Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia all around the world. It is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which contribute to neuronal loss and cognitive decline. Microglia, as innate immune cells in brain, plays dual roles in the pathological process of AD. Expression in different subtypes of microglia is diverse in AD genes. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mainly expressed on microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). Soluble TREM2 (sTREM2), a proteolytic product of TREM2, which is abundant in the cerebrospinal fluid, shows a dynamic change in different stages and ameliorates the pathological process of AD. The interplay between the different subtypes of apolipoprotein and TREM2 is closely related to the mechanism of AD and serves as important regulatory sites. Moreover, several therapeutic strategies targeting TREM2 have shown positive outcomes during clinical trials and some novel therapies at different points are in progress. In this review, we mainly talk about the interrelationships among microglia, TREM2, and AD, and hope to give an overview of the strategies of AD.
Part of the book: Hippocampus