Part of the book: Traditional and Novel Risk Factors in Atherothrombosis
Omega and trans-fatty acids play important roles in atherogenesis of vascular system. In this review, we discuss such roles in health; there are much differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) rates between the US and Japan. Fatty acids profiles in the plasma are related to risks of CHD. There have been few studies that compared plasma levels of fatty acids, including trans-fatty acids, in people in Japan and the US. Plasma levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) were higher in Japanese men, and omega-6 fatty acids (e.g., arachidonic acid [AA]) were lower compared with American men. American people had higher plasma levels of the major industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFAs; elaidic and inoelaidic acids), and levels of the potentially cardioprotective, primarily ruminant-derived trans-fatty acid, palmitoelaidic acid (POA) were higher in Japanese men. Plasma levels of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids were also higher in American men. Only intakes of preference drinks have significant correlation with plasma levels of palmitoelaidic acid and linoelaidic acid. The higher levels of DHA and EPA, along with the lower levels of the IP-TFAs, are consistent with the markedly lower risk for coronary heart disease in Japan vs. the US.
Part of the book: Visions of Cardiomyocyte
Trans fatty acids (TFA) are found naturally in ruminant foods (R-TFA) by biohydrogenation in ruminant animals or industrially produced oils (IP-TFA) by partial hydrogenation of vegetable or fish oils. The intake of TFA mainly IP-TFA is associated with an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), while some prospective cohort studies showed that R-TFA were associated with a lower risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Our case-control study showed that trans-C18:2 isomers (IP-TFA) were significantly higher, and palmitelaidic acid (R-TFA) levels were lower in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with healthy men. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) is a key enzyme in the conversion of linoleic acid and alpha-linoleneic acid to arachidonic acid (AA) and EPA, respectively. Previous studies reported that low D5D estimated from the ratio of AA to dihomo-gamma linolenic acid predicts the incident cardiovascular disease. In our cross-sectional study with 436 men with ACS, various atherogenic lipid markers such as small dense LDL cholesterol and malondialdehyde-modified LDL were significantly inversely associated with D5D activity. We found that the EPA/AA may be a superior risk marker than DHA/AA in terms of correlation with atherogenic lipid profiles.
Part of the book: New Insights Into Metabolic Syndrome