Part of the book: Neuroimaging
Fourier time-series analysis could be used to segregate changes in the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in male and female mice. Color memory processes of long-term potentiation and long-term depression could be identified through spectral analysis. We used small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) to measure the accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in the mouse brain during light stimulation with blue and yellow filters compared to darkness condition. The mean standardized uptake values (SUV) of [18F]FDG for each stimulus condition was analyzed using standard Fourier analysis software to derive spectral density estimates for each condition. Spectral peaks were identified as originating from the subcortical region (S-peak) by subcortical long-term potentiation (SLTP) or depression (SLTD), and originating from the cortical region (C-peak) by cortical long-term potentiation (CLTP) or depression (CLTD). Luminance opponency occurred at S-peak by SLTP in the dorsal stream in the left visual cortex in male mice. On the other hand, chromatic opponency occurred by wavelength-differencing at C-peak by CLTP in the cortico-subcortical pathways in the ventral stream in the left visual cortex in male mice. In contrast in female mice, during luminance processing, there was resonance phenomenon at C-peak in the ventral stream in the right visual cortex. Chromatic opponency occurred at S-peak by SLTP in the dorsal stream in the right visual cortex in female mice. Application of Fourier analysis improved spatial and temporal resolutions of conventional fPET/MRI methods. Computation of color processing as a conscious experience has wide range applications in neuroscience and artificial intelligence.
Part of the book: Fourier Transforms