The coalescence of organoleptic traits viz., pleasant aroma, cooked rice texture, and taste make aromatic rice unique and distinguished from non-aromatic rice. Aromatic rice is cultivated in every rice growing country; with each country has its own indigenous collection. International trade of rice is dominated by Indica (long grained), Japonica (short grained), aromatic rice (Basmati and Jasmine) and glutinous rice; amidst which, Basmati types from India and Pakistan; and Jasmine types from Thailand have phenomenal demand. In India all types of aromatic rice are cultivated based on Kernel length; short, medium, long and very long grained. Basmati varieties own the major market, while other types of aromatic rice besides Basmati are popular in local market only. The country inherits rich diversity of aromatic rice germplasm; with more than 300 different types, each of the rice growing states of India has its own locally popular aromatic rice varieties. India a country where two third of its population consume rice as part of their daily food; aromatic rice always remain their favorite. Basmati, by virtue of its excellent qualities it dominates both national and international market. Every year, Basmati ranks first in respect of foreign exchange earned from the export of agricultural products from India (APEDA). The phenomenal demand and export figures have augmented Basmati Breeding program. However, only few aromatic varieties are cultivated depending on their demand, and their breeding program is also limited. In India, Basmati has over-shadowed other types of aromatic rice in market and in plant breeding programs too. Breeding for Basmati varieties is undertaken by prime agricultural institutions of India. The country regulates quality standards and development of Basmati varieties with the help of Export of Basmati Rice (Quality Control and Inspection) Rules 2003; Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA); and Basmati Export Development Foundation (BEDF). However, no such initiatives have been taken to promote the development of other aromatic rice varieties of India besides Basmati.
Part of the book: Integrative Advances in Rice Research