Open access peer-reviewed Edited Volume

Recent Advances in Homeostasis

Gaffar Zaman

King Khalid University

Dr. Zaman is a member of the Medical Council of India, the Association of Medical Biochemists of India, and the Association of Clinical Biochemists of India. He was awarded a Fellowship in Diabetes (FID) from Royal Liverpool Academy, the United Kingdom, and Fellowship in Applied Nutrition (FIAN) from Medvarsity, Apollo Hospitals, India. He has authored more than 55 publications in both national and international journals.


Optimal Functioning Body Temperature Fluid Balance Core Temperature Blood Glucose Iron Levels Malfunction Inherited Defect Respiratory Center Arterial Blood Insulin Baroreceptors

Register your interest in contributing to this book

Collaborate with our community and contribute your knowledge.

About the book

Homeostasis is the condition of optimal functioning of the organism and includes many variables, such as body temperature and fluid balance being kept within certain pre-set limits (homeostatic range). Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity. Each of these variables is controlled by one or more regulators or homeostatic mechanisms, which together maintain life.
Homeostasis is brought about by a natural resistance to change when already in the optimal conditions, and equilibrium is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms. All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components for the variable to be regulated: a receptor, a control center, and an effector. The receptor is the sensing component that monitors and responds to changes in the environment, either external or internal. Receptors include thermoreceptors and mechanoreceptors. Control centers include the respiratory center and the renin-angiotensin system. An effector is a target acted on to bring about the change back to the normal state. At the cellular level, receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or down-regulation and act in negative feedback mechanisms. An example of this is in the control of bile acids in the liver.
Some centers, such as the renin-angiotensin system, control more than one variable. When the receptor senses a stimulus, it reacts by sending action potentials to a control center. The control center sets the maintenance range—the acceptable upper and lower limits—for the particular variable, such as temperature. The control center responds to the signal by determining an appropriate response and sending signals to an effector, which can be one or more muscles, an organ, or a gland. When the signal is received and acted on, negative feedback is provided to the receptor that stops the need for further signaling.

The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), located at the presynaptic neuron, is a receptor that can stop stressful neurotransmitter release to the postsynaptic neuron; it is activated by endocannabinoids (ECs) such as anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide; AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via a retrograde signaling process in which these compounds are synthesized by and released from postsynaptic neurons, and travel back to the presynaptic terminal to bind to the CB1 receptor for modulation of neurotransmitter release to obtain homeostasis.
The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are lipid derivatives of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) or of omega-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) and are synthesized from membrane phospholipids and used as a precursor for endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate significant effects in the fine-tuning adjustment of body homeostasis.

The aim of this book is to discuss further various aspects of homeostasis, information that we hope to be useful to scientists, clinicians, and the wider public alike.

Publishing process

Book initiated and editor appointed

Date completed: May 13th 2022

Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.

Chapter proposals submitted and reviewed

Deadline for chapter proposals: June 10th 2022

Potential authors submit chapter proposals ready for review by the academic editor and our publishing review team.

Register for the book

Approved chapters written in full and submitted

Deadline for full chapters: August 9th 2022

Once approved by the academic editor and publishing review team, chapters are written and submitted according to pre-agreed parameters

Full chapters peer reviewed

Review results due: October 28th 2022

Full chapter manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and undergo a Main Editor Peer Review. Results are sent to authors within 30 days of submission, with suggestions for rounds of revisions.

Book compiled, published and promoted

Expected publication date: December 27th 2022

All chapters are copy-checked and typesetted before being published. IntechOpen regularly submits its books to major databases for evaluation and coverage, including the Clarivate Analytics Book Citation Index in the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection. Other discipline-specific databases are also targeted, such as Web of Science's BIOSIS Previews.

About the editor

Gaffar Zaman

King Khalid University

Dr. Zaman obtained an MD in Biochemistry from Assam Medical College & Hospital, Srimanta Sankaradeva University of Health Sciences (formerly under Dibrugarh University), India. He completed a Fellowship in Diabetes (FID) at Royal Liverpool Academy, United Kingdom, and a Fellowship in Applied Nutrition (FIAN) at Medvarsity, Apollo Hospitals, India. Dr. Zaman obtained a Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Research (PGDCR) from Symbiosis University, India. He has almost fifteen years of experience as an Associate Professor at King Khalid Government University, Saudi Arabia, and Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, India. He has expertise in quality development and curriculum design and is trained in e-learning methods. He has more than fifty research publications to his credit in both national and international journals. He has also edited/co-edited books and authored many book chapters.

View profile

Book chapters authored 5

Books edited 3

Introducing your Author Service Manager

Ms. Ivana Barac

As an Author Service Manager my responsibilities include monitoring and facilitating all publishing activities for authors and editors. From chapter submission and review, to approval and revision, copyediting and design, until final publication, I work closely with authors and editors to ensure a simple and easy publishing process. I maintain constant and effective communication with authors, editors and reviewers, which allows for a level of personal support that enables contributors to fully commit and concentrate on the chapters they are writing, editing, or reviewing. I assist authors in the preparation of their full chapter submissions and track important deadlines and ensure they are met. I help to coordinate internal processes such as linguistic review, and monitor the technical aspects of the process. As an ASM I am also involved in the acquisition of editors. Whether that be identifying an exceptional author and proposing an editorship collaboration, or contacting researchers who would like the opportunity to work with IntechOpen, I establish and help manage author and editor acquisition and contact.

Ask a question

Book will be abstracted and indexed in