a large and diverse group of insects consisting of ~550 species in North America and >6,000 species worldwide, are primary disturbance agents in coniferous forests of the western U.S. Population levels of a number of species (<1%) oscillate periodically, often reaching densities that result in extensive tree mortality when favorable climatic (e.g., droughts) and forest conditions (e.g., dense stands of susceptible hosts) coincide (Table 1). The genera
|Arizona fivespined ips|
|California fivespined ips|
|eastern larch beetle|
|Jeffrey pine beetle|
|mountain pine beetle*|
|northern spruce engraver|
|roundheaded pine beetle|
|southern pine beetle|
|western balsam bark beetle|
|western pine beetle*|
Host selection and colonization behavior by bark beetles are complex processes. Following initial attacks and subsequent mating, adults lay eggs in the phloem and larvae excavate feeding tunnels in this tissue and/or the outer bark. Depending on the bark beetle species and the location and severity of feeding, among other factors, this process may result in mortality of the host tree. Top-kill and/or branch mortality are not uncommon. Following pupation, adult beetles of the next generation tunnel outward through the bark and initiate flight in search of new hosts. The lifecycle may be repeated once every several years or several times a year depending on the bark beetle species, geographic location and associated climatic conditions. Extensive levels of tree mortality may result in host replacement by other tree species and plant associations, and may impact timber and fiber production, water quality and quantity, fish and wildlife populations, aesthetics, recreation, grazing capacity, real estate values, biodiversity, carbon storage, endangered species and cultural resources.
While native bark beetles are a natural part of the ecology of forests, the economic and social impacts of outbreaks can be substantial. Several tactics are available to manage bark beetle infestations and to reduce associated levels of tree mortality. While these vary by bark beetle species, current tactics include tree removals that reduce stand density (thinning) and presumably host susceptibility ; sanitation harvests ; applications of semiochemicals (i.e., chemicals produced by one organism that elicit a response, usually behavioral, in another organism) to protect individual trees or small-scale stands (e.g., <10 ha) ; and preventative applications of insecticides to individual trees. The purpose of this chapter is to synthesize information on the efficacy, residual activity, and environmental safety of insecticides commonly used to protect trees from bark beetle attack so that informed, judicious decisions can be made concerning their use.
2. Types and use of preventative applications of insecticides
Preventative applications of insecticides involve topical sprays to the tree bole (bole sprays) or systemic insecticides injected directly into the tree (tree injections) . Systemic insecticides applied to the soil are generally ineffective. In an operational context, only high-value, individual trees growing in unique environments or under unique circumstances are treated. These may include trees in residential (Fig. 1), recreational (e.g., campgrounds) (Fig. 2) or administrative sites. Tree losses in these environments result in undesirable impacts such as reduced shade, screening, aesthetics, and increased fire risk. Dead trees also pose potential hazards to public safety requiring routine inspection, maintenance and eventual removal , and property values may be negatively impacted . In addition, trees growing in progeny tests, seed orchards, or those genetically resistant to forest diseases may be considered for preventative treatments, especially if epidemic populations of bark beetles exist in the area. During large-scale outbreaks, hundreds of thousands of trees may be treated annually in the western U.S., however once an outbreak subsides (i.e., generally after one to several years) preventative treatments are often no longer necessary.
Although once common, insecticides are rarely used today for direct or remedial control (i.e., subsequent treatment of previously infested trees or logs to kill developing and/or emerging brood). While remedial applications have been demonstrated to increase mortality of brood in treated hosts, there is limited evidence of any impact to adjacent levels of tree mortality. Furthermore, there are concerns about the effects of remedial treatments on non-target invertebrates, specifically natural enemy communities. Many of these species respond kairomonally to bark beetle pheromones and host volatiles, and their richness increases over time , suggesting that the later remedial treatments are applied the more likely non-target organisms will be negatively impacted.
