About the book
Biomechanics or Biomechanical Engineering is the application of mechanical engineering and its concepts and principles in the biological systems, living tissues/organs and medical devices. Tissue mechanics is the arena of effort that pursues to comprehend and define the relations between structure and mechanical function in an intended tissue of the human body. There have been many studies particularly in the connective tissues of the body such as tendons, bone, cartilage, muscles, veins, arteries, and skin where mechanical principles contributions are the most obvious; however, all tissues have mechanical structures and functions that are tied together. Structural anatomy seems to be essential in order to understand natural design. Engineering analysis of structures based on continuum mechanics is inevitable in order to gain more insight on the mechano-transduction of an intended tissue. All natural tissues are known to be composite materials with particular structure and function and, therefore, comprehending their mechanical function necessitates study of the mechanical properties and architectural arrangement of the single structural components.
The mechanical properties of tissues can be characterized as anisotropy, hyperelasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, preconditioning performance, and the existence of residual stresses. Most experiments on the mechanical characterization of tissues are based on laboratory work. Often samples are removed from cadavers or animals and are cut in order to be tested which are either fresh or after storage. Testing machines are often based on electromechanical or hydraulic systems which are often performed in living animals or patients. Mathematical interpretation of data are often considered an important part of tissue mechanics such as 3D modelling of stress-strain behaviour. Modelling may either be phenomenological which is to some extent seeking to define behaviour using model systems that do not reference structure or may be plainly based on information of tissue construction. Phenomenological models are often based on linear or quasi-linear viscoelastic theory. Constitutive equations, mostly those based on improvement of strain energy density functions, are often as a means to explaining tissue behaviour under random loading.