Hordeum vulgare (Barley) and Panax ginseng have antioxidant activity referring to their diverse phytonutrient. Hypothyroidism in adult female rats was induced by pituitary-gonadal-adrenal disturbance, depleting the serum FSH levels with the elevation of corticosterone, prolactin, progesterone and testosterone hormones as well as (ERK1/2). Hypothyroidism evoked an oxidative stress status by increasing 8-hydroxy guanosine, which initiated apoptosis by uplifting apoptotic marker Caspase-3 both in serum and brain tissues. This is confirmed by the increase in the percentage of DNA-damage in the brain tissues. Significant decrease in all monoamines’ levels in different brain areas, downregulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors transcription, with a significant increase in excitatory amino acids was noted. Barley and ginseng renormalized cortisol and oxidative stress markers by increasing cellular resistance to stress and potentiated the role of the immune system through phytosterol and ginsenosides, so they considered potent free radical scavengers. Barley and Panax ginseng ameliorate the hormonal and neural dysfunction resulting from hypothyroidism, so they are recommended for relieving stress and improving mood and depression.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology