Improving the quality and quantity of an organism and its products can be approached by molecular characters enhancement through the insertion of a gene of interest into cells of the desired organism. Genetic transformation of an organism involves isolation, identification, cloning a gene of interest into a vector, and transferring the gene to the target organism. This chapter reviews the process of genetic transformation into the organism’s cell from bacterial (Escherichia coli), yeast, plant (Onion, Tobacco, and Orchids), and mammalian. The discussion will be focused on the introduction of DNA molecules into plant cells and protoplast mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), electroporation, and gene gun using particle bombardment. Further discussion on the transient protein expression system of plant-based on protoplast, onion cell, and tobacco will also be covered in this chapter as well. The systems have been proven as a powerful tool for determining subcellular protein localization, protein-protein interactions, identifying gene function, and regulation. Finally, it can be clearly seen, the differences and similarities in the mechanism of genetic transformation both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
Part of the book: Molecular Cloning