Part of the book: Ulcerative Colitis
Part of the book: Sexually Transmitted Infections
During the past few years, millions of refugees from the Middle East and North Africa fled their countries to almost everywhere in the globe. Civil wars and acts of violence are the main reasons behind the exodus of populations seeking a better life and more secure living conditions. In fact, the current conflict in Syria and Iraq led to massive influx of refugees worldwide and in particular to neighboring countries of the Middle East. This refugee situation is unparalleled since the end of World War II. Besides the individual tragedies of refugees, a public health disaster is being witnessed in the countries of origin which, in many instances, affect the hosting countries as well. Many of these hosting countries witnessed a re-emergence of numerous communicable diseases as a result of the influx of refugees; they were unprepared, and their health sectors did not deliver the adequate response. In this chapter, we review major sexually transmitted diseases in refugees, with a focus on the Middle East. We also discuss the major actions taken in response to the ongoing displacement of refugees by the Government of Lebanon and suggest solutions and recommendations to the Lebanese public health system which is facing new urgent challenges.
Part of the book: Fundamentals of Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health issue accounting for 15–20% of all-cause deaths. Several pathologies have been associated with sudden cardiac arrest. Clinical autopsies have always contributed to invention of novel strategies for SCD prevention. One of the serious challenges that pathologists are facing is the significant decline of the overall autopsy rate. Many reasons have been associated with this change, most importantly, the evolution process in the postmortem investigation tools. However, cardiologists seem unsatisfied with the new non-invasive imaging techniques and still believe in the traditional autopsy as a gold standard in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In this chapter, we focused on the importance of autopsy in the prevention of SCD by shedding a light on guidelines of minimum requirement for routine autopsy investigation of SCD (including macroscopic, histological, toxicological and molecular examination). We also gave insight into the new radiological techniques, their advantages and related diagnostic pitfalls as compared to that of conventional autopsy. Thus, providing a comprehensive understanding on the advancement of postmortem examination will help improve the minimum standards of routine autopsy practice, develop new guidelines for radiological examination and prevent the growing heterogeneity of the pathologies underlying SCD.
Part of the book: Post Mortem Examination and Autopsy
The impact of nutrition on HIV-infected children has been evaluated in multiple studies. Our review of the current trends of nutrition-related studies revealed that the focus has moved from simply the disease consequences of HIV to ensuring that antiretroviral therapy-treated children are well nourished to ensure growth and development. This update aims to present the state of the art regarding nutrition of HIV-infected children and the real potential for nutrition to serve as a dynamic therapy in this group. Recent World Health Organization reports indicate that the HIV/AIDS disease is curbing in incidence worldwide despite the high 1.8 million children, less than 15 years, reported in 2017. In addition, the literature supports the complexity and bidirectional relation between nutrition and HIV. HIV infection has a substantial effect on the nutritional status, in particular, the gastrointestinal side effects, which, in turn, have a profound impact on HIV infection. Advances in the field have transformed the course of the disease into a chronic illness, where more attention was given to lifestyle and quality of life including nutrition. However, achievement of food security, nutrition accessibility, and appropriate handling of nutrition-related complications of HIV infection are remarkable challenges, particularly, in resource poor environments, where most HIV infections exist.
Part of the book: Nutrition and HIV/AIDS