The growing world population demands more production of proteins for healthy growth and prevention of protein-energy malnutrition. The animal proteins are not sufficient to meet the requirement of daily proteins intake. Furthermore, due to limited resources of animal number, land, water, environmental impact, the demand for vegetable proteins and sustainability have been increasing tremendously. This chapter will outline the demand scenarios of vegetable proteins, nutritional aspects, and technological challenges in product development and consumer acceptance. It will summarize the potential of vegetable proteins related to health and existing diseases. The consumption of vegetable proteins, development of product, economic, sustainability, and food safety aspects will be summarized.
Part of the book: Vegetable Crops
Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor in liver tissue and worldwide it is fourth leading death cause among all cancers. The most common causes of liver cancer are hepatitis B or C virus infections, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), smoking and obesity. The development and metastasis of liver cancer is a multistage and branched process of morphological and genetic traits. Various corresponding signaling pathways such as Yes-Associated Protein-Hippo Pathway (YAP-HIPPO), Wnt/β-catenin and inflammation by interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), nuclear factor-Κb (NF-κB), biological pathways including epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor microenvironment, tumor-stromal interactions and cancer stem cells and gut microbial dysbiosis are allied to both origination, progression and metastasis of liver cancer. Numerous therapeutic approaches are classified into different categories such as pharmacological therapy including sorafenib, lenvatinib and ramuciruma, surgery of HCC patients includes surgical resection, adjuvant therapy after surgical resection and liver transplantation. Loco-regional ablative therapy includes cryotherapy, ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, natural compounds such as piperine, as curcumin and oleocanthal, oncolytic virus therapy, immunotherapies and nanotechnology.
Part of the book: Liver Cancer