3. Insecticide registrations
Insecticide sales and use in the U.S. are regulated by federal (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA) and state (e.g., California Department of Pesticide Regulation in California) agencies. Therefore, product availability and use vary by state. EPA regulates all pesticides under broad authority granted in two statutes, (1) the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) that requires all pesticides sold or distributed in the U.S. to be registered; and (2) the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act that requires EPA to set pesticide tolerances for those used in or on food. EPA may authorize limited use of unregistered pesticides or pesticides registered for other uses under certain circumstances. Under Section 5 of FIFRA, EPA may issue experimental use permits that allow for field testing of new pesticides or uses. Section 18 of FIFRA permits the unregistered use of a pesticide in a specific geographic area for a limited time if an emergency pest condition exists. Under Section 24(c) of FIFRA, states may register a new pesticide for any use, or a federally-registered product for an additional use, as long as a "special local need" is demonstrated.
A complete list of active ingredients and products used for protecting trees from bark beetle attack is beyond our scope as availability changes due to cancellations, voluntary withdraws, non-payment of annual registration maintenance fees, and registration of new products at federal and state levels. Several studies have been published on the efficacy of various classes, active ingredients, and formulations that are no longer registered [e.g., benzene hexachloride (Lindane®)]. Therefore, we limit much of our discussion to the most commonly used and/or extensively-studied products (Fig. 3). A list of products registered for protecting trees from bark beetle attack can be obtained online from state regulatory agencies and/or cooperative extension offices, and should be consulted prior to implementing any treatment. Furthermore, all insecticides registered and sold in the U.S. must carry a label. It is a violation of federal law to use any product inconsistent with its labeling. The label contains abundant information concerning the safe and appropriate use of insecticides (e.g., signal words, first aid and precautionary statements, proper mixing, etc.). For tree protection, it is important to note whether the product is registered for ornamental and/or forest settings, and to limit applications to appropriate sites using suitable application rates.
4. Experimental designs for evaluating preventative treatments
When evaluating preventative treatments one of three experimental designs is generally used. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Laboratory assays require trapping and/or rearing of live bark beetles for inclusion in experiments. Captured individuals are immediately transported to the laboratory, identified and sorted. Damaged (e.g., loss of any appendages), weakened, or beetles not assayed within 48 h after collection should be discarded. Generally, serial dilutions of each insecticide are prepared, and toxicity is determined in filter paper or topic assays . The life-table method is used to estimate the survival probability of test subjects to different doses of each insecticide . Filter paper assays more closely approximate conditions under which toxicants are encountered by bark beetles during host colonization, especially for products other than contact insecticides , but both methods ignore important environmental factors (e.g., temperature, humidity and sunlight) and host tree factors (e.g., architecture) that influence efficacy. However, results are rapidly obtained with limited risk and loss of scientific infrastructure compared to field studies.
A second design involves field assays in which insecticides are applied to an experimental population of ~25−35 uninfested trees . Trees are often baited with a bark beetle species-specific attractant to increase beetle “pressure” and challenge the treatment following application. Efficacy is based on tree mortality and established statistical parameters . This design is accepted as the standard for evaluating preventative treatments for tree protection in the western U.S., and provides a very conservative test of efficacy . However, it is laborious, time-consuming (i.e., generally efficacy is observed for at least two field seasons) and expensive. Experimental trees may be lost to woodcutting or wildfire, and ≥60% of the untreated control trees must die from bark beetle attack to demonstrate that significant bark beetle pressure exists in the area or the experiment fails and results are inconclusive . Some have argued that the design is perhaps too conservative as under natural conditions aggregation pheromone components would not be released for such extended periods of time as often occurs with baiting. Finally, bark beetles may initiate undesirable infestations near experimental trees as a result of baiting, which may be unacceptable under some circumstances.
The "hanging bolt” assay , “small-bolt” assay  and similar variants have received limited attention in the western U.S. Typically, insecticides are applied to individual, uninfested trees that are later harvested and cut into bolts for inclusion in laboratory and/or field experiments. Alternatively, freshly-cut bolts may be treated directly in the laboratory. Efficacy is often based on measures of attack density or gallery construction by adult beetles. Compared to , these methods allow for rapid acquisition of data; reduced risk of loss to scientific infrasture; and increased probability that a rigorous test will be achieved as bolts are transported to active infestations or brought into the laboratory and exposed to beetles. While these methods account for some host factors (e.g., bark architecture), others such as host defenses and environmental factors are ignored. Furthermore, the hanging bolt and small bolt assays do not provide an estimate of tree mortality, while the effectiveness of any preventative treatment is defined by reductions in tree mortality.
5. Topical applications to the tree bole
Topical applications to protect trees from bark beetle species such as western pine beetle,
Bole sprays are typically applied in late spring prior to initiation of the adult flight period for the target bark beetle species. However, bole sprays require transporting sprayers and other large equipment, which can be problematic in high-elevation forests where snow drifts and poor road conditions often limit access. Additionally, many recreation sites (e.g., campgrounds) where bole sprays are frequently applied occur near intermittent or ephemeral streams that are associated with spring runoff, limiting applications in late spring due to restrictions concerning the use of no-spray buffers to protect non-target aquatic organisms. For these and other reasons, researchers are evaluating alternative timings of bole sprays and less laborious delivery methods.
Carbaryl is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that prevents the cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which leads to rapid twitching, paralysis and ultimately death. Carbaryl is considered essentially nontoxic to birds, moderately toxic to mammals, fish and amphibians, and highly toxic to honey bees,
Pyrethroids are synthesized from petroleum-based chemicals and related to the potent insecticidal properties of flowering plants in the genus
6. Systemic injections to the tree bole
Researchers attempting to find safer, more portable and longer-lasting alternatives to bole sprays have evaluated the effectiveness of injecting small quantities of systemic insecticides directly into the lower bole. Early work indicated that several methods, active ingredients and formulations were ineffective [e.g., 13,42-44]. In recent years, the efficacy of phloem-mobile active ingredients injected with pressurized systems (e.g., Sidewinder® Tree Injector, Tree I.V. micro infusion® and Wedgle® Direct-Inject™) capable of maintaining >275 kPA have been evaluated for engraver beetles, mountain pine beetle, southern pine beetle, spruce beetle, and western pine beetle (Fig. 5). These systems push adequate volumes of product (i.e., generally less than several hundred ml for even large trees) into the small vesicles of the sapwood . Applications take <15 minutes per tree under most circumstances. Following injection, the product is transported throughout the tree to the target tissue (i.e., the phloem where bark beetle feeding occurs). Injections can be applied at any time of year when the tree is actively translocating, but time is needed to allow for full distribution of the active ingredient within the tree prior to the tree being attacked by bark beetles. Under optimal conditions (e.g., adequate soil moisture, moderate temperatures and good overall tree health) this takes ~4 weeks , but may take much longer, particularly in high-elevation forests. Tree injections represent essentially closed systems that eliminate drift, and reduce non-target effects and applicator exposure, but efficacy is often less than that observed for bole sprays in high-elevation forests . Significant advancements in the development of this technology have been made in recent years, but tree injections are still rarely used in comparison to bole sprays in the western U.S. With the advent of designer formulations of insecticides specific for tree injection, we suspect that tree injections will become a more common tool for protecting trees from bark beetle attack in the near future, particularly in areas where bole sprays are not practical (e.g., along property lines or within no-spray buffers).
6.1. Emamectin benzoate
Emamectin benzoate is a macrycyclic lactone derived from avermectin B1 (= abamectin) by fermentation of the soil actinomycete
The experimental formulation of emamectin benzoate was ineffective for protecting lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle attack in Idaho , which agrees with field studies conducted in British Columbia and Colorado (D.M.G., unpublished data). Site conditions such as ambient temperatures, soil temperatures and soil moistures may help explain the lack of efficacy observed in these studies as these factors may slow product uptake and translocation within trees in high-elevation forests . As such, failures for protecting lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle attack were initially attributed to inadequate distribution of the active ingredient following injections made ~5 weeks prior to trees coming under attack by mountain pine beetle . The authors commented that injecting trees in the fall and/or increasing the number of injection points per tree could perhaps increase efficacy. Currently, spring and fall applications of TREE-age™ are being evaluated for protecting lodgepole pine from mortality due to mountain pine beetle attack in Utah. Results for fall treatments are very promising (Table 2).
|Spring injection||10 ml||33%|
|Fall injection||10 ml||0%|
|Untreated control (yr 1)||-||80%|
|Untreated control (yr 2)||-||60%|
Abamectin (= avermectin B1) is a natural fermentation product of the soil actinomycete
Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole that disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking the passage of chloride ions through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels. This results in hyperexcitation of contaminated nerves and muscles and ultimately death. Fipronil is of low to moderate toxicity to mammals, highly toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, honeybees and upland game birds, but is practically nontoxic to waterfowl and other bird species. Fipronil reduced levels of tree mortality due to engraver beetles, including sixspined ips, on stressed trees in Texas . However, fipronil is ineffective for protecting loblolly pine from southern pine beetle  and Engelmann spruce from spruce beetle [40,48]. While results are inconclusive [40, 48], fipronil does not appear effective from reducing levels of lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle attack in Utah or ponderosa pine mortality due to western pine beetle attack in California. Thus, registration is not being pursued at this time.
7. Environmental concerns
Most data on the deposition, toxicity, and environmental fate of insecticides in western forests come from aerial applications to control tree defoliators, and therefore are of limited applicability to bole sprays or tree injections used to protect trees from bark beetle attack.  studied the effects of lindane, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl on a California pine forest soil arthropod community by spraying normal levels of insecticide, and levels five times greater than would be operationally used to protect trees from bark beetle attack. The authors concluded carbaryl was least disruptive to the soil arthropod community . Persistence and movement of 2.0% carbaryl within soils of wet and dry sites has been evaluated . The highest concentrations of carbaryl were detected within the uppermost soil layers (upper 2.54 cm), with levels exceeding 20 ppm 90 d after application on most sites .
Carbaryl is relatively nontoxic to
Werner and Hilgert  monitored permethrin levels in a freshwater stream adjacent to Lutz spruce that were treated with 0.5% permethrin (Pounce®) to prevent spruce beetle attack. Treatments occurred within 5 m of the stream. Maximum residue levels ranged from 0.05 ± 0.01 ppb 5 h after treatment to 0.14 ± 0.03 ppb 8-11 h after treatment, declining to 0.02 ± 0.01 ppb after 14 h. Levels of permethrin in standing pools near the stream were 0.01 ± 0.01 ppb. Numbers of drifting aquatic invertebrates increased two-fold during treatment and four-fold 3 h after treatment and declined to background levels within 9 h. Trout fry, periphyton and benthic invertebrates were unaffected .
Two studies have been published on the amount of drift resulting from carbaryl applications to protect trees from bark beetle attack. In the early 1980s,  used spectrophotofluorometry to analyze ground deposition from the base of the ponderosa pine to 12 m from the bole in California. In a more recent study,  used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate ground deposition occurring at four distances from the tree bole (7.6, 15.2, 22.9 and 38.1 m) during conventional spray applications for protecting individual lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle attack, and Engelmann spruce from spruce beetle attack. Despite substantial differences in these methods (i.e., spectrophotofluorometry limits detection of finer particle sizes that are accounted for with HPLC), they yielded some similar results. For example,  reported application efficiencies of 80.9% to 87.2%, while  reported values of >80%. Furthermore,  found no significant difference in the amount of drift occurring between lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce at any distance from the tree bole despite differences in application rate and pressure, while  reported drift was similar between two methods applied at 276 kPa and 2930 kPa. However,  reported higher levels of ground deposition further away from the tree bole, which is expected given use of HPLC, a more sensitive method of detection.
