An organoid is an in-vitro platform that recreates 3D multicellular aggerates to form tissues that fabricate the human cellular environment in the lab and imitate the functionalities of the specific organ or disease. Organoids effectively overcomes the gaps in research between 2D cell line and in-vivo models. For organoid development, both pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells can be utilized, and recently Patient-Derived Organoids (PDO) was developed that overcome the limitations caused by using other cell lines. With the development of many advanced technologies in the field of research, the organoid evolution also progressed slowly into the development of patient-specific organ structures. Since tumor organoids were heterogeneous as well as patient-specific, it has many advantages that aid cancer therapy effectively. Apart from cancer treatment, organoids have a variety of applications in cancer research, the study of tissue-specific models, and also in the analysis of the relationship between tissue-specific cancer with various pathogens. Thus, the development of organoids in an effective way can pave the way for various biomedical applications. This chapter focuses on the trends in the journey of organoid research and the latest technologies developed specifically for organoids.
Part of the book: Organoid Bioengineering