In this chapter, we discuss the new classes of matter, such as the quantum spin Hall (QSH) and quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) states, that have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed in graphene and beyond graphene systems. We further demonstrate how to manipulate these states using mechanical strain, internal exchange field, and spin‐orbit couplings (SOC). Spin‐charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbons is also discussed assuming the system in the QAH phase, exploring the prospects of topological devices with dissipationless edge currents. A remarkable zero‐field topological quantum phase transition between the time‐reversal‐symmetry‐broken QSH and quantum anomalous Hall states is predicted, which was previously thought to take place only in the presence of external magnetic field. In our proposal, we show as the intrinsic SOC is tuned, how it is possible to two different helicity edge states located in the opposite edges of the graphene nanoribbons exchange their locations. Our results indicate that the strain‐induced pseudomagnetic field could be coupled to the spin degrees of freedom through the SOC responsible for the stability of a QSH state. The controllability of this zero‐field phase transition with strength and direction of the strain is also explored as additional phase‐tuning parameter. Our results present prospect of strain, electric and magnetic manipulation of the QSH, and QAH effect in these novel two‐dimensional (2D) materials.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Graphene Research
Photonic quantum computer, quantum communication, quantum metrology, and optical quantum information processing require a development of efficient solid‐state single photon sources. However, it still remains a challenge. We report theoretical framework and experimental development on a novel kind of valley‐polarized single‐photon emitter (SPE) based on two‐dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) quantum dots. In order to reveal the principle of the SPE, we make a brief review on the electronic structure of the TMDCs and excitonic behavior in photoluminescence (PL) and in magneto‐PL of these materials. We also discuss coupled spin and valley physics, valley‐polarized optical absorption, and magneto‐optical absorption in TMDC quantum dots. We demonstrate that the valley‐polarization is robust against dot size and magnetic field, but optical transition energies show sizable size‐effect. Three versatile models, including density functional theory, tight‐binding and effective k⋅p method, have been adopted in our calculations and the corresponding results have been presented.
Part of the book: Quantum-dot Based Light-emitting Diodes