Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) disproportionately affect young people, with more than half of the infections occurring in 15- to 25-year-olds, although as an age group they constitute only 25% of the sexually active population. Adolescents have been considered as a key and vulnerable population; adolescents are considered as marginalized populations (i.e., poor access to adequate health services, social and parental acceptance, stigmatization, among others. Every year, 87 million new cases of gonorrhea are reported worldwide in the population from 15 to 49 years old. In 2016, the estimated global prevalence of CT in 15-to 49-year-old women was 3.8% and in men 2.7%, with regional values ranging from 1.5 to 7.0% in women and 1.2 to 4.0% in men. The worldwide prevalence of HSV-2 among 15–49-year old is 11.3% and for HSV-1 among 0–49-year-old is 67%. These numbers alert us about the increase in the frequency of these diseases among young populations; more open sexual behavior could be an important factor for this increase; the treatment of these diseases is challenging due to the difficulties with detection and treatment; in the case of gonorrhea, it could become a major public health problem due to the emerging antimicrobial resistance; in the case of Chlamydia, despite the effective treatment, reinfection is still a possibility and for genital herpes, the disease can be controlled but not cured. This chapter will describe the most important aspects of these three diseases for supporting the clinicians and researchers about the management of sexually transmitted diseases in the adolescent population.
Part of the book: Primary Health Care
The scope of this chapter would be describing bacterial sexually transmitted diseases that are of interest in pediatric population such as gonorrhea and syphilis. Currently, this diseases has been reported an increased incidence mostly in adolescents in different regions around the world such as Australia and United States. These diseases sometimes considered anecdotal are always difficult to manage because they are considered taboos; diagnosis and treatment are challenging because of the interaction with the child and his/her parents. Other diseases such as chlamydia are also taking a great importance in populations from 10 to 24 years old due to the high transmission, high incidence, and complications such as infertility, almost 80% or chlamydia infections are asymptomatic in women being one of the leading causes of infertility that could be permanent. In this chapter, we will be discussing about the main factors of this diseases, how to manage from pediatric perspective, the most novel diagnostic tests and treatments (if available), and any vaccine development possibilities.
Part of the book: Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections
Pediatric advanced life support courses provide widespread education on recognizing and treating cardiac arrest in children. Their main goal is to teach the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) sequence and improve early recognition and treatment of leading causes for better survival rates. Initially, there were four “H” and four “T” conditions, but now 12 are recognized. The 12 reversible conditions, categorized as “H’s” and “T’s,” consist of seven starting with “H” and five starting with “T.” The “H’s” include hypovolemia, hypoxia, hydrogen ion excess (acidosis), hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, and hypothermia. The “T’s” include tension pneumothorax, tamponade—cardiac, toxins, thrombosis (pulmonary embolus), and thrombosis (myocardial infarction). Finding specific training for these conditions in structured courses can be challenging. However, understanding their physiological basis enables healthcare providers to detect and treat them early, leading to improved outcomes and reduced mortality rates in Guatemala. In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, a regular course on managing these conditions was initiated for pediatric intensivists, pediatricians, and healthcare staff. In 2022, the Continuing Medical Education program at Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala extended coverage to 134 physicians in rural areas and 50 pediatric intensivists from the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico (SLACIP).
Part of the book: Healthcare Access