Paulo Roberto Santos, MD, PhD, graduated from the School of Medicine of the Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He spent three years on medical residency in the area of nephrology at Servidores Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the end of his medical residency, he was invited to coordinate the renal unit of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Sobral Hospital, located in the city of Sobral, Ceará, northeastern Brazil, where he also began to teach at the local School of Medicine of Ceará Federal University. At this university, he is currently teaching semiology and nephrology, coordinating the disciplines of nephrology and urology, and responsible for medical internship program. His research focus is on psychological aspects of dialysis and indicators of mortality among dialysis patients. Regarding the last line of research, he is especially interested in the controversies about the toxicity of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, which are the cornerstone for the control of anaemia among dialysis patients.