The silicon-based integrated microarray biochip (IMB) is an inter-disciplinary research direction of microelectronics and biological science. It has caught the attention of both industry and academia, in applications such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and immunological detection, medical inspection and point-of-care (PoC) diagnosis, as well as food safety and environmental surveillance. Future biodetection strategies demand biochips with high sensitivity, miniaturization, integration, parallel, multi-target and even intelligence capabilities. In this chapter, a comprehensive investigation of current research on state-of-the-art silicon-based integrated microarray biochips is presented. These include the electrochemical biochip, magnetic tunnelling junction (MTJ) based biochip, giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biochip and integrated oscillator-based biochip. The principles, methodologies and challenges of the aforementioned biochips will also be discussed and compared from all aspects, e.g., sensitivity, fabrication complexity and cost, compatibility with silicon-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, multi-target detection capabilities, signal processing and system integrations, etc. In this way, we discuss future silicon-based fully integrated biochips, which could be used for portable medical detection and low cost PoC diagnosis applications.
Part of the book: Biosensors