The effects of microgravity conditions on neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, bone metabolic, and hemato-immunological systems are described. We discuss “space motion sickness,” sensorimotor coordination disorders, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscular atrophy, bone loss, and anemia/immunodeficiency, including their causes and mechanisms. In addition to the previously described deconditioning, new problems related to microgravity, spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS), and structural changes of the brain by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are also explained. Our proposed countermeasure, artificial gravity produced by a short-arm centrifuge with ergometric exercise, is also described in detail, and we confirmed this system to be effective in preventing the abovementioned deconditioning caused by microgravity exposure.
Part of the book: Beyond LEO