Part of the book: Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Safety-critical applications in transportation require GNSS-based positioning with high levels of continuity, accuracy and integrity. The system needs to detect and exclude faults and to raise an alarm in the event of unsafe positioning. This capability is referred to as integrity monitoring (IM). While IM was considered until recently only in aviation, it is currently a key performance parameter in land applications, such as Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In this chapter the IM concepts, models and methods developed so far are compared. In particular, Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) and bounding of positioning errors methods borrowed from aviation (i.e. Weighted RAIM and ARAIM) are discussed in detail, in view of their possible adoption for land applications. Their strengths and limitations, and the modifications needed for application in the different context are highlighted. A practical demonstration of IM in ITS is presented.
Part of the book: Multifunctional Operation and Application of GPS
Safety and reliability of intelligent transport systems applications require positioning accuracy at the sub-meter level with availability and integrity above 99%. At present, no single positioning sensor can meet these requirements in particular in the urban environment. Possible sensors that can be used for this task are first reviewed. Next, a suggested integrated system of low-cost real-time kinematic (RTK) GNSS, inertial measurement units (IMU) and vehicle odometer is discussed. To ensure positioning integrity, a method for fault detection in GNSS observations and computation of the protection levels (PL) that bound the position errors at a pre-set risk probability of the integrated sensors are presented. A case study is performed for demonstration. Moreover, to save energy, reduce pollution, and to improve the economy of the trip, proper journey planning is required. A new approach is introduced using 3D city models to predict the route with the best positioning integrity, availability and precision for route selection among different possible routes. The practical demonstration shows that effectiveness of this method. Finally, the potential of using the next generation SBAS for ITS applications was tested using kinematic tests carried out in various environments characterized by different levels of sky-visibility that may affect observations from GNSS.
Part of the book: Intelligent and Efficient Transport Systems