There are about 500,000 new cases of cancer of the esophagus and 400,000 esophageal cancer-related deaths recorded annually around the world. The disease is three to four times more frequent in men than in women, being the sixth most common cancer and the fifth most frequent cancer-related death among men. The prognosis of esophageal cancer is quite poor, despite advances in surgical procedures (two-field and three-field lymph node dissection) and perioperative management, which is still controversial. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in combination with surgery might be a new approach for future treatment. Progress in optical technology has led to the development of a new minimally invasive surgical approach for the treatment of esophageal cancer, namely esophagectomy.
Part of the book: Esophageal Abnormalities
Nanotechnology potential in antimicrobial therapy is increasingly demonstrated by various data. Results reveal antibacterial properties, comparable to that of conventional antibiotics. Working on parallel experiments, researchers continue to bring evidence demonstrating age-old-recognized antibacterial properties of various natural components of plant and animal origin. Later years brought an increasing trend for combining synthetic and natural composition in new constructs. The tendency aims to bring more on different essential aspects, such as active substance release, improvement of antibacterial effect, and up-regulation of the mechanisms at the structure-cell interface. Present chapter structures the up-to-date achievements in the field, including the concept of design, biological effects, benefits, mechanisms, and limitations of the field. Also, expected future research directions are to be discussed.
Part of the book: Nanomedicines