Part of the book: Plant Breeding from Laboratories to Fields
Leguminous plants (or Legumes, family Fabaceae) are known to form symbioses with extremely broad range of beneficial soil microorganisms (BSM), representing examples of almost all plant-microbe mutualistic systems. One of the most ecologically important and well-studied legume beneficial symbioses is root nodule (RN) symbiosis (symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria). Compared with other interactions of legumes with BSM, RN symbioses demonstrate high level of genetic and metabolic integrity, which implies, inter alia, highly specific mutual recognition of partners. In this chapter, we describe the mechanisms of plant-microbe recognition during initial steps of RN symbiosis using the interaction of model legumes - pea (Pisum sativum L.), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn.) and Lotus japonicus (Regel.) K. Larsen - with rhizobia as an example. We paid particular attention to symbiotic system of P. sativum since pea, besides its importance as a model object of genetics, is also a valuable crop plant. Hence, in conclusion, we discuss the potential to use obtained knowledge for optimizing the broad spectrum of plant adaptive functions and to improve the sustainability of legume crop production.
Part of the book: Plants for the Future
Transcriptomics is a dynamically developing branch of biology highly important for geneticists and molecular ecologists alike. A large number of studies concerning differential gene expression, mapping of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), analysis of genotyping variations and so on has been conducted recently on several non‐model plants using next‐generation sequencing techniques. One example of non‐model legumes is garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), a valuable pulse crop capable of forming nitrogen‐fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Adaptation of standardised RNA‐seq approaches and data analysis developed for model plants to P. sativum should facilitate both studying of pea molecular genetics and breeding of new cultivars possessing agriculturally important traits. Another non‐model legume is black medick Medicago lupulina L. (a close relative of model legume plant barrel medick, Medicago truncatula Gaertn.), for which unique genetic lines almost obligatory dependent on arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis formation have been obtained. Such lines show promise as the perfect model for studying the genetic bases of arbuscular mycorrhiza development. In this chapter, we give a brief description of the current developments in the field of garden pea and black medick transcriptomics. Our aim is to provide a quick start guide to the non‐expert researchers for next‐generation sequencing (NGS)‐based transcriptome analysis.
Part of the book: Applications of RNA-Seq and Omics Strategies