This review is focused on the theoretical and practical aspects of electrochemical capacitors based on carbon nanotubes. In particular, recent improvements in the capacitance properties of the systems are discussed. In the first part, the charge storage mechanisms of the electrochemical capacitors are briefly described. The next part of the review is devoted to the capacitance properties of pristine single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The major portion of the review is focused on the capacitance properties of modified carbon nanotubes. The electrochemical properties of nanotubes with boron, nitrogen, and other atoms incorporated into the carbon network structure as well as nanotubes modified with different functional groups are discussed. Special attention is paid to the composites of carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers, transition metal oxides, carbon nanostructures, and carbon gels. In all cases, the influences of different parameters such as porosity, structure of the electroactive layer, conductivity of the layer, nature of the heteroatoms, solvent and supporting electrolyte on the capacitance performance of hybrid materials are discussed. Finally, the capacitance properties of different systems containing carbon nanotubes are compared and summarized.
Part of the book: Carbon Nanotubes
Recent advances in the study of the synthesis, structure and applications of 1-D composites containing conducting polymers are discussed in this review. Conducting composites can form 1-D structures with metal and metal oxides, 1-D carbon nanomaterials, semiconducting materials, crystals of metalloorganic complexes. Advanced synthetic approaches allow for the formation of well-organized structures with polymeric phase deposited both on the surface of 1-D material and inside of the 1-D tubes. 1-D polymeric wires can also serve as a matrix for the formation 1-D composites with other materials. 1-D nanocomposites containing conducting polymers exhibit many exceptional properties which allow for various practical applications including energy converting and energy storage devices, electronic nanodevices, chemical, electrochemical and biochemical sensors, catalysis and electrocatalysis.
Part of the book: Nanocomposite Materials for Biomedical and Energy Storage Applications