Fettig et al.  reported mean deposition values from 0.04 ± 0.02 mg carbaryl/m2 at 38.1 m to 13.30 ± 2.54 mg carbaryl/m2 at 7.6 m. Overall, distance from the tree bole significantly affected the amount of deposition. Deposition was greatest 7.6 m from the tree bole and declined quickly thereafter. Approximately 97% of total spray deposition occurred within 15.2 m of the tree bole (Fig. 6). To evaluate the potential risk to aquatic environments, the authors converted mean deposition to mean concentration assuming a water depth of 0.3 m selected to represent the average size of lotic systems, primarily small mountain streams, adjacent to many recreational sites where bole sprays are often applied . No adjustments were made for the degradation of carbaryl by hydrolysis, which is rapid in streams or for dilution by natural flow. Comparisons were made with published toxicology data available for select aquatic organisms. No-spray buffers of 7.6 m are sufficient to protect freshwater fish, amphibians, crustaceans, bivalves and most aquatic insects. In laboratory studies, carbaryl was found to be highly toxic to stoneflies (Plecoptera) and mayflies (Ephemeroptera), which are widely distributed and important food sources for freshwater fishes, but negative impacts in field populations are often short-lived and undetectable several hours after contamination . No-spray buffers >22.9 m appear sufficient to protect the most sensitive aquatic insects such as stoneflies.
An advantage of tree injections is that they can be used on environmentally-sensitive sites as these treatments represent an essentially closed system and therefore little or no contamination occurs outside of the tree. However, following injection residues move within the tree and are frequently detected in the foliage [e.g., 44,56-57], which could pose a risk to decomposers and other soil fauna when needles senesce. This has been shown for imidacloprid in maple , but injections of emamectin benzoate in pines appear of little risk. For example,  reported emamectin benzoate was not detected in the roots or the surrounding soil, but was present at 0.011–0.025 µg/g in freshly fallen pine needles. However, levels gradually declined to below detectable thresholds after 2 months .
The results of the many studies presented in this chapter indicate that preventative applications of insecticides are a viable option for protecting individual trees from mortality due to bark beetle attack. Bole sprays of bifenthrin, carbaryl and permethrin are most commonly used. Several formulations are available and effective if properly applied. Residual activity varies with active ingredient, bark beetle species, tree species and associated climatic conditions, but generally one to three years of protection can be expected with a single application. Recent advances in methods and formulations for individual tree injection are promising, and further research and development is ongoing. We expect the use of tree injections to increase in the future. In general, preventative applications of insecticides pose little threat to adjacent environments, and few negative impacts have been observed. We hope that forest health professionals and other resource managers use this publication and other reports to make informed, judicious decisions concerning the appropriate use of preventative treatments to protect trees from mortality due to bark beetle attack. Additional technical assistance in the U.S. can be obtained from Forest Health Protection (USDA Forest Service) entomologists (www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/), state forest entomologists, and county extension agents (www.csrees.usda.gov/Extension/). We encourage use of these resources before applying any insecticides to protect trees from bark beetle attack.
We thank Stanislav Trdan (University of Ljubljana) and Romana Vukelic and Danijela Duric (InTech) for their invitation to contribute and guidance during the publishing process. Numerous colleagues from Arborjet Inc., BASF, Bayer ES, Bureau of Land Management (U.S.), FMC Corp., Fruit Grower’s Supply Co., Mauget Inc., Nevada Division of Forestry, Sierra Pacific Industries, Southern Ute Reservation, Syngenta Crop Protection, Texas A&M Forest Service, Univar USA Inc., University of Arizona, University of California, University of Georgia, and USDA Forest Service have contributed to the success of much of the research discussed in this chapter. We are thankful for their support and helpful insights.
This publication concerns pesticides. It does not contain recommendations for their use, nor does it imply that the uses discussed here have been registered. All uses of pesticides in the United States must be registered by appropriate State and/or Federal agencies. CAUTION: Pesticides can be injurious to humans, domestic animals, desirable plants, and fish or other wildlife—if they are not handled or applied properly. Follow recommended practices for the disposal of surplus pesticides and their containers.