Graduated in Medicine at the Medical School of Rio de Janeiro of the Gama Filho University, Brazil (1979). Trained in General Surgery and Thoracic Surgery and had a MaSc in Thoracic Surgery at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1980-87). Research and Clinical fellowship in Thoracic Surgery at the University of Toronto, Canada (1987-1992) and a Ph.D. in Pneumology at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (2000). Dr. Cardoso is currently an Associate Professor of Thoracic Surgery at the Department of Cardiopneumology, Division of Thoracic Surgery of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. He is also an attending thoracic surgeon at the Division of Thoracic Surgery of the Heart Institute (InCor) of the Hospital das Clinicas, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.