Adenomyosis is characterized by the development of endometrial ectopic glands and tissue in the myometrium layer in depth greater than 2.5 mm from the endometrial surface of the separative area by -myomas well as by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the smooth muscles of the myometrium. This is filtration, not mere displacement, of the myometrium, from the endometrium. Clinical symptoms include dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. It is diffuse (adenomyosis) or focal (adenomyoma), asymmetrically affects the uterine wall of premenopausal women (usually the posterior) and often coexists with myomas. The pathogenesis of adenomyosis remains unknown. The treatment options are: drug therapy, invasive treatment of fibroids: myomectomy (open—intra-abdominal, laparoscopic, hysteroscopic), hysterectomy, myolysis—cryocatalysis, microwave or radiofrequency thermal catalysis (RF-ablation), ultrasound focus catalysis (FUS), laser photocatalysis and percutaneous selective uterine artery embolization (UAE). Embolization remains an alternative and not a substitute of hysterectomy. The medical indication is made on a case-by-case basis, depending on age, desire for pregnancy and the clinical symptoms of adenomyosis.
Part of the book: Endometriosis