Part of the book: Salmonella
Colistin has been administrated for a long time in both human and veterinary medicine. Since the detection of the colistin resistance gene in animals, the increased concern about the impact on public health of colistin resistance has been evident, and several measures have been implemented. Some countries banned colistin use in food-producing animals, however, other countries continue the animal administration of colistin without restrictions. Consequently, colistin resistance originated on animal production can be transmitted to humans through the food chain or the contaminated environment. Nowadays, this antibiotic was considered as the last resort for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections or patients with fibrosis cystic. For these reasons, this review aimed to summarize the trend of antimicrobial use in livestock and aquaculture production, as well as, colistin-resistant bacteria in these animals, and the impact of its resistance on human health and the environment. In general, consumption and colistin use in livestock production have shown to decrease worldwide. In animal production, the detection of mcr genes, is well documented, demonstrating global dissemination of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates and the emergence of novel colistin-resistant genes. Moreover, identification of these genes has also been reported in animal food, humans and the environment.
Part of the book: The Global Antimicrobial Resistance Epidemic