As the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction is increasing and is associated with many complications including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which, itself is a risk factor of thyroid dysfunction. Although the causality of this association is uncertain, the two conditions share a bidirectional relationship. Both syndromes share certain common characteristics, risk factors and pathophysiological abnormalities, which can be managed by lifestyle changes as well as pharmacological treatment. Polycystic appearing ovaries are a clinical feature of hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in a few case studies. Adiposity, evidence of deranged autoimmunity, increased insulin resistance and disturbed leptin levels are present in both the disease states, seeming to play a complex role in connecting these two disorders. Major endocrine pathways including hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPTA) and HP-gonadal axis are involved in parallel relationship of PCOS and thyroid dysfunction. This chapter helps to explore all the dimensions of the relationship between PCOS and thyroid dysfunction.
Part of the book: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome