Pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases and the fourth leading cause of death globally. According to US statistics in 2019, pneumonia is the most common cause of sepsis and septic shock. In the US, inpatient pneumonia hospitalizations account for the top 10 highest medical costs, totaling $9.5 billion for 960,000 hospital stays. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in the treatment of infectious diseases, including the treatment of pneumonia, is a globally alarming problem. Antibiotic resistance increases the risk of death and re-hospitalization, prolongs hospital stays, and increases treatment costs, and is one of the greatest threats in modern medicine. Drug-related problems (DRPs) in pneumonia - such as suboptimal antibiotic indications, prolonged treatment duration, and drug interactions - increase the rate of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects, thereby leading to an increased burden in treatment. In a context in which novel and effective antibiotics are scarce, mitigating DRPs in order to reduce antibiotic resistance is currently a prime concern. A variety of interventions proven useful in reducing DRPs are antibiotic stewardship programs, the use of biomarkers, computerized physician order entries and clinical decision support systems, and community-acquired pneumonia scores.
Part of the book: Pneumonia