Part of the book: Biomaterials
In the arena of orthopaedic surgery, autograft is considered to be the gold standard for correction of fracture repair or other bone pathologies. But, it has some limitations such as donor site morbidity and shortage of supply, which evolved the use of allograft that also has some disadvantages such as immunogenic response to the host, low osteogenicity as well as possibilities of disease transmission. Despite the benefits of autografts and allografts, the limitations of each have necessitated the pursuit of alternatives biomaterials that has the ability to initiate osteogenesis, and the graft should closely mimic the natural bone along with regeneration of fibroblasts. A variety of artificial materials such as demineralised bone matrix, coralline hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate-based ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and bioactive glass have been used over the decades to fill bone defects almost without associated soft tissue development. Most of them were having only the properties of osteointegration and osteoconduction. Only bioactive glass possesses osteogenic property that stimulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells and in some cases influencing the fibroblastic properties. But, this material has also some disadvantages such as short-term and low mechanical strength along with decreased fracture resistance; but, this was further minimised by ion doping that positively enhanced new bone formation. There are many metal ions such as magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and some rare earths that have been doped successfully into bioactive glass to enhance their mechanical and biological properties. In some of the cases, mesoporous bioactive glass materials with or without such doping have also been employed (with homogeneous distribution of pores in the size ranging between 2 and 50 nm). These biomaterials can be served as scaffold for bone regeneration with adequate mechanical properties to restore bone defects and facilitate healing process by regeneration of soft tissues as well. This chapter encompasses the use of bioactive glass in bulk and mesoporous form with doped therapeutic ions, their role in bone tissue regeneration, use as delivery of growth factors as well as coating material for orthopaedic implants.
Part of the book: Advanced Techniques in Bone Regeneration