Part of the book: State of the art in Biometrics
Biometric fingerprint scanners scan the external skin's features onto a 2‐D image. The performance of the automatic fingerprint identification system suffers first and foremost if the finger skin is wet, worn out or a fake fingerprint is used. We present an automatic segmentation of the papillary layer method, from images acquired using contact‐less 3‐D swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The papillary contour represents the internal fingerprint, which does not suffer from the external finger problems. It is embedded between the upper epidermis and papillary layers. Speckle noise is first reduced using non‐linear filters from the slices composing the 3‐D image. Subsequently, the stratum corneum is used to extract the epidermis. The epidermis, with its depth known, is used as the target class of the ensuing novelty detection. The outliers resulting from novelty detection represent the papillary layer. The contour of the papillary layer is segmented as the boundary between target and rejection classes. Using a mixture of Gaussian's novelty detection routine on images pre‐processed with a regularized anisotropic diffusion filter, the papillary contours—internal fingerprints—are consistent with those segmented manually, with the modified Williams index above 0.9400.
Part of the book: Computed Tomography