Part of the book: Neuroimaging
Childhood obesity represents the most relevant nutritional disorder in our environment. This study examines the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an obese pediatric population and its relation to serum leptin concentrations. A cross-sectional clinical and metabolic study was accomplished in a group of 106 obese children (47 males and 59 females). Patients were classified into prepubertal group (Tanner stage I) and pubertal group (Tanner stages II–V). Prevalence of insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)], hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and arterial hypertension (HTA) was 38.7, 45.3, 28.3 and 33.8%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence (30.2%) was significantly higher in the pubertal group (38%) than the prepubertal group (23.2%). There was a positive correlation between leptin and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.529), leptin and HOMA indexes (r = 0.562) and leptin and triglycerides (r = 0.314). In addition, there was a positive correlation between HOMA indexes and triglycerides (r = 0.596). Clinical and metabolic disorders associated with obesity and related to the so-called metabolic syndrome are already present in pediatric population. Leptin could play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.
Part of the book: Adiposity
The aim of this study is to analyze amino acid plasma profile in a group of young diabetics and to evaluate its application as markers of metabolic control of the disease, as well as to analyze the urinary excretion of amino acids in these patients. A clinical assessment and metabolic study (amino acid serum concentrations and urinary excretion of amino acids) was accomplished in a group of 49 children diagnosed with diabetes, and a group of 48 healthy children (control group). The plasma levels of total amino acids as well as branchedchain, glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the diabetic group with respect to the control group. Total as well as branched-chain, glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids urinary levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the diabetic group compared to the control group. The study of the amino acid plasma in the young diabetic reflect disturbances in protein/amino acid metabolism and, consequently, in metabolic control of the disease. The study of amino acid urinary excretion might have interest not only in the context of diabetic nephropathy, but also in the revealing of partial aspects of amino acid metabolism and, probably, in the metabolic control of the disease.
Part of the book: Diabetes and Its Complications
In addition to its contribution to bone metabolism, vitamin D seems to fulfill a broad spectrum of biological functions which justifies the interest in monitoring its body content. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in schoolchildren and adolescents living in a region of northern Spain. A cross-sectional clinical and analytical study (calcium, phosphorus, calcidiol, and parathyroid hormone) was accomplished in a group of 602 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.1–15.4 years). Gender, age, body mass index, residence, and season of the year were recorded, and their association with vitamin D deficiency was analyzed by multiple regression. Vitamin D status was defined according to the US Endocrine Society criteria. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 60.4% (insufficiency: 44.6%; deficiency: 15.8%). The female sex, adolescence, season of blood sample collection (autumn, winter, and spring), an urban residence, and severe obesity showed an association with an increased risk of hypovitaminosis D.
Part of the book: Vitamin D Deficiency